Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes Italian 42A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lonnie Wong on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Italian 42A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by moudarres in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Italy in Italian at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
20102015Lecture 7 oc Valla polemical last 10 pages I enemy oc Aftermath no real consequences gt inconclusive trial by Inquisition in Naples gt after death of Eugenius IV Valla became secretary of Nicholas V an ardent supporter of humanists cardinal Nicholas of Cusa 14011464 most respected theologian philosopher humanist wrote literally the same thing before Valla quotOn Catholic Concordancequot 1559On the Donation of Constantine was banned Church became more severe with their critics Questions to ponder I why did the reaction to such a polemic amount at first to so little I do you think any speech should be prohibited I what is the difference between a tyrant and a good ruler Most people including the clergy knew the Donation was fake but used it due to its convenience that benefited the Church Nicholas of Cusa and Valla agree on their view of the Donation 0c History of Italy 15351540 Fortune something that couldn39t be controlled depicted as a wheel Italy at this time was chaotic where the evil were successful and the good were unsuccessful Question of the time to what extent can one control their life in reference to Fortune Francesco Guicciardini 14831540 I historian diplomat intellect statesman member ofan 39aristocratic39 Florentine family work for Florentine republic and papcy friend of Machiavelli I Death of Lorenzo de39 Medici 1492 ruled Florence from age 20 to 43 I Son Pierre succeeds him Pierre was not a good ruler I At this time Spanish expel Muslims and Jews from Spain Innocent VIII also dies Alexander VI becomes pope election was described as most corrupt ever use of briber I modern historians disagree described him as shrewd promised things but didn39t necessary deliver good administrator learned the in and outs of the Church during his 35 years as a cardinal I Cesare Borgia 147561507 o cardinal at 18 0 after the death of the older brother Juan in 1498 he resigned as cardinal and became the military man of the family 0 married a French noble o unable to retain power after death of his father I Lucrezia Borgia 14801519 0 1st husband soldier alliance with Milan Giovanni Sforza annulled disadvantageous marriage 0 2nd husband Alfonso of Aragon killed possibly in Rome rumor Cesare killed him 0 3rd husband Alfonso d39Este Duke of Ferrara important cushion between Venice and papal states 0 unfounded rumors incestuous relationship with Cesare brother 0 educated smart woman many artists and writers supported by her Death of Alexander VI most likely not true but noted in History of Italy 0 accidental poisoning along with Cesare o Cesare wanted to poison the Cardinal holding the gathering o poison was weapon of choice at the time o Guicciardini was against the Borgias because they were a Spanish family grudge held that Spanish pope held power in Italy what probably actually happened 0 cardinal of the holding died of malaria a few days before 0 Cesare and pope caught the fever probably malaria o the pope being 72 couldn39t recover and died 0 Cesare with his youth recovered but remained ill for a while putting him in a weak position politically especially without Alexander VI New pope Pius II death of Alexander VI came unexpectedly political turmoil the cardinals voted into the position the oldest and ill cardinal hoping that his reign would end shortly papacy was 26 days gt enough time to read the political situation New pope Julius II 14431513 made cardinal by Uncle Sixtus IV Guliano thus Julius in order to outmatch Alexander VI Greek history waged many military campaigns to expand Church territory extremely ambitious constantly at war Warrior pope first pope to grow a beard military statement death of Cesare Borgia dies unknown in Spain 0 arrested by Julius II no distinction between Julius and secular rulers pg 213CR113 Siege of Mirandola 1511 pg CR 113 Mirandola small town west of Ferrara objective of Julius 0 led siege in the frontlines despite winter weather and artillery first time in European warfare where artillery was a deciding factor assert power of Church was a motive but if his family benefitted from it all the better family interest and power of Church Guicciardini pg CR 113 juxtaposes Julius39s role in his military campaign to that of the King of France whose troops defended Mirandola Bologna 1511 uprising against Julius 0 Julius set them free from tyrants o fact pg CR 120 The bronze statue by Michelangelo was broken and sold in pieces to Duke of Ferrara wife was Lucrezia Borgia who melted it down and made a piece of artillery from it La Julia kept the head stashed in his closet I The Sistine Chapel 0 supported artists like Michelangelo and Raphael I Francesco Maria della Rovere 14901538 0 nephew ofJulius condottiere then Duke of Urbino brutal man who assassinated the Cardinal of Pavia lost power when uncle died 22102015Lecture 8 oc Leo X 14751521 cardinal 1489 sister married to a son of a pope Giovanni de39 Medici pope at 37 after Julius death in 1513 son of Lorenzo the Magnificent ruler of Florence spent lavishly in artistic patronage Martin Luther wrote his 95 Theses in 1517 before his coronation as pope which was a party he arrested a couple of cardinals appointed Alfonso de39Este as standard bearer of the Church I husband of Lucrezia Borgia I Duke of Ferrara which was Julius 39s objective I Giovanni made the move to distant himself from Julius oc Girolamo Savonarola a friar39s life born in Ferrara he became a Dominican friar never officially in office or in control established a theocracy I difference between theocracy and secular rule is not that different because secular rule is based in morals which also comes from religion profound influence in Florence proFrench families39 interests in Florence prophesied dramatic changes in Italy and in the Church spiritual leader of a revolutionary government in Florence after the fall of the Medici regime in 1494 popular government and moral police he also wrote political treatises for the Florence government Bonfires of Vanities the burning of immoral items I books etc death I loss of popular support in Florence I excommunicated by Alexander VI her was forced by Florentine government and outside forces to stop preaching 1498 victim of the revolutionary power that brought him to power I confessed after torture with permission from Rome I Florentine authority arrested his supporters I hanged and burned and his ashes were thrown in the Arno River Questions to contemplate I What is a revolution I Why was he burned and not buried o followers cannot collect pieces of his bodies as relics to be reverenced 0 public spectacle made to be an example oc Selected Writing of Girolamo Savonarola first letter I initial praise by the pope I however the tone of the letter does change quotsince people have recentlyquot I real prophet I come to Rome so we may speaknot true I quotpaternal love and charityquot also not true second letter I respect for pope keeps decorum I scriptures increase the authority of what he wants in the letter I quotmeaning of the words rather than the words themselves out to be consideredquot read between the lines gt come to Rome to be imprisoned I lists out why he can39t come to Rome appearance of respect I quotHoweverquot outrageous on Savonarola39s part basically saying read the book if you want to know what I am preaching cheeky third letter I pope is annoyed that he dared to tell him to read the book I letter to Santa Croc incorrectly addressing as Dominicans while knowing they are Franciscan I this move is to make public the news about Savonarola and the pope in order to undermine Salvonarola39s authority in Florence I excommunicated punishment to serve as an example to those who want to upend the Church I writing letters is an art form I excommunicatedexpelled from the Church not going to heaven 0c Desiderius Erasmus 14661536 Dutchman but lived in Italy as well 15069 one of Europe39s foremost humanist commented on the Bible and on early Church Fathers author of the Praise of Folly fierce pacifist positions visavis the Reformation and the Muslims initiate reform of Church problems with the Protestants and the Church Julius Exclusus 15134Attributed to Erasmus I satirical dialogue mainly between Saint Peter first pope and Julius II I accompanied by 20000 soldiers Julius II became a cardinal under Pope Sixtus IV who plotted the assassination of Lorenzo de39 Medici on Easter in a Church Sixtus IV gt the building of Sistine Chapel I Question to contemplate 0 Does the building of the Sistine Chapel excuse the wickedness of Sixtus IV
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