Fish and Wildlife Population Ecology
Fish and Wildlife Population Ecology WLF 448
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Date Created: 10/23/15
III Introduction to Populations lll Introduction to n pui39afiuno l A De nitions l B Population characteristics processes and environment I C Uses of population dynamics l D Limits of a population A Definitions I What is a population A population is Krebs 2001 1 16 l a group of organisms of the l same species occupying a l particular space at a l particular time a group of organisms l Focus is not on individuals same species l interbreeding particular space I Must be delimited geographically particular time I It changes through time Population dynamics is Level of aggregation Al 1 J E INC aluuy U populations l biome I landscape I ecosystem I community I population I individual I organ I cell Analogy between dynamics of a population quot4 quot 39 ofa lake Analogy between dynamics of a population 2 lake Ermgratron I Immigration I l I 39 La Monte Cole s de nition 1957 Hierarchical A ggregations I A biological unit at the level of ecological integration where it is meaningful to speak of birth rate death rate sex ratios and age structures in describing properties or parameters of the unit I Groupings of individuals driven by demography geography movements and genetics I Species I Subspecies I Metapopulation I Population I Deme Deme Deme I A group of individuals where breeding is random Emen 19841202 I A panmictic population Ehrlich and Hom 1963 I This smalest grouping of individuals s oud emphasize genetic objective of random breeding within the group I In reality random breeding is constrained by the social system of the organism I Demography Smallest grouping where its reasonable to estimate birth death immigration and emigration tes ra I Movement Restricted to home ranges during key seasons I Genetics Random breeding within constraints of social system I Geography Continuous distribution of individuals in one patch of habitat Red winged Blackbird I Male temlortes average 0 05 ha I thh each male serehsthg a harem ave59mg I average of 1 4 km Redwinged Blackbird Deme Patch of crudu39 Anal I A patch of I emergent veg I adjacent to I or within ponds I streams amp lakes 1 39 a Redwinged Blackbird VIII I Spatialy a patch of marsh habitat season male territories I Random breeding within polygynous breeding system I Reproductive rates measured by nesting edging success amp renesting rates Red winged Blackbird Ll 39r 65quotquot Wage g gg ggg g i aiher than 7 km and females rare y observed further than 28 km to new breeding area from natal nest Notes longdistance dispersal important for metapopuations of blackbirds Rocky Mountain Elk Population I A collection of demes with strong connections genetically and demographically between adjacent demes I Geographicaly a collecton of patches Without great expanses of Ho rhabllal l lelvem g hetweeh adjace ldemes mm the same popu a ton Red winged Blackbird A A I Iauucu Metapopulati39on l A collection of populations suf ciently close together that dispersing individuals from source populations readily colonize empty habitat resulting from local population extinctions l Possible low correlations in demographic rates I Product79 hgh levels of l depe de ce l Possible low rates of dispersal I Producing genellc dl ere llallo l Possible sources for recolonization Metapopulation v ill2amp2quot ll N r lliutilla 1ltLm LA Subspecies I A collection of metapopulations in a region I Very rare dispersals maintain genetic similarity I Demographic independence may be nearly complete I Occupied habitat patches may be separated by enormous areas of nonhabitat Subspecies a CA 4400 i 39 a catitornicw Species I The collection of subspecies encompassing the entire distribution of the species I De nes the entire geographic range of the species I May encompass substantial differences in phenotypes habitat physiology behavior and genotypes 5 39 WAEURE NDSAL d6 5 5 6906 v NYCOR OR KLA new I I ato C CAMOD 39 CASAC californicus N eus f a CA39SF aciculatus phoen c iailliardorum 39 39 If neutralis r39 CA SALT I sonoriensis A megapotamus 39 XX quot floridanus Hierarchy of Methods I Species Presenceabsence I Subspecies Relative abundance I Metapopulation Density I Population Survival fecundity I Deme Immigrationemigration Characteristics Processes Environment Population Processes irth i U eat mmiration Inress Emigration Egress Characteristics Processes Environment Abundance Density Total Number Sex Ratio Age Distribution Gene Frequencies Physiological State Pattern random Distribution regmar contagious Scale smalllarge W Mi9r8t9w Anadromous Nonmigratory I Envimnment l Food I Cover l Water conditions I Nest sites I DiseaseParasites l Predators l Competitors l Weather Characteristics Processes Environment Popu ation Characteristics undance I Composition Distribution Movement Env onment ab tat Other Organisms e ther Characteristics Processes Environment l iWthin a population I Between populations l Between populations and environment C Uses of population u r r a r r r 1 93 l Endangered or rare species I Harvested species I Controlling harmful species I Predicting changes in nonharvested populations D Limits of a p ur39atr39un I First step in making statements predictions about a population is to delimit it D Limits of a ur39a till I Our goal is to delimit a population unit which is as discrete as possible that still meets our objectives l Ideally chances of mating within this unit should be randomly distributed I Unit stock D Limits of a pu ur39atrun l Metapopulation a population of several subpopulations in scattered habitat patches separated from each other by nonhabitat Levins 1970 l Or a group dem s V k Steps to delimit a population I 1 State objectives clearly I 2 Determine distribution l 3 Determine patterns of movement and barriers to movement I 4 Determine levels of geneticphenotypic similarity among subunits I 5 Identify associations in demographic rates between su uni s I 6 Integrate all this information to outline the most discrete units possible which meets objectives Unit Stock Ricker 1972 l Cushing 1981 I Many fish do not disperse much I Approaches I Morphometric measurements I Tagging experiments I Genetic measurements l During the rst 30 years or so of this century it was customary to regard all populations of a sh species as more or less uniform at least in respect to biologically important particulars Observed differences between stocks were ascribed to differences in their environment Stock DPS l A group of sh spawning in a particular lake or stream at a particular season which to a substantial degree do not interbreed with any other such group l The Endangered Species Act allows the listingdelisting of Distinct Poguation Segments of I W Zf l t t i astion Segment is a portion of a species or subspecies population or range and is generally described geographically ESA policy published in Federal Register Vertebrate Population DPS ESU USFWS amp IWB um I This policy contains the criteria that must be met for a portion of a species population to be g a y tggrg Mu g te W h WgtDPS must be I dieagptesaridstr gal dautSFWs to use this authority sparingly and only when supported by biological data Feb 1996 l Endangered Species Act requires protecting a population if it is an evolutionarily signi cant unit E S U 1 I 1 It must be reproductivey isolated from other conspecific population units an I 2 it must represent an important component in the evolutionary history of a species ESU Critique ESU Critique l Pennock and Dimmick 1996 Conservation Biology 11611619 l ESUs used to tailor management practices to unique circumstances grant varied levels of protection in parts of range and protect unique evolutionary entities l A strict rede nition of DPSs as ESUs will compromise management efforts because the role of demographic and and behavioral data will be reduced Furthermore strictly cultural economic or geographic justi cations for listing populations as threatened or endangered will be greatly curtailed 1996 61 1 Implications of stock Concept l 1 Provides genetic perspective I 2 Two key concepts I a sh are subdivided into local populations l b genetic differences between local populations are adaptive I l 3 Cause heterogeneity of resources I 4 Selective processes are most effective if populations are subdivided in local populations Sewall Wright 1929 Implications of StOck Concept l 5 Dispersal does not equal gene flow necessarily l 6 Ricker 1972 concluded that most transplants with salmonids reduced survival to maturity l 7 Maximum production from a complex of stocks with local adaptation of subpopulations Stock Differentiation l 1 Population parameters l 2 Marking l 3 Physio ogicalbehavioral t l rggpirgmetricmeristic a ters l ghgalccareous structures l 6 Cytogenic characters I 7 Biochemical characters I 8 lmmunogenetics l 9 DNA