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Global Nutrition

by: Delores Kessler

Global Nutrition FCS 411

Delores Kessler
GPA 3.92

Madeline Houghton

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Madeline Houghton
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Delores Kessler on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FCS 411 at University of Idaho taught by Madeline Houghton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/227850/fcs-411-university-of-idaho in Family and Consumer Sciences at University of Idaho.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Lecture 10 Agriculture amp the Environment Agriculture is absolutely essential to feed the world s population Yet often the way we practice agriculture is degrading our environment and may not be sustainable FOOD SUPPLY We are adding 90 million people each year Food production needs to keep pace with this increase But how Increase cultivated area Yield increases Biotechnology Reduce poverty NATURAL RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURAL INPUTS Soils Soil degradation is occurring at an increasingly rapid rate This affects agricultural productivity In the last 50 years about 2 billion hectares of land has been degraded About 510 million hectares annually become unusable due to severe degradation Most of this is in Asia amp Africa Causes Overgrazing deforestation and inappropriate agricultural practices Why Inadequate property rights poverty population pressure inappropriate government policies lack of access to markets and technologies appropriate for sustainable agricultural development Forests About 155 million hectares of tropical forests worldwide are converted to other uses every year Consequences Increased soil and water degradation greater food insecurity escalating carbon emissions loss of biodiversity Smallscale poor farmers clearing land for agriculture account for about 23 of the deforestation Commercial logging accounts for most of the rest M urine Fisheries Fisheries are collapsing in some parts of the world due to being overeXploited and depleted Water About 30 countries today are water stressed Twenty of these have so little water that needs can t be met This number could reach 35 by the year 2020 This will lead to con icts and water wars between countries Efficiency of water use is low Waterlogging amp salinization occur with irrigation Pollution from runoff of agricultural chemicals etc is a growing problem Water for irrigation is essentially unpriced Fertilizers Fertilizer demand will grow to 208 million tonsyear by 2020 Depletion of soil nutrients is a serious constraint to food production Fertilizer use remains inadequate because of high prices There are many negative enVironmental and health consequences of fertilizer use Pesticides Pesticide use is necessary but current practices with pesticides can t be sustained Overuse amp misuse compromises human health contaminates soil and water damages the ecosystem suppresses species and leads to pesticide resistance pest resurgence and evolution of secondary pests Overuse of pesticides can lead to decreased food production Environmentally sound alternatives must be developed Energy Energy use in ag has grown due to increases in cropped and irrigated areas39 rising mechanization in irrigation land preparation and harvesting39 and use of chemical fertilizers Overall though agriculture consumes only about 5 of global commercial energy Research and Technology Existing technology cannot produce the food needed in 20 years Developing countries especially are underinvesting in ag research Climate Change A trend toward global warming is evident but it will not affect global food production in the next 20 years Factors Carbon dioxide Fluorocarbons Forests burned Pollution Foresight is essential RECOMMENDATIONS l Enhance productivity health and nutrition of lowincome people39 2 Strengthen agricultural research and extension systems in and for developing countries 3 Promote sustainable agricultural intensification and sound management of natural resources 4 Expand international cooperation and assistance and improve its efficiency and effectiveness Lecture 3 History of Diet The origins of beer In Sumer Mesopotamia The Euphrates amp Tigris Rivers Now it s called Iraq By about 4000 3500 BC 40 of grain yield went into ale 0 The temple workman received a ration of 2 pintsday Dignitaries more than 8 pints There weren t many alternatives at this time no wine coffee tea And the water wasn t safe Most of the ancient brewers were women who sold ale from home made from barley wheat or mixed grains HOW Sprout grain dry it crush it miX it to a dough amp partially bake it Loaves broken up and soaked in water until fermented Liquor strained off Alcohol content could be as high as 12 The Date Palm The date palm ourished as far back as 50000 BC Used for many things eg charcoal for fire39 cure for asthma Dates were the cheapest of staple foods and could be used in many ways DISCOVERY OF RAISED BREAD Probably discovered in Egypt since wheat was an important factor Wheat did not have to be toasted before threshing so the gluten proteins weren t denatured One Theory Yeast spores in the air drifted onto dough Dough would rise slightly making bread lighter amp more appetizing More likely theory On some occasion ale was used instead of water to miX the dough The rise would be more spectacular than from a few errant spores and the effect easy to reproduce It became a common method to keep a piece of dough from the day before and add it to the new miX Sourdough starter Unleavened breads were still widely used raised breads did not become common in N Europe until the Middle Ages EGYPTIAN FOOD By 3000 BC nobles amp priests ate well 40 different kinds of breads amp pastries quail kidneys pigeon stew fish beef ribs cheese cakes berries figs The Nile marshes had eel mullet carp perch tigerfish etc So plentiful that they were dried amp exported to Syria amp Palestine Preserved foods by salting amp drying Peasant food was less varied Ale onions atbread pork Pork didn t become taboo until after 1800 BC probably related to the arrival of tribes of nomadic invaders CLASSICAL GREECE Greeks adopted farming much later continued nomad pastoralism The long narrow valleys of Greece didn t adapt well to agriculture While the human population remained small the farmer and his family lived off the land in modest comfort they grew a little wheat or barley tended fig amp olive trees reared pigs and had a goat for milk amp cheese Everything was changed by about 650 BC The peasant had a marginal existence on marginal land Hillsides were denuded of trees timber used for houses and ships The light soil was washed away by rains Fertility was lost The Olive Cultivation begun 6000 years ago near the Mediterranean During the 6th Century BC Solon forbade the export of any agricultural produce other than olive oil This stuck the fatal blow at the Greek landscape That pure brilliant light that is so characteristic of Greece today was bought at the expense of the trees that had once kept the land fertile Also a small country s dependence on a single export crop brought dependence on foreign trade for the necessities of life and a defencelessness in wartime Wine By 3000 BC grape wine was known in Mesopotamia amp Egypt but was not widely popular until the Greek in uence was felt during the 1st millennium Fermentation was not a scientifically controlled process and their wines would not taste very good to us today Roman wines took over about 120 BC Greek food Greek peasants had a very monotonous diet porridge grain pastes with oil amp spices flatbread figs cheese and an occasional salted fish Meat was a rarity except at times of religious sacrifice and feasting Rich Greeks drank more wine ate goat mutton or pork fish and sometimes deer hare partridge After the 5th century BC Athens became a center of art and culture Athenian tastes became more exotic forcefed pigs amp geese peacock eggs hens eggs were common by now But outside Athens the countryside was being ravaged by the Peloponnesian Wars The peasant was ruined Diet consisted of pulses greens amp turnips iris rhizomes wild pears dried figs and the occasional grasshopper Mediterranean Diet Triad Cereals Vines and olives However wine and olives were not found everywhere because of their limited growing range quotCerealsquot were a whole group of crops wheat millet oats rye etc Pulses ie legumes such as peas beans amp lentils were an important part of the Mediterranean diet Fish and meat were eaten in smaller amounts CEREALS were central Possibly as much as 7075 of total calories This may not have resulted in a balanced diet Food and the Economy Producers in antiquity aimed for selfsufficiency but this was unattainable Farmers had to buy things so a surplus to sell for income was desirable Also millions of urban consumers relied on a surplus from the farms for their survival But farming must have been lowyielding since seedselection was not highly developed yet and technology was primitive Political solutions had to be found A network of institutions to buy up and distribute food may have been set up Also food quotwelfarequot may have been provided to many of its citizens


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