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by: Roman Jaskolski

Turbomachinery ME 417

Roman Jaskolski
GPA 3.97

Fred Gunnerson

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Fred Gunnerson
Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roman Jaskolski on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 417 at University of Idaho taught by Fred Gunnerson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/227898/me-417-university-of-idaho in Mechanical Engineering at University of Idaho.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
rod 97 HYDROP OVi 39 RE CH 10 Peng UI Turbomachinery ME 417 517V n v u v y m n us an mo an n Humu 3mm HYDRAULIC TURBINES 0 High Efficiency gt90 o 0 Little No pollution 0 Low Maintenance 0 Singlestage incompressible 0 Rapid startup 0 to 100 in 30 seconds 0 Not captive to heat cycle efficiencies Scalable small to large 0 Momentum transfer rather than heat amp expansion Table 4 Dcvclopcd hydropower polcnual by hydrologic region Avera Annual Mean Power Developed Region Developed Potential Average Annual Capacity Number of HUC Name MW Generation MWh MW Planls 1 Norih Allanllc 873 7648512 1881 397 2 MidiAtlantic 840 7359755 2060 206 3 South AHamic GUf 1849 18195998 8743 165 4 Great Lakes 2852 24987042 4092 258 5 Ohio 820 7182482 1772 48 6 Tennessee 1859 15282814 3855 55 7 Upper Mississippi 404 35431 734 119 B Lower Mlssissipp1 136 1192680 398 6 9 Sour 1s RedrRaIny 13 110058 22 8 10 Missouri 1 797 15743664 372 80 1 1 ArkansaerhiterFled 696 6100625 2097 33 12 Texas Gull 127 1115557 428 23 13 Rio Grande 50 441 821 157 7 14 Upper Colorado 724 6339303 1882 41 15 Lower Colorado 790 6916259 2 556 23 16 real Basln 98 854519 2 81 17 Pacmc Northwest 16676 146085711 32365 339 18 Cahfomia 4674 40943253 9450 413 Totals 35279 309043256 74442 2332 2 Where the Hydropower Potential Is Hydrapawer Powmial Density kWsq mi m I Available I Exduded Developer nn van x 100 w m Figure 2 EDNArdenved calchmenls and synthetic streams Exciuded Pokential 75 M Avallable Porenual 937 M 0 Devemped Polenlial 35275 MW 573 Total Hydropower Potential W Figuru 6 39nmlinmm nf mlul llydrnpowcr pmcnual in the cmvterminnus Uniml Slum Excmsmn A123 ngh Heady anF39owe Exlshng Hydroe ecmc Plan Excluded Polenlial 5545 MW 30 Budge Venn Available Poienlial 39 6 11956 M 64 Total Hydropower Potential 18794 MW Figure 8747 Distribution of total hydropower potential in Idaho HYDROTU RBI NE NOM ENCLATURE uquM mwr w m mm mum mm wax mn EOREBAY mm us a ma msmmn NnTm nun Wham Miran iu ymr way autumn gm mum um um an mm 51 a 1 mm W um mum ni um manurva mm an N umv 095mm SHEEDMaLCAD POWER Mechanical Power Force x Velocity P F X V ft lbfs1bf x fts Electrical Power Voltage X Amperage PVXA watt volt X amp Hydraulic Power Pressure x Flowrate P ng gc x Q ftlbfs lbf ftz x ft3 s mxww warm suwrncz iiiunxw mam r um mu Hm musv NOV sxc szu i237 or m wEiGMYED szma wars sznj miNYUSEuw 39 mm We wusswvmuu nucv rvi r mm nznnmrrukamz FULLGAYE cuTPur mnuczs Gammon ran aurPuT 35ch mm a m iLossES J I MAMMUM NEAummm iMACYiVE AND Must EQUAL on EXCEED 5 or M nun c er 7 7 i mmnca i m was uPEmmNa FULL em ecu um gamma SPEE NOLDAD SPECIFIC SPEED 1 2 3 4 NsNQ I 9H I POWER OUTPUT Pmax ngQ Similar TEXT FIG 102 Several different forms some with dimensions others dimensionless This is one common form used in the US Europe HYDRAULIC TU RBIN E CLASSIFICATIONS REACTION Fluid fills blade passages Head change occurs across rotor Francis Kaplan Propeller IMPULSE Fluid does not fill all blades Head change occurs across nozzle Pelton turbines SPECIFIC SPEED Measure of power extracted Several forms dimensionless amp w dimensions HEAD HEIGHT Low head lt 20m High head gt 20m SPECIFIC SPEED i Ns N Q 2 9H 3 4 s specific speed dimensionless rotational speed radianss flow in m3s head in m N N Q H Turbine Type Ns Range 003 03 Low 03 2 Mid 2 10 High Impulse Pelton Francis Kaplan propeller axial TEXT FIG 109NOT THE SAME SP SPEED AS PENG TEXT TABLE 101 Other Common Forms of Specific Speed 1 1 Ns NP 2p 2 gmquot 4 539 specific speed dimensionless rotational speed rpm power in watts density kgm3 head in m NSquot N PV2H54 I39D39UZZ n s specific speed not dimensionless rotational speed rpm ower in hp N N p H ead in ft 3U Francis lquot Pulse W39 Propener n u 1 100 1000 NW 03 3 NS N Q 12 9 34 dimensionless Swm ar to TEXT FIG 10 9 1 FUSE was E Looo w 0 600 400 a lt39 gt 1 T a T quot 200 1 g x FRAN S T RBN 1 IOO f g 80 a 601 V quot 4 40 ROPELLER A m v PLAN TURBLNE I 1 1 J rquot 20 1 x u UL quot23 w x y TUREMNE 6 u 394 4 TAND RD ZED 7 r TU E TQREINEKU 1 I x 2 x a I 0 IO 20 40 60 lOO 200 400 1000 4000 0000 40000 00000 now 300 LOOOOOO Flgurs Common lppllcallonnngellorconvan unanURBINE OUTPUT KW hydraulic lurblnet TEXT FIG 101 1 1x erhmrhm 30mm V00 7 Hm I 01 02 05 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 5001000 Q m3s 144M WHAKAMAnu Turbine Pcllun wheels like this mm can be purchaaed with one or more nozlc Mulli u nozzle svstems Iil va cam amount uf waicr iu impact the runner which can inuease wheel output Tin submersible Jack Rabbit turbine was originally designed to power scientific instruments during marine uil exploratiun expeditions 17 Bernoulli s Equ Conservauon of energv SF ation E 21 Plpg VlzZg HL HT 22 W99 V2229 Z elevation head ppg pressure head VzZg velocity head HL friction loss head HT turbine head 21P1pgV12 29 39 HL39 HT 22 P2 9 V2229 EXAM PLE HYDRAU LIC TU RBINE PROPELLER KAPLAN TURBINES GIVEN Voumetric Flow Rate Q 500 m3 5 Plant electric output45 MW Design Head H 11 m Rotation speed N 652 rpm Turbine Propeller Kaplan Rotor tip diameter D 8 m Rotor hub diameter d32 m D 04 Efficiencies Electric generation ne 97 Mechanical n 96 I EXAMPLE HYDRAULIC TURBINE con t SPECIFIC SPEED Ns N Q V2 9H 3 N rotor speed 652 revmin x 160mins x 2n radrev 68 rad 5 NS 456 Igt Propeller Kaplan 2 lt Ns lt 5 Low head large Q axial flow 21 I EXAMPLE HYDRAULIC TURBINE con t VELOCITY VECTORS TRIANGLES Q Axial velocity V 118 ms n4D2 d2 Tip velocity Ut nDN 273 ms Hub velocity Uh ndN 1092 ms 22 I EXAMPLE HYDRAULIC TURBINE con t EULER39S TURBINE EQUATION Wm I39lh U1Vu1 U2Vu2 Wm m 9H m U1 U1 Vump 352 ms Vu1 hub 88 ms Flt nquot1grsza ni39lizex uid 23 i EXAMPLE HYDRAULIC TURBINE con t FreeVortex Flow UCu constant Ut cu1tip Uh cu1hub 273352 109288 96 N 96 YES 24 EXAMPLE HYDRAULIC TURBINE con t TIP OF ROTOR V2 Vx 118 1 W2 W1 A lt utip 273 Rotor Guide vane HUB OF ROTOR V2 Vx 118 At uhub 109 EXAMPLE HYDRAULIC TURBINE con t Actual Power Produced PLANT EFFICIENCY Available Hydraulic Power 45 MW lijpg p g H Q n o 083 8300 no 083 HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY I1 089 391 enm 097095 Measure of actual hydraulic plant output w inefficiencies included 26 Evoluxion of me Sensor Fish Device for M asuring Physical Conditions in Severe HydrauIic Environments thnnlaw 5mm ydmpower Rang mmmmm Wm we ammo mmquot M mm mnmm nmnmmrrmml Mqu My 1 Wm M Mn mun mun um Drvnr um mm me am manna Gag mmquot in r Figure 42 Yurhim Pasugc em Pmslurl Pressure Data for Sensor Fish Passing ihrough Turbine Unit 9 at McNary Dam Showing Pressure Drop as Sensor Fish Drops through Turbine Pressure Distribution in Francis Rotor Pressure high 28 5quot 6 GAvnAnou cazrrlcuzm oo abzcmc 2929 N5 Fig 717 Variation of pzrmissible 039 win speci c speed Mawi mm Mm asquot 13 TEXT FIG 1 21 A Thnma cameuen Parameter Nate the speu l speed used 5 nut dwmensmn ess ngher spem l speeds at new d ead m eemeuen 2 N0 CAVITATION 9 mu I r H1 a NS1003 CAVH ATION cozrrlcxzm aquot N a U39 a x 099999990 In an so 70 so no DO lE I70 800 ch ruc 3925 N lthpquotm z Fig 717 Variation of pcrmissibk 7 with peciic speed adapted frum Moody 1241 w


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