Intro to Anthropology
Intro to Anthropology ANTH 100
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
POL S 7
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Reina Streich on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 100 at University of Idaho taught by Laura Putsche in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/227891/anth-100-university-of-idaho in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Idaho.
Reviews for Intro to Anthropology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/23/15
Anthropology 100 Final Study Guide By Meghan Wigton 121110 Subsistence 1 Describe four types of subsistence systems found around the world huntgath pastoralist horticulture and agriculture agrarian vs industria What kinds of cultural features are generally associated with each population size and density settlement pattern division of labor etc In what region of the world do people practice these types of subsistence Hunting and Gathering o Rely on plants an animals 0 Resources Seasonal and somewhat scarce and scattered 0 Characteristics 0 Small groups Nomadic Egalitarian No social class Strong ethic of sharing No strong sense of territoriality No concept of wealth o Plenty ifleisure time 0 Found until 1900 s 00000 0 Regions 0 Australia 0 Africa 0 Tropical forests of W Africa 0 Arctic N America 0 Deserts tundra s and tropical forests Pastoralists o Rely on herd animals 0 Resources Sometimes moved to meet the needs of herd animals 0 Characteristics 0 Had leisure time affluent society 0 Simple division of labor 0 Slaughtered animals only on special occasions o Rely on quotLive Products Milk and Blood YUMMll 0 Found today 0 Regions 0 E Africa grasslands o M East 0 N Europe caribou 0 Kinds of animals depended on area o In these areas it is more difficult to grow crops or hunt and gather quot PE Horticulture o Grows crops w relatively simple technology digging sticks and manchettes for own families and communities 0 Characteristics 0 Simple division of labor I Women grow crops while men hunt and fish 0 Semi Nomadic 0 Size of group varies 0 Found 0 Regions Agriculture 0 Grows crops to sell in market economies Agrarian vs Industrial Agrarian Labor intensive Every one works on farm Every one is aware of the state of the environment Industrial Far fewer people involved in food production Extremely productive at a high energy cost Few people aware of the environment One anthropologist called huntgaths quotthe original affluent society why They had plenty of leisure time there was no poverty they never lacked the resources that they needed if resources became low they would just move and population density was low enough that the environment could sustain their needs can t find it Describe swidden slash and burn horticulture where is it most practices and with what type of main crop Direct book quote quotHere horticulturalists clear land by cutting down slashing and burning down forest or bush by setting fire to the grass covering the plot The vegetation is broken down pests are killed and the ashes remain to fertilize the soil crops are then sown tended and harvested Use of plot is not continuous Often is cultivated for only a year or two Putshe said 7 When horticulturalists abandon a plot because of soil exhaustion or a thick weed cover they clear another piece of land and the original plot turns back into forest Dense tropical forest Usually grain or root crops Economic Anthropology 1 Explain why economic theories based on western industrialized societies do not apply to western economic systems It ignores non western societies and subsistence societies don t apply 2 Discuss the difference btw market and subsistence economies including the division of labor concepts of wealth and poverty purposes of exchange and consumption of goods Subsistence 0 Small scale 0 Produce what they need consume what the produce 0 No specialization 0 Everyone is involved in food production and everyone is aware ofthe environment Market 0 State societies 0 Division of labor 0 Social classes 0 Not everyone is connected to the environment Vocabulary Production The act or process of producing something Means or factors of production include land territory labor and technology Consumption The opposite of producing Distribution Distribution in economics refers to the way total output or income is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production Subsistence Economy A subsistence economy is an economy in which enough food is grown hunted or gathered to provide for the people A surplus is grown only if a community desires or needs to trade with neighboring communities Market Economy An economy in which goods and services are exchanged in a free market as opposed to a state controlled or socialist economy a capitalistic economy Organic Solidarity A system in which each of the parts are different this is the opposite of mechanical solidarity where each economic unit does the same Which is subsistence Reciprocity Is an exchange between social equals who normally are related by kinship marriage or another personal tie Generalized Reciprocity Give things with no return to reinforce relationships like gifts In generalized reciprocity we do not worry about the value of the things that we give Balanced Reciprocity Exchanged of equal value Negative Reciprocity People get the things that they want or need Political Systems 1 Describe the four types of political organizations discussed in class compare and contrast leadership decision making for that group and the maintenance and order for each What characteristics do small scale and large scale societies have that might contribute to the major differences in political organizations Band Refers to a small kin based group found among foragers huntgath 0 Band leaders were leaders in name only 0 Bands are connected by kinship and marriage Tribes quotHad economies based on non intensive food production Living in villages and organized into kin groups based on one common descent tribes lacked a formal GOVT and had no reliable means of making decisionsquot 0 Leaders actively pursue leadership 0 Village head limited leadership ifa headman wants something done he must lead by example and persuasion 0 Big Man Oh ha ha finding nemo anyone Chiefdoms institutionalized leadership heredity centralized ranked systems 0 Lineages were ranked in terms of prestige States Centralized institutionalized leadership leaders associate power Small Groups 0 Every one can know everyone 0 Every one partakes in making decisions for the group Large Groups 0 Everyone can t know everyone else gt Alienation 0 Everyone can t contribute equally in decision making 2 What are the characteristics of ranked societies social classes and castes Family Kinship Marriage Gender 1 What are the basic universal functions ofthe family To raise children and to uphold the family name and finally to support eachother 2 Is the nuclear family any more natural or universal than other family forms No it is not there are seeral defferent ways to define family and in many different cultures each defines them in a different way 3 How does the importance of kinship differ between Euroamerican culture and many other cultures and why Kinship in Euroamerican cultures usually consists of the nuclear family and not much else of the extended family In other cultures families live much closer together and and provide support or jobs to many relatives 4 Use kinship symbols and abbreviations to 1 identify a relative of ego s example MBZH 2 illustrate a lineage and kindred and 3 illustrate the following types of descent patrilineal matrilineal and bilateral Go to useful sites 5 Under what conditions are lineages likely to be formed as opposed to kindreds Lineages are useful in the passing of the family name in a matrilineal descent or matrilineal descent all of the family members would be kindred but lineages would only be certain makes or females in the kindred 6 In addition to determination of membership how do matrilineal and patrilineal societies generally differ from one another Why do many patrilineal societies place so much emphasis on having sons n matrilineal socities the name is passed through the women and the opposite happens for patrilienal Partrilineal societies put so much emphasis on having sons because without sons their lineage would die and there name would no longer be passed on into the future 7 What economic factors are associated with patrilineal matrilineal and bilateral descent Give examples of societies practicing each type 8 How do reasons for marriage and the choice of marriage partners differ between contemporary Euroamerican culture and many other cultures around the world In some other cultures the parents decide who their child marries and there are many other differences depending on the cultures But this is the main one 9 Discuss the dominant marriage and kinship patterns in the US monogamy nuclear family kindreds bilateral kinship and neolocal residence and the economic factors that shape it Monogamy one spouse Nuclear Family parents and their immediate offspring Bilateral Kindship the lineage is passed through both sides Neoclassical kinship The newly married move away from their parents and live on their own 10 What factors help determine the particular post marital residence pattern a society might have Matrilineal and patrilineal societies as well as the age ofthe bride and certain customs of that culture