Turbomachinery ME 517
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roman Jaskolski on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 517 at University of Idaho taught by Fred Gunnerson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see /class/227899/me-517-university-of-idaho in Mechanical Engineering at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
University of Idaho NE 417517 TU RBOMACHIN ERY INTRODUCTION Spring Semester 2009 Dr Fred S Gunnerson University of Idaho Professor of Mechanical Engineering Director of Nuclear Engineering fgunnersuidahoedu Phone 2085338107 FAX 2082827950 httgllwwwifuidahoedulgunnerl Mailing Address University of Idaho 1776 Science Center Drive Suite 306 Idaho Falls ID 834021572 Wil l7 ityofldaho COURSE DESCRIPTION An introduction to the fundamentals of modern turbomachinery Emphasis will be placed on gas combustion steam wind and hydraulic turbomachinery Applications ofthe principles of fluid mechanics thermodynamics and aerodynamics to the design and analysis of turbines and compressors are incorporated Students are expected to have a background in undergraduate fluid mechanics and thermodynamics TURBOMACHINERY COVERS MANY TECHNICAL AREAS Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Gas Dynamics Heat Transfer Materials Science Structural Mechanics Dynamics Vibrations Mathematics Measurements Instrumentation Data Acquisition Statistics Electrical Engineering Combustion Others Will be used primarily as a reference a source for homework problems and will be Fundamentals of supplemented from many other 000 sources including 1 The Design of High Ef ciency Turbomachineiy and Gas Turbines Wilson and Korakianitis Prentice Hall 1998 2 Turbomachiner 39 Basic Theor and A lications E Logan Marcel Dekker 1993 3 Principles of Turbomachineiy Shepherd MacMillian 1989 4 Gas Turbine Theory Cohen et al John Wiley amp Sons 1991 5 Handbook of Turbomachinery Edited by E Logan and R Roy Marcel Dekker 2003 6 Pump Characteristics and Applications MW Volk Marcel Dekker 1 96 7 Principles of Turbomachineiy in AirBree thing Engines Baskharone Cambridge 2006 8 DOE and other Federal Agency literature 9 Handouts and lecture notes from the instructor William W Peng The course subject material will not be covered in the same order as presented in the textbook but rather in the following approximate order Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 8 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 4 Introduction Classification of turbomachines DimensionalAnalysis Energy Euler Gas turbines Axial Compressors Steam Turbines Hydraulic Turbines Wind Turbines Centrifugal Pumps UFe AXIAL COMPRESSOR GRADING Exam 1 25 Exam 2 25 Exam 3 25 HW TR 25 ME 517 students will be required to research a specific topic of technical interest provide a written topical report and as possible provide a presentation to the class See website for details updated Monday mornings httpwwwifuidahoedul ner Students in Moscow can turnin homework and collect return graded assignments from Becky Schoenberg Ul ME Dept Engr Physics Bldg 324K PO Box 440902 Moscow ID 838440902 2088855024 QUESTIONS TURBOMACHINERY 26 JAN Reference TEXT CH 1 TOPICS Classification of Tu rbomach ihes A little history U Eve A LEGA WHAT IS TURBOMACHINERY quotturboquot or turbinis is Latin in origin and implies that which spins or whirls around Aturbomachine is a rotating as opposed to reciprocating device that extracts energy from or adds energy to fluids illill filllllli mi Energy is transferred to or from a continuously flowing fluid by the dynamic action of moving blades or rotors Aturbomachine changes the enthalpy of the flowing fluid WHAT IS ENTHALPY h u pv dh du pdvvdp units energyunit mass Jkg btulbm etc I Enh I En g e xe gquot CLASSIFICATIONS OF TU RBOMACHINES FLUID water air gas steam hydraulic pneumatic etc APPLICATION power production turbines propulsion land sea and air power absorption pumps compressors fans Others s ecific s eed FLUID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS axial radial or mixed flow impulse and reaction Classification of Turbomachines fli fW vrh rr AXIAL FLOW Flow path parallel to axis of rotation RADIAL FLOW Flow ath er endicular to axis of rotation MIXED FLOW Both radial and axial flow components WIND FARM High Reaction Wind Turbines gtxm 392 392 z Umwmm 8 8 9 850 wumrrmn anmim lt f J g 95 an 05 acnci AXIAL FLOW Propeller Kaplan Hydraulic Turbine graft Tube Diffuser Casing Kaplan Turbine Propeller turbine with adjustable blades Efficiency 90 93 Cavitation a concern AXIAL FLOW Rocky Reach Hydroelectric Project Columbia River Multi megawatt axial flow hydraulic turbine one of six Note size of person 740000 lb rotor Fixed bladespropeller vs adjustable pitch blades Kaplan Turbine 1915 Common for low head lt 150 ft applications High efficiency 90 93 Cavitations is a concern Long lifetime gt100yr PROPELLER TURBINE RADIAL F1W39quot e b4 n39dicular to axis of rotation CENTEIFUGAL COMPRESSOR 4 2 V 7 7 H r f 4 z fL PELTDN Tunam 4 c r J L CENTRIFUGAL PUMP RADIAL FLO Airflow perpendicular to a Holographic interferometry modal analysis w laser system RADIAL FLOW An early steam turbine design Sir Charles Algernon Parsons 1854 1931 Steam turbine pioneer Inventor of the steam turbine Designed and built a spectrum ofturbines and compressors Illustration Parsons 100 kW multistage radialiout ow turbine 189139 From Parsons 1936 mw 5 Famous multistage radial flow steam turbine He envisioned applications to marine propulsion and electricity generation Steam turbine manufacture required and still dOE stateoftheart in manufacturing materials SampE He founded Parson Works in Ireland to build the first stEm turbines 1885 4kW and by 1892100kW 1894 Patent Propelling a Vessel by means of a Steam Turbinequot Illustrmion Parsons 100rlltW multistage radiairoutfiow turbine 1891 From Parsons 1936 Parson s tried to sell his steam turbine to the British Navy during the mid1890 s for ship propulsion The British Admirals rejected his offer in favor of continuing with fast reliable sailing and steam ships Parson built a ship using his new turbine design and called it the Turbinia Ship100 ong 9 wide 3 draught 445 tons Engine Radial steam turbine 157 psi 2000 rpm 960 hp 3 triplebladed screws 345 knots 1897 Queen wwwm a Diamond Jubilee 60 yrfon throne and Grand Naval Review June 1897 38000 men and 165 ships steam and sail present ironclads Cruisers gunb39oats destroyers Parsons sneaked the Turbinia into the festivities and dashed around the British eet at an unheard ofspeed of gt345 knots 4 knots faster than the fastest existing ships Military boats could not catch him The Admirals were so impressed with the Turbinia s performance that they went on to order many steam turbine powered ships from Parsons Moreen ElL iEiE ranarm i Reaction blade profile intuitively adopted by Parsons in 1896 is surprisingly close to modern steam turbine blade profile Today s blade designs are only about 45 more efficient than in 1896 Immk MYIOR N vs39eadiial FIQw mm C I m ROTAX H n R01 m 4quot LI I 0 t mIPIzI NH 1 GI le39llW or Ian I mx Hunk HUFI A nununvm 51ml mum 1 i mum sm hcmuu Am and cuummm mmlexe mm MIXED FLOW Fluid flow over the rotor is Figure 28 Francisrturbine SOURCE chey Radial In ow Axia Out ow MIXED FLOW Reaction Turbine some delP occurs across nozzle James Francis and Uriah Boyden 1850 s1870 s Common in large hydraulic power plants Large Flow Medium Head Low Specific Speed Cavitation Resistant Design FRANCIS TUQBI NE CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES BASED ON FLO WING FLUID PRESSURE CHANGE In all turbines there is a pressure drop in the flowing fluid from inlet to outlet IMPULSE zero reaction TURBINE mm SEC Pressure change drop occurs across diffuser or nozzle Pressure change does not occur across rotor or blades REACTION REACTION zero impulse TURBINE Pressure drop can occur across nozzle and rotor 5 ManBoat Analogy Man Fluid Boat Rotor blade L IMPULSE REACTION Airfoil Analogy LIFT reaction I DRAG impulse Aeolipile wind ball the rst steam engine Invented and built by Hero Heron of Alexandria 1st century AD Mixed flow 100 o reaction turbomachine Rules of Thumb olOOOo impulse turbines and 100 reaction compressors are OK 400 reaction turbines and 100 impulse compressors are nonexistent oMost modern turbines are a combination of impulse amp reaction classification by SPECIFIC SPEED NS N Qquot 9H3 4 specific speed dimensionless N NS rotational speed radianss Q flow m3s H head m There are many variations of specific speed most with dimensions Typically applied to hydraulic turbines discussed in Text Ch 2 SPECIFIC SPEED TURBOMACHINE Pelton wheel Francis turbine Kaplan turbine Centrifugal pumps Axial flow pumps Centrifugal compressors Axial flow turbines Axial flow compressors SPECIFIC SPEED dimensionless I IuII Jo MI 0101 P w Hpopoupo I N ONNSquot inhinmiulw39o I Early Gas Turbines John Barber 1791 The first patent issued for a gas turbine was issued in 1791 to John Barber an Englishman The principle of operation ofthis gas turbine required that air and fuel from a gas producer be compressed in different cylinders and then directed into a combustion chamber where the fuel was burned The products of combustion were then caused to ow through a nozzle onto a turbine wheel John Barber s concept was sound but given the technology of that day it was not possible for the device to create suf cient power to both compress the air and the was and to have ower left overto provide useful work Nevertheless the credit for the idea that leads to the modern gas turbine can clearly be give to John Barber In spite ofthe fact that John Barber s 1791 patent represented all ofthe important features of a successful gas turbine it wasn t until the early part of the 20th century that engineers were able to produce a machine that was useful Franz Stolze 1873 In 1873 Franz Stolze a Germa pwuced a p sit v a Fire uquot A prototype was assembled in Berlin in 1904 It is not known if this prototype machine ran successfully Stolze s design incorporated a 10 stage axial flow compressor with a 15stage axial flow turbine Air from the compressor was directed to a U tube heat exchanger where it was supposed to volatilize coal and then to a single combustor to burn the volatizer fuel The firing temperature of Stolze s turbine was approximately 750 F Whittle 1943 Early Turbojet engine Illuslrmiml Whmle W27OO turbOJei engme 1943 From Waiies 1981 Illustration De Laval impulse steam turbine From Garnett 1906 VERTICAL vs HORIZONTAL STEAM TURBINE IIU IIIQI I UVUIULIUII ICIVUI 0 LI IU VUI LIUGI UPI IHI IL PUOILIUI I I IUVVeVer man IS mosr prooucuve wnen In a nOI39IZOI39IIaI posmonquot QUESTIONS
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