Wildlife Ecology I
Wildlife Ecology I WLF 314
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ken Corwin IV on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WLF 314 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see /class/227876/wlf-314-university-of-idaho in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
1152008 Great variety in sizes shapes colors Family Anatidae 154 species worldwide 44 in NA All have webbed feet and bills Subfamily Dendrocygninae whistling ducks Subfamily Anserinae geese amp swans Sibley reading is great for lots of facts and insights Subfamily Anatinae ducks into the group lndicatesthose species occurring regularlyin ID lndicatesthose species occurring regularly in ID Ducks Ducks 26 species Geese lndicatesthose species occurring regularlyin ID lndicatesthose species occurring regularly in ID Ducks 26 species Ducks 26 species Geese 5 Geese 5 brant is rare Swans 2 Swans 1152008 Ducks smaller shorter legs amp necks Geese Geese ong legs graze in uplands Swan Swan shorter legs than geese long necks larger size feed more often in water Cranes rails beak rails have lobed feet Coots bill but lobed feet Grebes lobed feet Loons webbed feet but sharp beak Woodcock and snipe feet not webbed beaks These are not on handout but are managed by USFWS as are waterfowl 1152008 Subfamily Dendrocygninae whistling ducks subfamin Anserinae geese and swans used to be called tree ducks Tribe Cygnini swans 2 Species 2 species more gooselike longer necks and legs most ducks flight is faster than geese but Tribe Anserini geese 6 spp that occur in ID slower than otherdueks but Emperor Goose Ross Goose and Brant are rare Occuralong gulf coast and Florida 1152008 SubfamilyAnatinae ducks with 4 tribes Subfamily Anatinae ducks with 4tribes Tribe Anatini dabbling ducks 10 species in ID Tribe Anatini dabbling ducks 10 species in ID wood duck is called a perching duck wood duck is called a perching duck Tribe Aythyini diving ducks 5 species SubfamilyAnatinae ducks with 4 tribes Subfamily Anatinae ducks with 4tribes Tribe Anatini dabbling ducks 10 species in ID Tribe Anatini dabbling ducks 10 species in ID wood duck is called a perching duck wood duck is called a perching duck Tribe Aythyini diving ducks 5 species Tribe Aythyini diving ducks 5 species Tribe Mergini sea ducks 10 species in ID but Tribe Mergini sea ducks 10 species in ID but only 6 are common only 6 are common Tribe Oxyurini stifftailed ducks 1 species Trumpeter swan and tundra swan Largest waterfowl but how much do they weigh Sexes look alike Monogamous pair bond formed in winter mate for life young are called cygnets Require large territolyfor nesting 3070 hectares generally on shore or small islands Feed in water tipup eat plants pondweeds milfoils sedges 1152008 Largest waterfowl but how much do they weigh Largest waterfowl but how much do they weigh Tundra swan 1316 pounds Tundra swan 1316 pounds Trumpeter Trumpeter swan 2228 pounds Longlived species sexually mature at Tundra 34 years Trumpeter 4 6 years Both species lay 4 5 eggs only female incubates Both Spades lay 4395 99951OHIYfemalelHCUbatesy 3133 3133 days da 5 0 Very high nest success 90 Van hlgh neg Success T 90 A Why is nest success so high attentive parents few nest Why is nest success so high edators Both parents care foryoung still lose 3050 ofyoung long flightless pen39od 810 weeks for Tundra 1317 wee s forTrumpe er Voice yellow spot in front of eye of Tundra All show several similarities sometimes Plumage is not sexually dimorphic Tundra very social outsIde breeding season 1000 s Trumpeter in small groups 0 Hunted Trumpeter no 1822000 total Tundra yes 200000 in breeding population hunted in MT UT NV NC MD ID and WA projects 1152008 All show several similarities All show several similarities Plumage is not sexually dimorphic Plumage is not sexually dimorphic Feed by grazing Feed by grazing Highly gregarious All show several similarities All show several similarities Plumage is not sexually dimorphic Plumage is not sexually dimorphic Feed by grazing Feed by grazing Highly gregarious Highly gregarious Breed in open situations Breed in open situations Nonbreeders form molting ocks in summer are joined by breeders a few weeks later Migratory and some species have a molt migration Migratonl and some SpeCieS have a molt migration During fall and winter the family unit stays together and in argerflocks Winterbehavioris to gather in large concentrations in open areas make morning and evening ights 1152008 11 subspecies large or small dark or light Bcleucopareia Aleutian 4lbs small Bcminima Cackling 2834 small Bchutchinsii Richardson s 4 small Bctaverneri Taverner s 4759 small Bc parvipes Lesser 56 small Bc canadensis Atlantic 6888 Bc interior Todd s 7 9 Bc occidentalis Dusky 89 dark Bc fulva Vancouver 89 dark Bc moflitti Western 810 Bcmagtltima Giant 1112 Several subspecies are uncommon and management is aimed at them Subspecies often overlap in breeding and wintering ranges Geese are managed by populations Monogamous highly social Begin to breed at 2 most at 3 equal sex ratio Mortality rates from 2550 per year depending on human exploitation Grazers especially cereal grains clovers alfalfa therefore lots ofmanagement involves planted foods Pairin winter for life migrate N in spring Territorial nests elevated islands osprey nests Both parents stay at nest female inc 56 eggs Pair in winter forlife migrate N in spring Territorial nests elevated islands osprey nests Both parents stay at nest female inc 56 eggs Predators of eggs skunks foxes coyotes ravens crows magpies Inc is 2530 days nest success 70 A small of females renest 10 de ne Goslings y at 710 weeks 1152008 Tribe Anatini dabbling ducks Only 2 genera in North America Aix Anas Dabblers all spring up off the water or land to y Legs near center of body legs back Tip up dive All dabble ortip up to feed butmany also feed on Hind toe not lobed hind toe lobed land Rarely dive but can Legs near center of body legs back Tip up dive Hind toe not lobed hind toe lobed Foot smaller foot larger Iridescent speculum dull speculum Tail held clear ofwater tail in water Spring up run along surtace 1152008 Most eld guides have the speculum much too visible for the bird at rest Most eld guides also have divers and sea ducks sitting too high in the water Also called a perching duck its legs are even more forward then other dabblers well adapted to perching in trees Sharp claws and welldeveloped hind toes Nest in cavities usually over water 220 m up 1152008 Highly social 1000s especially in winter Highly social 1000s especially in winter All migratory some use both fresh and estuarine wetlands during the year Often winter in huge mixed species ocks Divide up foraging areas by water depth All nest on the ground none in cavities No longterm pair bonds monogamous until incubation begins then male leaves All migratory some use both fresh and estuarine wetlands during the year O en winter in huge mixed species ocks All incubate 2127 days young y at 3870 days Teal green and bluewinged lay 811 eggs Cinnamon teal lays 712 eggs Northern pintail lays 69 eggs often nests far from water Mallard lays 710 eggs largest population in NA 1152008 All dive forfood Generally nest over water Sex ratios 60 maes Monogamous mae defends the female All dive for food Generally nest over water Sex ratios 60 maes Monogamous mae defends the female Male leaves during incubation Many rst year females do not breed 712 eggs rst ight for young is at 4068 days Divide water area by depths and foods Redhead 34 feet eats more plants Canvasback 36 feet eats plants inverts Ringnecked duck lt6 ft eats more snails inverts Greater scaup 615 ft eats clams often marine Lesser scaup 1040 ft eats clams inverts snails 1152008 Brood behaviorwhen threatened Divers vs dabblers Dabblers Divers Brood behaviorwhen threatened Brood behaviorwhen threatened Divers vs dabblers Divers vs dabblers Dabblers seek cover in emergent veg Dabblers seek cover in emergent veg Divers Divers move to open water and may dive Female uses one of three strategies Most species associated with coastal and estuarine incubates own clutch waters butmany found inland on freshwater incubates own clutch and parasitize other nests lakes and larger rivers entirely parasitic on canvasback and redhead Eiders mergansers scoters goldeneyes Canvasbacks parasitized by redheads generally harlequin duck longtailed duck bufflehead not as successful in producing their own ducklings 1152008 1152008 9 yhml39n 3 ill 8 species worldwide one in NA ruddy duck long stiff tail Large bills clumsy on land nest overwater Vewlarge egg for size of bird 68 will parasitize each other and redheads Eat aquatic inverts snai plants in winter Waterfowl are wonderful absz J WW EIW E ma Malawian om Marmara mil reams u mwmaiaaiaa mr mm ltym mimi ma w v D an apt s Be aware ofconservation problems and solutions u iBKeIeMjK iwrgg 394 aawmimms mp e Natural History Identi cation lab Conservation Conservation Groups Courses Types and Numbers of r a 7mm swam m iSEMlm u up 113 am mallow i a pie LifeGyle Ectothermic i Nummwmiesmtes Tuatara Ecwmemmic 3 my gm 3 swatswat 19 gentleman4amp1 emmmmy a tree development 39 H gm Igh cOnversion ef ciency Ectothermic high biomass intonyiwagmtmmm m 9 rely emabmomm e WWI r e r W Defense Reproduction and Life History Status and Conservation Map 57 Amphibian Species J Wham m 639 Cor39n lem39entarit39y Coeur d39Alene Salamander I ll L ldaho Giant Rocky Mountain Salamander Salamander Complementarity of Mole Salamander Distributions True Toad Distributions Roughskinned Newt American Bullfrog Tailed Frog Great Basin Spadefoot Ascaphidae Pelobatidae Complementarity of Tree Frog Distributions u raa mg 0am WWW OvenNint rihg 0 war subs rate slope aspect Deser tic Shrubland southwestern Dese L c Shmbland sou weg 39 Down Mark Kelso WWMm EmmWGW m1mml yasxa While v manghamgku wmmismm A nysslmmlg39rmwmm 3 QWIEMMM W319 I My a Defense v Reproduction and Li atom 39 Status and Coneewation u 0 Dig mgr 2 0 vmslvmmmg H gm cannialgm 9 Peyr Ehergetic reqmrements mostly oppo unistic carnivores i imam om stirmmm l Ie quot 39 i r a W i mtg 1 J Pillma l Tamika Wynme someicannlba is mostly opportunistic carnivores mostly invertebra es some vertebrates exclusiver carnivorous Wing Foaming Mm w Wei immquot wwmpm 39 W s wmmme39 39 Emugtae Envenomation Tongue projection Rubber Boa Chan39na bottae Nisanquot iJ WWW E magma cmma nstm I wmwobgmlgtmmbmm Dm t a m gn I Home mayliait ME o Mammy D Reproduction and Life History Status and Conservation 392 agro m uawbxcm a A wl ParentaIJCare Age to sexual maturity Longevity Examples See species checklists Boreal Chorus Frogs 23 years Idaho Department of Fish and Game Conservation Data Center Western Toads gt 20 years Sideblotched Lizards 23 years Rubber Boas gt 30 years Painted Turtles gt 50 years 5 llrshand ame aho ovtechCDCIhe a e rankscfm Questions www isuedupetechar
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