Global Nutrition FCS 411
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Date Created: 10/23/15
A J U A U 0 l 00 Lecture 4 What do we eat and why do we eat it Needs for survivalhealth Taste What we find acceptable Availability determined by economical and environmental factors Culture Traditional practices and norms of society the main in uence on food habits Shared identity Separateness excluding others Etiquette Status Gender Selfrealization Food as SelfExpression Symbolic Use of Food What is considered food edible or inedible Food amp Nonfood Uses of Food Religious Ritual Economic systems Political factors 0 Food is divisive It separates and divides o A marker of ethnic and cultural differences points to distinctions of status power and wealth 0 Food as symbol 0 Food as metaphor Lecture 13 Food SafetyBiotechnology FOOD ADDITIVES Additives are increasingly used due to the need for foods to be 0 Mass produced 0 Distributed over great distances 0 Stored for long periods of time Approx 2800 substances are intentionally added Purposes Mainly for safety to prevent food spoilage To maintain or improve nutritional value To maintain freshness To make food more appealing To help processing or preparation The most predominant additives Sugar Salt Corn syrup Plus citric acid baking soda vegetable colors mustard amp pepper All these account for 98 of food additives Nutritional Purposes 1924 Iodine added to table salt 1930s Fortification of milk with Vit D Later Addition of iron amp B vitamins to flour and bread Additives to prevent spoilage Salt is the oldest used additive39 sugar is often used FOOD IRRADIATION A J U A U 0 How doe the irradiation process work Items enter thickwalled chambers where they are exposed to ionized energy from radioactive isotopes What does it do to the food Depending on the dose it can sterilize by killing microorganisms combat insect infestation39 delay spoilage39 prolong shelf life by retarding mold growth Does the food become radioactive No The gamma rays pass through without a trace Is food damaged in the process There is some nutrient loss but no more than from other cooking processes What are the other concerns Radiolytic products Will irradiated food be more expensive At first yes But as sales increase prices will go down ADA Position on Food Irradiation quotFood irradiation is one way to enhance the safety and quality of the food supply The ADA encourages the gov t food manufacturers food commodity groups and qualified dietetics professionals to continue working together in educating consumers about this technology Acceptance by public Many consider irradiated food a hazard Why Fears 0 Associated with radioactivity amp nuclear power 0 May produce substances not known to be present normally 0 Nuclear power industry is conspiring to use this technique as a way to dispose of nuclear waste Bene t A substantial reduction in food poisoning Drawback to food irradiation Forgotten wholeness Irradiation fails to address the underlying rootlevel causes of food contamination It doesn t get to the real source of the problems Eg The E coli problem in beef 0 Failure of ranchers to wash manure off cattle before sending them to the market 0 Failure of ranchers to stop feeding animals before slaughter to reduce stomach contents Packagers quotreworkquot 23 days after initial processing Failure of food servers to cook ground beef at 160 degrees Lack of E coli testing at multiple points along the beef production process FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY Comments by the ADA What is food biotechnology Transfer of genetic material from one source to another genetic engineering It is possible to transfer to a plant a desired trait from liVing organisms What traits are being modified 0 Disease protection from Virus or fungal diseases reduces the use of fungicides o Insect protection reduces the amount of pesticides used o Herbicide tolerance allows for more effective weed control with fewer herbicide applications 0 Improved nutrition and food quality advantages Eg fat with a healthier fatty acid profile wheat with a complete amino acid profile What is driving the push for food biotechnology 0 Increasing world population39 fewer people farming What biotech foods are currently available 0 Potatoes tomatoes squash processed foods using soy or canola up to half of cheeses39 0 Coming soon Apple barley beef cucumber grape lettuce melon peanut raspberry wheat Are they safe 0 Yes The Food and Drug Administration FDA monitors these products Allergenicity o Biotech foods undergo rigorous testing to test for allergenicity the same tests that pharmaceutical companies must undergo for the approval of a new drug Are biotech foods labeled 0 If a food is not significantly altered it is not required to be labeled though volunteer labeling is allowed What about the environment 0 The environmental impact is closely regulated and crops are not approved for use if there is a serious question of negative impact on the environment including out crossing and insect resistance Why is this all so controversial 0 Any new technology has critics Fluoridation of water supplies is still occasionally targeted after decades of proven safety and benefit to the public Pasteurization and homogenization of milk are another example of technologies that were criticized at first DISCUSSION AND CONTROVERSIES Consumers have a right to know if their food has been bioengineered 0 Two quotright to knowquot bills l in the House amp l in the Senate have recently been introduced If passed any genetically engineered GE food would have to be labeled There are concerns about the environmental impact of GE crops 0 Will there be unexpected pleiotropic effects ie when more than one change occurs in a plant as a result of a new gene There has been some evidence of this occurring 0 Will insects develop a resistance to the Bt toxin 0 There is some evidence that some herbicideresistant crops actually require more herbicide There is fear of the potential of creating new Viruses and bacteria that cause diseases New genes many from Viruses amp bacteria are introduced into our crops and livestock These genes could transfer quothorizontallyquot into the organisms own genes Or the genetic material could cause damage to cells leading to cancer quotDNA survives in the environment and can be taken up by all cells quot By depending on biotechnology for the answers we lose touch with the answers found in nature with sustainable approaches to agriculture Biotech does not answer the problems of poverty and overpopulation Ethical concerns WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ON THESE ISSUES Prehistoric Diet Earth formed about 46 billion years ago Beginning of life bacteria algae about 35 billion years ago 1st Oxygen breathing organisms 15 billion years ago 1st multicellular animals 800 million years ago Land plants 400 million years ago Insects amphibians 300 million years ago Mammals 200 million years ago Birds owering plants 100 million years ago Primates 65 million years ago 2 million years ago Homo habilis Small but brain more like ours 1st to make stone tools huntedgathered o Homo erectus 14 million yrs ago 1st to use fire though couldn39t control it or cook With it o Archaic Homo sapiens 400000 yrs ago FIRST of our species 0 Modern humans 90000 yrs ago CroMagnons 30000 yrs ago Homo sapiens supplanted all other types of quothumansquot by approx 30000 yrs ago Paleolithic Period quotOld Stone Agequot 40000 years ago 0 People had fully developed speech Brain amp throat structure were identical to ours Teeth were completely modern 0 They were anatomically physiologically amp psychologically modern humans Hunting amp gathering were the only means of subsistence Short life expectancy mainly due to infantchildhood deaths Height Men 539 975quot Women 539 55quot Some adults up to 6392quot Stronger than modern people The average person today39s superior athlete Teeth only 2 have cavities Almost never obese HUNTING amp GATHERING Foraging More generations have depended on foraging than any other way of life 0 With hunting amp gathering a modest to moderate amount of work provides a reasonably secure existence Had quotsocial simplicityquot Dietary quality was generally excellent Egalitarian style Lived in relative ecological balance HUNTING Chief weapon Spear bow and arrow came about 20000 yrs ago Hunting was inventive and varied Men were usually the hunters Work load approx 1520 hrswk To feed 40 needed the equivalent of a modern bull every 10 days GATHERING 0 Plant foods of great variety Also small animals More reliable than hunting 0 Mainly women Workload approx 1220 hrswk 0 Equipment Digging stick leather sack or reed basket SOCIETY amp CULTURE Lived in small bands related by blood or marriage Moved every few weeks to follow food resources Music art oral folklore amp ritual existed COOKING For hundreds of thousands of years humans ate food raw 1st deliberate use of fire approx 500000 yrs ago HOW DID THEY DISCOVER COOKING Discovered accidentally Roasting must have been the 1St method Didn39t change much until ovens amp cooking pots were invented BOILING HOW Pitmethod Large shells Bamboo Stone cooking pots Animal stomachs TIMES CHANGE 11000 BC ice age begins to shrink towards the north Forests amp vegetation sprang up Women had learned much about plants and that it was sometimes possible to exert an active in uence on plant growth Men had also learn lessons about animal taming Dog small Asiatic wolf was the 1st domesticated animal approx 11000 BC The beginnings of agriculture were at hand LECTURE 6 Cultural Superiority in Ancient Greece amp Rome The ancient Greeks amp Romans described other cultures in a way to emphasize their superiority over the quotbarbariansquot Therefore many discrepancies amp contradictions appear in descriptions of diets quotOthernessquot Perception of distance social amp moral distance with the function to define the cultural identity of the core group BARBARIAN S originally used to describe nonGreek speakers as in quotbar bar speakersquot Herodotus and Homer suggested that there were quotlevelsquot of civilization 9 a spectrum or continuum of barbarity If people were similar to the GrecoRomans they were considered more civilized though the descriptions were very artificial and ideological Egypt was quototherquot therefore technically barbaric The Romans in the eyes of the Greeks were once barbarians The descriptions of other cultures was and still is more a function of the authors own political attitudes and cultural bias than the true nature of the people being described HEROIC OR ARCHAIC SOCIETIES Rome Had an idealized past society the Rome of the legendary past which was the moral opposite of contemporary society Greece Homer s heroes practiced frugality amp selfsufficiency 0 Homer refers to the diets of his heroes in a moralistic tone 0 quotThe heroes of the Iliad eat only plain noble fare whereas in the Odyssey their diet is more varied including vegetables fruits fish birds and boiled mea quot p77 It did not really matter that image did not match reality Nor did it matter that the spokesmen for frugality amp morality did not adopt the lifestyle they were celebrating FOOD amp FAMILY Men in antiquity AND in 3rd world countries today live longer than women WHY p t Needs of individualsfamily Men amp boys need more since they do most of the physical work The needs for women were defined by men and in the interests of men N Status 0 In a patriarchal society men amp teenage boys will be favored over children amp women 3 Powercontrol over resources 0 To some degree male power was mitigated by women s control over food storage preparation amp serving quotWhere women participated in work outside the household the gap between the sexes in the division of food would have been narrower than where the women were confined to the homequot Lecture 10 Agriculture amp the Environment Agriculture is absolutely essential to feed the world s population Yet often the way we practice agriculture is degrading our environment and may not be sustainable FOOD SUPPLY We are adding 90 million people each year Food production needs to keep pace with this increase But how Increase cultivated area Yield increases Biotechnology Reduce poverty NATURAL RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURAL INPUTS Soils Soil degradation is occurring at an increasingly rapid rate This affects agricultural productivity In the last 50 years about 2 billion hectares of land has been degraded About 510 million hectares annually become unusable due to severe degradation Most of this is in Asia amp Africa Causes Overgrazing deforestation and inappropriate agricultural practices Why Inadequate property rights poverty population pressure inappropriate government policies lack of access to markets and technologies appropriate for sustainable agricultural development Forests About 155 million hectares of tropical forests worldwide are converted to other uses every year Consequences Increased soil and water degradation greater food insecurity escalating carbon emissions loss of biodiversity Smallscale poor farmers clearing land for agriculture account for about 2 3 of the deforestation Commercial logging accounts for most of the rest M urine Fisheries Fisheries are collapsing in some parts of the world due to being overeXploited and depleted Water About 30 countries today are water stressed Twenty of these have so little water that needs can t be met This number could reach 35 by the year 2020 This will lead to con icts and water wars between countries Efficiency of water use is low Waterlogging amp salinization occur with irrigation Pollution from runoff of agricultural chemicals etc is a growing problem Water for irrigation is essentially unpriced Fertilizers Fertilizer demand will grow to 208 million tonsyear by 2020 Depletion of soil nutrients is a serious constraint to food production Fertilizer use remains inadequate because of high prices There are many negative enVironmental and health consequences of fertilizer use Pesticides Pesticide use is necessary but current practices with pesticides can t be sustained Overuse amp misuse compromises human health contaminates soil and water damages the ecosystem suppresses species and leads to pesticide resistance pest resurgence and evolution of secondary pests Overuse of pesticides can lead to decreased food production Environmentally sound alternatives must be developed Energy Energy use in ag has grown due to increases in cropped and irrigated areas39 rising mechanization in irrigation land preparation and harvesting39 and use of chemical fertilizers Overall though agriculture consumes only about 5 of global commercial energy Research and Technology Existing technology cannot produce the food needed in 20 years Developing countries especially are underinvesting in ag research Climate Change A trend toward global warming is evident but it will not affect global food production in the next 20 years Factors Carbon dioxide Fluorocarbons Forests burned Pollution Foresight is essential RECOMMENDATIONS l Enhance productivity health and nutrition of lowincome people39 2 Strengthen agricultural research and extension systems in and for developing countries 3 Promote sustainable agricultural intensification and sound management of natural resources 4 Expand international cooperation and assistance and improve its efficiency and effectiveness Neolithic Revolution Agriculture Neolithic quotRevolutionquot was the gradual change from huntingfishing gathering to that of a settled farmer amp animal breeder o Occurred independently in at least 3 widelyseparated areas of the world 0 Between 8000 10000 years ago WHY When Hunting amp Gathering had been so successful THEORIES 1 Stress Model 0 Imbalance between resources amp population 9 Hunger Increased population deterioration of the environment 2 Coevolution Model 0 Increased utilization of wild plants by humans led naturally to an increased yield of food plants 9 through biological selective pressures disturbed ground increased number of human beings 3 Changes in climatic conditions 0 By 12000 BC glaciers were retreating This resulted in conditions that favored fastgrowing plants Had fields of wild wheatbarley By 9000 BC in N Israel there were settled Villages sustained by a combination of hunting amp intensive gathering HOW DID THEY EAT THE GRAINS RAW Germinated Fermented Beer amp Bread PorridgeGruel LIKELY SCENARIO Toasting grain directly in fire39 pound into a flour add water Eat raw or cook as a flatcake First convenience food in history When pottery finally came into use 7000BC maybe 10000 BC in Japan the cooks horizons expanded Domestication of Animals Fields of grassesgrains also attracted herbivorous animals Must chase them away or try to work with them 0 Wild sheep amp goats were easy to tame By 9000 BC Iraq amp Romania were known to have sheep o Pigs 2000 years later because they were no threat to the fields 0 Cow was the last to be domesticated in Turkey or Macedonia 6000 BC Eventually realized that the animals could help with labor Milk a 2nd benefit of animals Stored in animals stomachs Naturally turned to cheese Weeds Tomatoes originated as weeds as did rye amp oats Birth of Civilization Wheat amp Barley were under cultivation by 7000 BC39 Peas amp lentils 1000 years later39 Olives figs dates grapes 30004000 BC Started to eXhaust the soil 5000 BC near Persian Gulf learned how to breach the banks of streams and move water to the crops Irrigation was begun As irrigation improved an administrative system came into being To handle maintenance of canals allocate a fair share of water etc The administrative center developed into towns and then into cities Civilization had been born Somehow during this process all the power had become man s WHY o The changing patterns of life increased the woman s burden amp lightened the man s WORLD POPULATION 10000 BC 3 million 3000 BC 100 million Africa Agriculture got a later start about 5000 BC Encroaching desert drove them to the banks of the Nile By 3000 BC the farmer could produce 3X as much food as his family needed This could feed the armies of workers engaged in ood control constructing buildings amp tombs etc Americas Between 70005000 BC foragers in Mexico had begun to domesticate plants summer squash chili peppers bottle gourd Maize amp beans 60005000 BC Potato 3000 BC Due to climatic changes and destructive hunting practices few large animals survived In some places people ate insects grasshoppers ants termites Asia Pottery was being produced in Japan 10000 BC Rice 5000 BC Carp in China lSt fish to be farmed in the world Little pigs were kept in the house in China T0015 and Plows Basic tools evolved the harrow rake and mallet used to break light soil The hoe originally a hooked branch scraped a shallow groove in the dirt This gradually developed into a scratchplow forcing the tip into the soil 3000 BC Learned how to harness oxen to pull a plow Thus a deeper cut into the soil was possible Sickle also invented at about this time Very similar to today s sickle Excellent for harvesting grains The Beginnings of Trade Irrigated soils were becoming exhausted Constant irrigation can precipitate salts from the soil and destroy fertility In the Near East wheat began to fail and then barley This forced states to begin looking towards new lands the first tentative steps towards trade and exploration What was the impact on agriculture on humans Was it quotThe worst mistake in the history of the human race LECTURE 8 WORLD HUNGER How many suffer from food insecurity o 12 BILLION PEOPLE LIVE IN POVERTY 23 of the world population 0 800 million suffer from food insecurity 0 Living standards declined during the past 20 years Why 0 Environmental decline Population growth Lower export earnings Rising in ation Higher interest rates on foreign debts In other words the poor earned less and paid more Chronic hunger occurs in more than 80 nations They can neither produce enough food to feed their populations nor earn enough foreign exchange to import adequate food WHY IS THERE SO MUCH POVERTY AND HUNGER Colonialism Western nations colonized Africa amp Asia to gain access to their raw materials Minerals cash crops wealth At the same time they disrupted traditional family structures and the ability to produce their own food Eg Chad recently had a record cotton crop that same year it experienced famine International Trade amp Debt Combination of high import costs and low export pro ts pushes a developing country into debt Multinational Corporations Fertile farmlands are taken over by large landowners and multinational corporations Thus 0 Indigenous people are hired at belowsubsistence wages 0 They grow crops to be exported for profit 0 There s little fertile land for local farmers to grow food for themselves RESULTS Africa is a net exporter of barley beans peanuts vegetables cattle coffee cocoa etc At the same time its children have a higher incidence of proteinenergy malnutrition than anywhere else in the world Overpopulation Current world population is approximately 6 billion and increasing In countries where economic growth has occurred and everybody shares resources relatively equally the rate of population growth has decreased Land Reform Land reform would allow people to produce food for local consumption Instead of food aid poor nations must be allowed to develop selfreliance and to increase their agriculture productivity That means gaining access to land capital water technology amp knowledge Technology Green Revolution Hightech agriculture is costly to developing countries Seeds developed during the quotGreen Revolutionquot often require irrigation fertilizers amp pesticides Must use appropriate technology in developing countries labor intensive rather than energy intensive Sustainable Development Definition Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs In other words avoiding environmental degradation Poverty leads to ecological deterioration because desperate people overeXploit their resources In the end ecological decline perpetuates poverty as degraded ecosystems create low yields A downward spiral of economic deprivation amp ecological degradation occurs Sustainable development should involve the reduction of poverty and food insecurity in environmentally sound ways 1 Expand economic opportunities for lowincome people in ways that are economically environmentally and socially viable in the longterm J Meet basic human needs for food clean water shelter health care services and education U Protect and enhance the natural environment in a way that respects the needs of present and future generations A Promote democratic participation by all people in economic and political decisions that impact their lives NUTRITION amp DEVELOPMENT The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO and the World Health Organization WHO now see nutrition and health as instruments of economic development o Wellnourished people are more productive are sick less often and earn higher incomes World Food Summit Plan of Action 1996 Goal is to reduce by half the number of undernourished people by no later than 2015 Focus on Children Children are most strongly affect by poverty malnutrition and food insecurity UNICEF s quotChild Survival campaign GOBI Growth Charts Oral rehydration therapy ORT Breast milk Immunizations ORT Packets of premeasured salt and sugar mixed in boiled water Used to replace uids lost by diarrhea World Summit for Children Convened by UNICEF in 1990 Nutrition was recognized for the first time in history as a basic human right Among UNICEF s goals 0 A 50 reduction of malnutrition among children under 5 years old39 0 A 50 reduction of lowbirthweight infants 0 Elimination of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiency Improvements have been observed in many countries WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION WTO ORIGINS General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT was established in 1947 in the wake of W W 1 Based on the belief that the nations of the world are inextricably linked to one another About 14th of the Gross National Product GNP of most countries comes from exports WTO Began in 1995 as a successor to GATT It has 136 members amp accounts for gt90 of world trade Major objective quotHelp trade flow smoothly freely fairly and predictablyquot In other words to promote free trade by getting rid of tariffs and other barriers It includes specific sectors such as agriculture and textiles It does this Via trade agreements amp negotiations39 settling trade disputes39 assisting developing countries in trade policy issues etc Efforts are made regarding tariff reductions antidumping and decreasing government interference DISPUTE SETTLEMENT Countries bring disputes to the WTO if they think their rights are being infringed Judgements are made by appointed independent experts DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Over 34th of WTO members are developing countries Special provisions for these countries include Longer time to implement agreements and commitments Measures are taken to increase their trading opportunities All WTO members are required to safeguard the trade interests of developing countries Support is provided to build the infrastructure needed for WTO to work in these countries WTO provides much training and technical assistance for developing countries Eg training courses are organized for officials from countries in transition from central planning eg Communism to market economies BENEFIT S l The System helps promote peace 2 Disputes are handled constructively 3 Rules make life easier for all 4 Freer trade cuts cost of living 5 It provides more choice of products and quality 6 7 8 9 1 Trade increases income Trade stimulates economic growth Trade makes life more efficient Governments are shielded from lobbying OThe system encourages good government CONTROVERSIES quotMYTHSquot SURROUNDING WTO 00OIJIJgtUJN WTO dictates policy WTO is for free trade at any cost Commercial interests take priority over development Commercial interests take priority over the environment Commercial interests take priority over health and safety WTO destroys jobs worsens poverty Small countries are powerless in the WTO WTO is the tool of powerful lobbies 9 Weaker countries are forced to join the WTO 10The WTO is undemocratic Let s look at 4 Concerns about the environment WTO states quotThis is not true Many provisions take environmental concerns specifically into accountquot Its preamble includes in its objectives quotoptimal use of the world s resources sustainable development and environmental protectionquot WTO emphasizes that measures taken to protect the environment can t be unfair They also state that it s not the WTO s job to set international rules for environmental protection quotPublic Citizen s Global Trade Watchquot Ralph Nader s Group tradewatchorg complaints quotThe Clinton administration is trying to paper over the WTO s record of weakening environmental food safety and labor safeguards The public has caught on to the WTO s record of damage and has turned against the free trade at any cost agenda quot Other complaints by Trade Watch quotWealth inequality has grown within the developing countries and has surged between developed and developing world quot quotThe WTO has ruled against every health safety or environmental standard its tribunals have considered including the US Clean Air Act the Endangered Species Act the Marine Mammal Protection Act the EU ban on beef treated with artificial hormones Other regulations have been withdrawn because of the mere threat of WTO actions like Guatemala s UNICEFbased code on marketing infant formulaquot quotThe WTO operates in complete secrecy39 there is no accountability minimal disclosure of its documentary recordquot WHAT HAPPENED IN SEATTLE NGO NonGovernmental Organizations Eg Sierra Club CARE Bread for the World Catholic Charities etc NGO s protested at the Seattle WTO convention because the feel that WTO is an undemocratic body that it has a negative impact on environmental and labor standards women and poor people WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ABOUT WTO WERE THE PROTESTERS IN SEATTLE RIGHT WHAT ARE THE ANSWERS
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