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Psychology of Personality

by: Dorris Purdy

Psychology of Personality PSYC 310

Marketplace > University of Idaho > Psychlogy > PSYC 310 > Psychology of Personality
Dorris Purdy
GPA 3.5

Kenneth Locke

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Kenneth Locke
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dorris Purdy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 310 at University of Idaho taught by Kenneth Locke in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/227914/psyc-310-university-of-idaho in Psychlogy at University of Idaho.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
awe Sex Hormones and Sex Differences Psychology 310 Psychology of Personality Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll Psyc 310 7 Psychology of Personality Big sex differences in sex hormone levels I 0 Contribute to sex differences in bodies gt behaviors gt let39s consider the evidence Psyc 310 7 Psychology of Personality Prenatal Androgen Levels ue to maternal prescriptions or feta genetics are associated with both genders 0 Elevated levels of androgens prenatally gtmale babies39 bold exploratory behavior gtfemale children39s interest in male toys gt selfreports of physical aggression in Psyc 310 7 Psychology of Personality Changes in Adult Androgen Levels 0 Testosterone Changes a Personality Changes gtTestosterone Increases a More Assertive amp gtTestosterone Decreases a More Avoidant 0 But Experience a Testosterone gtSuccess amp Sex a Testosterone Increases gt Failure amp Rejection a Testosterone Decreases Psyc 310 7 Psychology of Personality Adult Androgen Levels 0 Elevated levels of androgens in adulthood are associated with gt occupations gtfootball players trial lawyers gt interpersonal behaviors inating gt antisocial behaviors gtviolent crime drugs breaking rules gt sexual romantic behav39o gtmore interest more partn ers gtmore abuse more marital instability Psyc 310 7 Psychology of Personality Can hormones explain quotsomatotypesquot z Endomorph Mesornorph Ectornorph Ll Psyc 310 7 Psychology of Personality Can hormones explain somatotypes o For example Sheldon found Mesomorphs showed gt competitive agg ressivenessquot gt bold directnessquot gt assertive posture amp movementquot 0 Could Testosterone be the underlying cause of both gt the body type and the personality type m SocialCognitive Learning Theories l Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides J SocialCognitive Learning Theories Classical amp instrumental conditioning exist gt But there is much they cannot explain gt Need to add social amp cognitive learning Butjust as Ego Psychologists gt by adding social amp cognitive factors to Psychoanalytic Theory gt created something quite different SocialCognitive Learning Theorists gt by adding social amp cognitive factors to Learning Theory gt created something quite different 2 Cognitive Learning Expectancies Conditioning is really creating expectancies Expectancies about What will happen after gt some event occurs gt classical conditioning gtsome behavior occurs gt instrumental conditioning m 71quot7quotQClnmgvg Locus of Control Rotter Why do rewards and punishments influence the behavior of some people more than others If people have different explanations for the same outcomes gtThey will have different expectancies for the future LJ Internal vs External Control Internal Locus of Control gtYes my behaviors do matter gtSuccess Failure do change my expectancies about the future External Locus of Control gt No my behaviors do not matter gtOther people or chance or fate is in control gtSuccess Failure do not change my expectancies about the future i Locus of Control Applications Who studies more and so gets better grades Who engages in more political action Who retains more information about how to handle a disease Who retains more information about how to get parole Who is more likely to use birth control Efficacy Expecta ncies Ba ndura So farwe have been examining outcome expectancies gt quotWhat difference will this makequot But equally important are efficacy expectancies gt Can I do thisquot gt Your answer to this question affects task choice effort persistence and emotions L Ego Psychology39 Loevinger Psychology 31 Psychology of Personality Llsterl to the audld lecmre wnlle vlewmg mese slldes Loevinger PSVECUEI e psvenulaqv at persunaltv Tne Ego gt ls tne preeess ofmaklrlg sense ofexperlerroe gt encompasses ego ld at soperego runetlens Ego Development Proceeds through a serles of lrlvarlarlt staues Carl oorltlrloe throughout lle Llfe exuerlerlces can Prompt or lmDede Dmuress lefererlt DeoDle stop at dlffererlt staues vvvv J PSVECUEI e psvenulaqv at persunalltv Loevinger r Ego Development Stages 1r3 Presoclal a svmbldtle E1 gt rdmsed drl dratlrvlnd lmmedlate needs gt verv attadned to daredlver gt dlrrerentlate earedlverrrum Wurld but nutrrdm me gt breverbal carrrrot assess vla sentende mmbletdns lmDulslve E2 gt rdmsed orr bddllv teellnds a basle lmbulses had seen ln terms at how tarreets rne gt tnlnklrld ls slmble dlendcdmdus or mrriused gt no sense at psvenulud eal causatorr Selreprdteetlve E3 gt exDlo tatlve anlbulatlve neddnlstc nubnrtunlste gt learnlrld about rules a selfroorltrol gt hutto get what 1 waer Wltnuut dettlnd eaudnt gt warvl camblalnlrld enemallzlrld blame PSVECUEI e psvenulaqv at persunaltv Loevinger r Ego Development Stages 4r5 conformlst E4 gt Wart beldrldlnd a approval of refererrne group gt VleW and evaluate selrand others lnterms ofexterrrals gt a earane roles stereutv es gt tnlnklrld ls slmble ednventdnal gt rulerbuund and moralls e gt sentlmental banal understandlrld drieellrlds gt both navplnessand sname Peak at tnls stage selreAvvare E5 gt lnereased but stlll llmted gt rerleetuns orr deEDulssues odd love death gt awareness at lnnerteellndsmutlves er selrd others gt apprecl torr ur excEDtlorrs and lndlvl ual unldueness gt tens orr between real me vs expeded me gt serrrert elsm J PSVECUEI e psvenulaqv at persunalltv Loevinger r Ego Development Stages or7 consclerltous E5 gt values aenlevement gt as lorlq39terrn duals d deals gt resbdnslble selrevaluated standards urlnelbled moraltv gt dullt gt edndecrtuallv mmblevdnlnklrld devbressdn gt broad perspeetlve dlrterentlated teellnds Ktmotlves dern wdn momaltv dembatnv ln relatdnsnlbs e E7 values relatdnsnlbs over aenlevement gt bruadrmln ed tolerance ur selr d others gt attentlve to emotorral dependenee versus autunumv gt neldntened sense of lndlv dual t vlvl d nldue wav arexpresslnd selr a ooxes gt u gt lnelblent Warerress of lnner mrrfl m abersdnal Dara gt out w tnuut resolutlorr or lntedrat orr PSVECUEI e psvenulaqv at persunaltv Loevinger r Ego Development Stages 879 gt 3 EB Wrr a ddners autdndmv gt Cherljhex lndlv dualltv Kturrlquerress dselrraetuallzatlun eme ner than depen ant versus lndependent t tv to raee KthDe wth lnner mrrfllcts gt can l et vlewed as expresslnd multlraeeted nature at People d at llte gt ld exbresson drieellrlds E v embadnlc ean remrlclle lnner ednrllets aeeept orrattalrrahles d lntedrate Paradoxes gtrull sense of de ttv gt Seeklrlq to understand d aetuallze mv patentlals a a nleve lntedratun E 52 Psvc 310 e Psychoiogv or Personeiitv My main problem is Impulsive gntWim my brother Selrepmtective rnv mou iiing out tnis questionnaire Conformist rnv Wei Selreaware not knowmg how i reaiiv reei about iove Conscientious feein oo lam responsibility for 4Iives IndividualisticAutonomous impatien anda judgneniaiattimde Integrated ming notio worrymo rruch and tolerating weakness e lea in those around m Psvc 310 e Psvchoiogv or Personai tv Being with other people Impulsive is OK Selreprotective makes you reei good itvou re W in the right crowd Conformist a heips me to taget things that make me sad iiike verv much and need Conscientious is generaiiv rerresnmg is a great way to discover different types otpeopie and per riai ties IndividuaisticAucunumuus is grea iiike to be eione sometimes but not too often stimuiates me oniv Wnen We have something in oomm n Integraued sometimes upsets me or sometimes is somednirigi reaiiv need A iot depends on who the other DeoDie are Psvc 310 e Psychoiogv or Personaiitv The thing I like about myself is Impulsive I am cute Selreprotective everything Con J rrrllstL n am a true friend Selfeaware i etaiong Winn others m mteiiigence mlt Q 2 II eti iike most peopie and try hard not be crtiosi IndividualisticAutonomous rnv nonestv m deaiing Winn other peopie as weii as mvseit Integra e rnv abii oes to race the acmai ties sometimes pieesant orte not aboutiire and mvseit Psvc 310 e Psvchoiogv or Personai tv Two voices Subject 64 amp Subject 65 64 When they avoided 64 1am happy to me I felt like a loser be at Stanford 65 When they avoided 65 1am a happy e positive falls tremendously I individual who tries her begin to worry about very best to how I look who I am time to care about with and how I am others as well as acting expand my own horizons W Conditioning Theories Psychology 310 Psychology of Pete 394 44 5 Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides J clmlogy or Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus No response Unconditioned stimulus uncond39thned resPonse sallvatlon Classical conditioning before conditioning Parr 3J0 Psychologv of Personal 1 Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning after conditioning Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response 1 09v oi Der Learning Theorists say Personality is 1 Just specific behaviors gt No global traits gt No underlying dynamics gt No overarching character 2 Learned via two key learning processes gt Classical Conditioning gt Learn that a stimulus predicts an important event gt Instrumental Conditioning gt Learn that a behavior within a particular situation predicts an important outcome Ll F EyC 310 t nology or Personality Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning during conditioning F214 31L quot Isycliologv orquot Ferzonalm Skinner Box Instrumental Conditioning Signa light Response key Food dispenser Electric grid Types of Reinforcement and Punishment Acquisition amp Extinction Learning is greater when the association is gt Frequent gt Intense gt Immediate gt Reliable gt Prepared If the link becomes less gt frequent intense immediate or reliable gtresponse extinction may occur 1 lnl l n39ll Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous schedule every time Partial or intermittent Schedule gt Fixed Ratio gt Fixed Interval gtVariable Ratio gtVariable Interval Partial Reinforcement Effect gt Instrumental conditioning under less predictable schedule is more resistant to extinction Psychosocial Theories Childhood Psycholog 31 Psychology of Personality Listento the audio leemre vlhilE leerlg these slides Psvc am e vsvcholnev at Persnnaltv Erikson39s LifeSpan Psychosocial Model 8 Developmental Tasks gt basichumah issues Can be relevant at anv point in lite gt depmdll lg oh mnehtpsvmosooal dwellerlges gt putdittereht issues tmd to be toca at dittereht critical periods throughout lite Through positive but balanced resolution of these dilemmas W qualities or WittEs gt vhidn are too hdatiohs tor turth er developmmt Pschm e Psvehnlnuv at Persnnalltv Task 139 Tmst vs Mistmst Cl ltlcal Derlod gt1 fano like Freud39s oral stage Issue gt1 am dependent Are vou rellable7 Cani trust vou7 Ego Qualitv or virtue gtllope Psvc am e vsvcholnev at Persnnaltv Task 139 Tmst vs Mistmst Relevant Empirical studies Attachment How intant relate With caregi Alhswol th operationalized attachment as infant s reaction to strange situation vear old Wlth mom gt stranger enters mom leaves gt morn returns stranger leaves Pschm e Psvehnlnuv at Persnnalltv Secure Attach merit 70 Mom present gt secure oaae Dfexplnratlnn Mom leaves gt medium distress less explaraturl Mom returns gt happv reconnect on resume exploring Psvc am e vsvcholnev at Persnnaltv Insecu rerAvoidant Attach merit XEo Mom prese t n gt less secure explaratlurl psyeam e Psycnaiaqy at persanaiity Insecurer Res istaritArn bivalent Attachment JENa Morn present gt less secure explaratan Morn leaves gt nion distress Morn ret n gt remains needy yet angry PSVI 3m 7 psyenaiaqy at persanaity Psychosocial and Object Relations Theoris Suggest that recunent tmms of relating gt are crystallized in early cnildnood 2 infant learns to trust Caretaker and more ntly 3 imprints an implidt relatiorsnip schemaquot or working modelquot of self other and relating psyeam e Psychaiaqy at persanaiity Do Patterns of Relating Endure Retrospetiive Studi Longitudinal Stu ies gtAs insecure iritarits enter scnoois years 5 w same pattens poorersooai adjustment u gtGerles can also explain enduring patterns Psychotherap sumes positive adult relationsnips can cnange tne negative Working models or relationship schernas learned in cnildnood PSVI 31m 7 psyenaiaqy at persanaity Task 2 Autonomy vs Shame amp Doubt Critical Period gtToddler years Freud39s anal stage Issue gt Can i do it like tne big people o7 gt Psychoanalytic focus toilettraining gt Psychosocial rocus ev tning gtvirme ornop is Foundation For autonomous explor i gt Epigerlesis Ego Quality or yirtue gt Will psyeam e Psycnaiaqy at persanaiity Task 339 Initiative vs Guilt Critical Period gt Presc ool years Freud s pnallic stage issue Carl exert rn Will and initiate activities Without evoking punis merit rejectiori or power strugglesquot evant Empirical Researdn Parmtirlg Styles Autnontanan or Permissive s immature cnildren gt AuthoritativerReciprocal s Mature cnildren gt Ru es are clear corsistert the rationale is discussed based on concern ror everyore involved and tne cnilds inputencouraged mayracilitate irtemalization and selrrcortrol Ego Quality orVirtLle Purpose Rel gt 1y PSVI 3m 7 psyenaiaqy at persanaity Task 439 Industry vs Inferiority Critical Period gt 6 a puberty Ereid39s latency stage Issue gtin s gt with peas Cari I master culturally valued skills7 dnool Ego Quality or yirtue gt Corrpetenoe


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