Psychology of Learning
Psychology of Learning PSYC 390
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mm Side Effects and Problems with Punishment Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melel PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll psyc390 7 psychology or Learnlng Emotional Reaction 1 0 May occur in organisms but is usually of short duration psyc390 7 psychology or Learnlng Aggression o Elimination a response with punishment can cause the organism who is being punished to attack nearby individuals or persons delivering the punisher o In clinirs the therapist never delivers punishing stimuli 0 When the organism is aggressive punish the aggressive behavior as well Usually it does not have to be severe Ll psyc390 7 psychology or Learnlng Imitation Modeling 1 0 Kids imitate hitting etc 0 Usually the way punishers are passed on from one generation to the next 0 Eg slapping the hand of a kid for running in the street Sitting on a chair may be just as Smacking the mouth may be punishing but is also abusive as well Ll psyc390 7 psychology or Learnlng Doesn t Generalize Well 0 Organisms discriminate between the situations 0 Best way to get generalization is to punish the behavior in ALL situations and punish the behavior when it initially occurs 0 Home Stores etc Disrupts Social Relationships psyc390 7 psychology or Learnlng o Is the most undesirable 0 Use of punishment increases the likelihood that the individual will try to escape from the situation where the punishers were provi ed 0 es One decides to punisher to the other for inappropriate behavior and the punished person files for a divorce 0 Way to overcome escape is to reinforce alternative behaviors J 6 Psvc390 7 Psvcnologv of Learning Better Alternative o Reinforce alternative behaviors o Extinguish negative behaviors o Gives better results in general om Variables Related to Punishment Administration Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melel PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Severity or Intensity of the Stimulus 1 o Intensity refers to the physical parameters of the stimulus o Severity refers to the degree of suppression achieved 0 Very intense punisher that produces minimal suppression is a mild punisher Low intensity stimuli that produce complete suppression are severe punishers ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Manner of Introduction 0 Sudden introduction of punishment produces much greater response suppressron than if the punishment intensrty is gradually increased 0 Don39t egin with mild punishers and make more intense o If use gradual small punishers and increase the intensity it takes a more intense punisher to suppress the unwanted behavior than if had given the full amount immediately 0 Is problematic for Human Rights Organizations and Criminal Justice System a Manner of Introduction Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 If you give intense punisher first often times milder punishers that had no effect before now become effective 0 Gradual low intensity punishers lead to tem 39 0 Moderate intensity punishers lead to partial suppressron o Intense punishers lead to total suppression Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Intensity can differ amongst individuals 0 Eg 200 ticket for speeding Bill Gates You It will impact you more 0 Public Whipping May affect you both the same Immediacy of Punishment Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 In general the longer the delay between the response and the punisher the less effective the punisher becomes 0 Immediate punishment is no more effective than stimulus delivery within the first hour 0 After the first hour effectiveness continues to decrease Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Punishment Certainty 0 Can have high intensity 0 Can have good immediacy 0 But will be ineffective if there is low certainty o The greater the certainty of receiving the punishing stimulus the greater the response suppression Ll Example Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning o If have high intensity but low certainty of apprehension you will usual y perform the behavior 0 Rob a Bank get 10 million dollars 0 Get caught you get executed 0 110 million chance of apprehension 0 Vs 11000 chance of apprehension Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Relates to Concept of Deterrence o What is the probability of being caught if I do a behavior 0 The higher the odds of success the more likely the probability of engaging in the behavior Occurs even when severity is high Two Types of Deterrence Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 General Deterrence o Prevents you from engaging in the act in the first place 0 Specific Deterrence o Relates to preventing you from repeating the behavior after being Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Availability of Unpunished Responses 0 Even low intensity punishers can be effective when an alternative unpunished behavior is available that produces reinforcement 0 With no alternatives need higher intensity Behavior Reinforced Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning How Often is the Punished o Punishers are more effective when punished behavior is no longer reinforced o The more reinforcement for the behavior the less effective the punisher becomes Also depends on the intensity E Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Examples 0 Kid in class shoots a spit wad 0 Teacher Stand in the corner 0 Kid gets lots of attention from other kids 0 Behavior increases 0 Drug selling behavior by juveniles 0 Get caught slap on the wrist 0 Also kid gets lots of attention Rei nforcer 1 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Is the Punisher Delivered Before the o Punishment is more effective when it is delivered before the behavior is reinforced 0 Early studies found it was more effective 0 Today it is not so clear cut Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Self Control Self Management 0 Relates to immediacy vs delayed consequences for a behavior 0 Several Types Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Sef Control Sef Management 0 Small Immed Pos Delayed Lg Neg 0 Smoke Cig Cancer Death 0 Small Immed Neg Delayed Lg Neg 0 See Dentist G t Root Canal 0 Small Immed Pos Delayed Lg Pos 0 Save Money Buy a boat or car 0 Small Immed Neg Delayed Lg Pos 0 Meet new People Fall in love 0 Generally immediate consequences have a greater impact than delayed consequences 3 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Classic Mistakes and Inappropriate use of Punishment 0 Ignore behaviors that should be punished o Puts persons on a random schedule 0 Don t start early 0 Usually wait until misbehavior pers39sts or es more severe 0 Delay 0 Wait until class is over before sending to principal s o fice 0 Don t reinforce alternative good behavior 5 Side Effects of Punishment Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 May be a general decrease in all behavior 0 Kids who are punished may not talk as much can become withdrawn 0 May cause emotional outbursts Yelling acting out fear 0 May generate hostility toward the source or 39 her t e person giving the punis ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Punishment 0 Physical punishment is highly correlated with aggressive behavior in kids 0 Lots of physical punishment increases aggression in kids Best Proced u re Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 MONITOR BEHAVIOR o IMPLEMENT A INTERVENTION 0 Use Reinforcement Techniques W and extinguish or punish bad behavior Um cabana Neobehaviorism Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melel PhD Listen to the audio lecmre while viewing hese slides Ll psyc390 7 psychology of Learnlng Hull 0 Was the predominate psychologist in the 19405 and 505 o Theories set the standard for psychology for many years c Theories included 0 Basic assumptions about psychology 0 Ways to conduct research 0 Ultimate contributions were huge psyc390 7 psychology of Learnlng Hull o Recruited some of the greatest future psychologists to his graduate program at Yale 0 Ken Spence 0 Neal Miller 0 O H Mowrer History psyc390 7 psychology of Learnlng c 19205 lots of things were happening 0 Watson s views were having a great influence and behaviorism was beginning to develop 0 Others were joining in Guthrie Tolman o Structuralism was starting to die out Ll psyc390 7 psychology of Learnlng Chaos Rules 0 Lots of different models and approaches 0 Structuralism o Gestalt o Functionalism Hull proposed a simple strategy to help organize the field of Psychology ii Hull s Solution psyc390 7 psychology of Learnlng o Organize what psychologists believe to e true in a clear manner 0 Once completed 0 1 Derive testable statements from those assumptions 0 2 Carry out experiments to test the statements 0 3 If correct great If not modify the sump ions Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Hull s Solution o Ultimately the statements would ecome truths that members of the psychology community could use 0 Gradually the truths would improve 0 Work together under a shared set of assumptions and progress together rather than in a disorganized fashion Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Major Components of Hull s Theory Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Assumed Three Things Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Human must be Viewed in the Context that it is a Biological Machine o All explanations of behavior must be viewed in this context 0 We are dependent on activities of the body 0 When explaining mental activity must do so in terms of biological actions Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Result 0 There was an exclusive emphasis on Stimulus Response psychology 0 Stimuli are things that produce reactions in the body 0 Responss are movements that occur due to stimuli These can be glands muscles or today firings of neurons Thus all behavior can only be understood when translated in stimuliresponse terms ll 2 Quantification Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 It is absolutely essential to quantify things 0 Hull was exceptional at this Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 3 Clearly state basic assumptions In a way that allows you to test them 0 Extremely important concept 0 Provided Psychology with a way to develop methodology and arrive at the 0 Many organizational methods used in psychological research today have underpinnings from this concept 3 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learnin 9 Developed a series of postulates that could be tested Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 1 Stimulus Trace o Stimuli acting on us are effective for a time even after their removal 0 eg sensory memo 0 Real stimulus was the nene firing not the physical properties of a light or sound 39mulus o Lowercase s nene activity Uppercase S properties of the physical 39mulus Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 2 Afferent Interaction o Stimulation is affected by other stimulation that is going on Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 3 Reflexes are Present at Birth o Reflexes are genetically programmed o The SR connections are arranged such that if one res nse does not reduce the problem another response will occur 0 Responses are arranged in a hierarchical form eg sucking reflex o This concept will become an important component of drive theow in motivation ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 4 Primary Reinforcement 0 We don t spend all of our lives reacting reflexively we change behav SR connections are forme 0 New SR connections were called Habits o Follows the ideas of Thorndike ior because new 0 When a response is made in the presence of a stimulus and the rsponse is followe d by thin there will a e an increase in the ten ency o t e stimulus e to produce the response at a later im 3 Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning 4 Primary Reinforcement If someone is deprived of something for a period of time the effect of the need reduction influences the response eg Food deprivation increases responding and learning Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning As with Thorndike the greater the learning More food you give the greater the learning except when at satiation Be certain the consequence of the response reduces the need Be certain the stimuli you want connected are present when you give the food Do not delay the consequence after the R occurs 0 Faster the presentation between the S and R E Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Thus 0 Gave greater accuracy to Thorndike s Law of Effect 0 Might be a preliminary aspect of operant conditioning which concentrates on consequences Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Developed a Mathematical Model for Habit Strength AsHR FM39sHR 0 Change in habit strength on a given trial is the product of a constant F which depends on stimulation 0 and the maximum habit strength M 0 minus the current habit strength sHR El Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Like the Rescorla Wagner Model 0 As a trial progress the quantity NISHR decreases on each trial while habit strength increases Primary Drives Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 We are basically biological machines at homeostasis balance 0 Have a variety of sensow organs to keep us in balance 0 When we are deprived of something we develop a Need The Need leads to a Drive to reduce the need and return us to homeostatic balance 0 The drive is the motivating force ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Examples of Primary Needs 0 Air Not Oxygen 0 Water 0 Food 0 Urination o Avoidance of noxious events Secondary Needs Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Also called Psychogenic Needs 0 Come from associations with primary needs 0 May be developed through Higher Order Conditioning Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Milk Example 0 Infant needs milk which comes from m m o Develops an association of milk with mom makes infant need mom 0 Mom gives attention when attending to in ant 0 Result attention becomes something that is needed contact comfort ll Other Postulates Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Stimulus Generalization Drive Stimulus Reaction Formation Reactive inhibition Conditioned Inhibition o 10 Behavioral Oscillation o 070 an Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Goal of Postulates Hull wanted to begin somewhere 0 We must start with simple biological truths and build from there 0 Begin with the simple and progress to the complex NOT VICE VERSA 0 Wanted to end the in ghting Criticisms of the Model Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Use of Intervening Variables Use of Intervening Variables Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Watson 0 Avoided the use of intervening variables 0 Explain the effects of independent variables specifically Tolman and Hull 0 Used intenening variables to explain behavior eg thirst 0 Drive Habit Strength etc 3 Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Emphasis on a Molecular Model o Explanations had to be cast in ultimate causes avior 0 Thus you needed to use a molecular view of the workings of the body 0 Have separate muscle movements and secretions of glan s 0 Add them up and you have behavior Deductive Method Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Problem with the Hypothetico There was a major difficulty in clearly testing theorems c There are few W that are very clear unambiguous or show that something is true or false Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Denial of Subjective Experience 0 While Watson and Guthrie stressed the importance of actions and behavior they did not deny the existence ofsubjective experience nor claim it was outside the role of psyc oogy o Believed subjective experience should be treated like any other be avior 0 We think and imagine We do not think thoughts and imagine images Hull Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning o Argued the against even the study of subjective experience 0 PSYCHOLOGY MUST BE OBJECTIVE Don t worry about private experience 0 Problem for the critics Concern with private experience is very difficult to study OBJECTIVELY E Um cabana Early Learning Theories Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Meier PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Begins with Associative Learning 0 Reflexes o Described as a stimulus always eliciting the same response 0 The strength of the response can change two ways with experience Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Habituation o A in some response due to repeated exposures to a stimulus o eg Walk into a room with a bad odor Sulfur At first you grimace and attempt to avoid the smell 0 Once you habituate it doesn t smell as strongly as it did at first Sensitization Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 An 39 in some response due to repeated exposures to a stimulus o eg Walk through the woods At first you are alert to the noise sensitized then you habituate 0 Then a twig snaps You immediately become alert and responsive again Signals may be potential dangers Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Habituation and Sensitization o Often occurs very rapidly 0 Usually is not caused by fatigue 0 Usually is associated with some type of stimulus that can be harmful to the organism Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning So What is Associative Learning 0 Defined as the the relationship between two stimuli 0 S11 becomes associated with S21 o 511 521 0 Key The stimuli to which associations can develop can be anything 0 Several types of associative learning Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Classical Conditioning 0 Hasa Stimulus Stimulus focus 0 S S R o Analyze characteristics of the stimuli and how they influence the response Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Instrumental Conditioning 1 0 Has a Stimulus Response focus 0 S R 0 Focus is on the stimulus and how it influences the response Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Operant Conditioning 0 Has a Response Stimulus focus 0 Examines how the consequent stimui influences the response Cognitive Learning Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Has a Stimulus Organism Response focus T o S O R o Examines how some internal variable influences a response 0 S O R S xamines how the consequent stimulus influences some internal variable which then influences the response ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Early Classical Conditioning Ideas 0 Ideas begin with the concept of the reflex by Descarte o Senses are muscles are connected by a complex set of nerves 0 The flow of animal spirits through these nerves makes it possible for instinctive reactions to take place ll Example Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Step on a sharp stick 0 Nerves in foot send a signal to the rain 0 Brain releases an animal spirit into the nerve which goes to a muscle causing it to swell and ultimately causes the foot to be pulled up off the stick E Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Voluntary Reflexes 0 Were more problematic because the min and body are separate 0 Again 0 Body is controlled by physical mechanisms 0 Mind is controlled by the soul 0 So how does the mind in uence the body Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Answer 0 The soul was located in the Pineal d glan o The pineal also was the container for the animal spirits 0 Animal Spirits was the fluid that produced the muscle contractions 0 Tip the Pineal in the right direction the soul then pushes the uids in the right direction 0 Fluids would flow to the correct muscle and movement would occur Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Answer 0 Thus Pineal was the connecting system for both the mind and the body Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Later Concepts for Classical Conditioning 0 Concepts come from physiology and reflexology Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Reflexes o The experimental study of r eflexes s began with casual observation 0 If you stimulate the muscle you get a contraction 0 Hall 0 Used decapitated newts and snakes 0 Found a widespread response to a stimulus some distance away from the stimulus site B Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Sherrington 0 Was an English physiologist c o Neural impulses and pathways 0 or Psychology developed a major oncept extending from the sense organs and glands results in an automatic reaction from the stimulus Spinal Reflexes ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Sechenov 18291905 c Called the father of Reflexology o Wrote a book called The Reflexes of the Brain 0 Argued that psychology should be studied by objective methods of physiology 0 Independently worked with reflexes Contended Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning o All acts of consciousness or unconscious life are reflexes 0 Thus mental processes of learning memow thoughts etc were basically complex chains of reflexes o For thoughts the motor aspects were inhibited Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Contended 0 Was in contrast to other researchers of his time 0 Was called immoral and materialistic o Attempted to picture the subjective world in a urel physiological contex t P o Concluded that although actions were 39 t e obsened events were objective behaviors o Argued that since natural science relied on objective obsenations psychology must use attributed to mental erms objective procedures as we ll um cabana Extinction and Punishment Ways to Decrease a Response Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melelquot PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll Extinction psyc390 7 psychology of Learl lll lg o The failure of a response to product a reinforcer causes the response to decrease until the organism no longer emits the response 0 When reinforcers are no longer provided the behavior stops psyc390 7 psychology of Learl lll lg Extinction Burst When you begin to stop delivering a reinforcer the behavior first increases before it decreases to zero Extinction Burst psyc390 7 psychology of Learl lll lg Extinction Burst l psyc390 7 psychology of Learl lll lg Extinction Burst Extinction Burst psyc390 7 psychology of Learl lll lg Factors that Influence Extinction 0 Size of the Reinforcer 0 Greater the size the longer it takes 0 Delay of the Reinforcer o If you occasionally the reinforcer 395 delayed the response will take longer to extinguish 0 Partial Reinforcement Schedules o Intermittent reinforcement schedules take longer to extingu39sh Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Punishment Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Punishment o Is a very misused procedure 0 Often is used in ways where behavioral changes do not ultimately occur Criminal Justice System 0 Often is used when using a reinforcement procedure would get better results Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Two Classic Papers 0 Punishment by Azrin and Holz o Punishment by Campbell and Church Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Azrin and Holz 0 Definition o A consequence of a behavior that reduces the future probability of that behavior 0 Is a reduction of the future probability of a specific response as a result of the immediate delivery of a stimulus for that response ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Azrin and Holz o The stimulus is called the punishing stimulus o The process is called punishment Important Aspects Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 The definition is not in terms of subjective feelings or states of being 0 Something is not a pun39shing stimulus just because it makes you unhappy o A specific event must be produced by a specific response in order for it to be considered a punishing stimulus 0 Simple decreases in responding are not sufficient reasons to classify a procedure as punishment E Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning ReqUIrements for an Ideal Punishing Stimulus 0 Must have precise physical specification 0 Must be able to be measured accurately 0 Must have constancy in terms of actual contact it makes with a subject 0 A stimulus measured at its source may be different from its contact on the organism ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning ReqUIrements for an Ideal Punishing Stimulus 1 o The organism must not be able to perform behaviors to reduce or escape from the averswe stimulus 0 Cannot perform unauthorized escape behavior 0 There must be few skeletal reactions to the imulus 0 Cannot paralyze the organ39sm o The punishinstimulus must have the capability to e varied over a Wide range of va ues w Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Types of Punishing Stimuli 0 Many types 0 Air blast o Skinner 0 Noise 0 Electric shock o Smells 0 Water Mist Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Delivery Techniques 0 Traditionally Use a Operant Chamber Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Two Different Types of Punishment Positive Punishment When a response is followed by a stimulus and the behavior decreases the procedure is called positive punishment and the stimulus is called a punisher eg Response is followed by a Zap and Negative Reinforcement Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Difference Between Positive Punishment o In Positive Punishment the response is followed by something aversive and the behavior decreases o In Negative Reinforcement the response is followed by the LemmaLQf WM and the behavior increases ii Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Negative Punishment 0 Two types Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Response Cost RC o In response cost the response is followed by the removal of a goodie and the behavior decreases o Is not like positive punishment where you give something aversive and the behavior decreases 0 Kid yells in the house and parents take w y its TV time i Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Time Out From Positive Reinforcement o In Time Out the response is followed by the removal of the reinforcing stimulus and the behavior decreases in frequency 0 Generally the organism is placed in a neutral situation where no reinforcers or stimuli are available 0 eg Kid yells in the house and parents place the kid in the corner 1 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Problem o The neutral situation may have reinforcers Must make sure there are no reinforcers are available 0 eg Kid yes 0 Parent says Go to your room 0 What s in the room TO 5 0 Alternative sit on your bed quietly 0 Not many stimuli or things to do on the bed El Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Next Section Variables that are related to punishment um cabana Reinforcement Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melel PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Leernlng Skinner Systematically Demonstrated Several Things 1If something occurs after the response oonsequent stimulus and the behavior increases The procedure is called reinforcement and the thing that caused the increase is called a rein fo rcer Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learnlng Skinner 2 If something occurs after the response consequent stimulus and the behavior decreases The procedure is called punishment and the thing that caused a decrease is called a punisher Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learnlng Two Types of Reinforcers and Punishers The difference occurs due to whether you add or remove something If you add something following a response poSItive If you remove something following a response egative 0 Positive does not mean good 0 Negative does not mean bad Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Leernlng Skinner SO REINFORCERS ALWAYS INCREASE A BEHAVIOR AND PUNISHERS ALWAYS DECREASE A BEHAVIOR THERE ARE NO EXCEPTIONS Psyc390 7 psychology of Leernlng Positive Reinforcement o If you add something goodie following behavior increases a response and called Positive Reinforcement Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Key Point How to Get the Behavior to Occur the First Time 0 Use Shaping by Successive Approximations Shaping o In shaping you reinforce successive approximations to the desired response 0 Get a rat to bar press Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Key to Shaping 0 Must deprive the organism of what you want to reinforce it with 0 Animals with food Deprive to 80 of its body weight A Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Kids Deprive kid of reinforcer you want to use 0 Chocolate Chip Cookies ccc s Reinforce with CCC s for small appropriate behaviors Gradually increase the amount of behavior you want to reinforce that is required for a cookie Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Reverse Shaping 15 different from Regular Shaping Start at the end response then reinforce it Then two steps before you reinforce it Then three steps etc Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Examples Stewart Little the Mouse Teaching a kid to tie their shoes 5 Negative Reinforcement Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Second type of reinforcement procedure 0 If you remove something following the response and the behavior increases called Negative Reinforcement Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Two Types of Negative Reinforcement 0 Escape 0 If you escape from something aversive the next time you are in the same situation you will make the same sponse Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Example Spousal Abuse Wife is yelling at her husband aversive stimulus Husband hits wife Wife stops yelling Husband is negatively reinforced Next time the husband is in a similar situation the husband will hit again 1 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Avoidance To avoid something aversive you will make the same response Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Example Kid in candy store id wants a candy bar is obnoxious yells etc Parent is embarrassed and upset Gives the kid the candy bar Kid stops yelling Parent is negatively reinforced escape No more yelling Next time parent gives the kid a candy bar when they enter the store avoidance Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning NOTE The kid is positively reinforced for its behavior um cabana Operant Conditioning Concepts Related to Reinforcement Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Meier PHD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Li Discrimination Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Similar to Classical Conditioning 0 Responses which are reinforced in one situation and not in another will reoccur only in the situation where they were reinforced Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Examples 0 In a bar loud talking may be reinforced but loud talking in the classroom is not 0 Kid is reinforced for yelling in the store but when it is at home other things may occur Generalization Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 New stimuli similar to the original stimulus are reinforced o Occurs when the organism is reinforced for other responses similar to the original stimulus Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Primary Reinforcers rein orc n 0 Food 0 Water 0 Sex Are reinforcers that are innately g Secondary Reinforcers Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Are reinforcers that acquire their ability to reinforce through experience eg money 0 Become reinforcing when they can be exchanged for primary reinforcers eg money for food Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Variables that Influence Secondary Reinforcers 1 Amount of primary reinforcer that is given 0 More primaw reinforcement that is given the stronger the secondaw reinforcer becomes 2 Number of pairings between the primary and secondary reinforcer o More pairings the stronger the secondaw reinforcer becomes 390 7 Psychology of Learning Variables that Influence Secondary Reinforcers 1 3 Time Between the Presentation of the Primary and Secondary Reinforcer o The more time between the primaw and secondaw reinforcers the poorer the secondaw reinforcer Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Variables that Influence the Rate of Conditioning Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Quantity of Reinforcers Given 0 The more reinforcement you give the faster the organism will respond Problem Too much food the organism gets satiated Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Quality of the Reinforcer The better the quality of the reinforcer the higher the rate of responding and the faster the conditioning Alpo is better than something out of a b ag CCC s are better than Oatmeal Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Time Delay Between the Response and Reinforcer Reinforcers are more effective the sooner they are presented after the response 0 The longer the delay the lower the response rate Rate of Reinforcement Number of Reinforcers Time period 0 The smaller the period of time between reinforcers the more responding that will occur E Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Deprivation o The longer the time period since the previous reinforcer was last consumed the higher the response rate 0 The animal responds faster the more deprived it is 0 Can occur with the rate of reinforcers or be independent of of it E BehaVIor 1 390 7 Psychology of Learning Percent of Reinforcers that are Contingent on a 0 You do not need to have a person respond to give reinforcers o 0 contingent all are free The organism geis the reinforcer whemeror nota response is made Welfare State 0 100 contingent All reinforcers must be obtained by responding Must work fora living 1 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Context in Which the Reinforcement Occurs o The more reinforcers that are available the less effective any particular one will be 0 Food money love etc are all available Notions Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Discriminative Stimuli and Related Are stimuli that signal that a behavior will be reinforced Is called an SD In contrast There are stimuli that signal non reinforcement Is called an S delta SA Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Differential Reinforcement o Refers to reinforcing a response in the presence of one stimulus a reinforcing the same response in the presence of another stimulus Generalization Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Two Types 0 Stimulus Generalization 0 Response Generalization Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Stimulus Generalization 0 Transfer of a response to a situation other than those where training takes place 0 Several stimuli can cause the same res onse Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Response Generalization The reinforcement of one response increases the probability of other responses which are closely linked to the original response Studying for Learning also increases studying for Cognition Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Chaining 0 Here the organism must emit a chain of behaviors before they get reinforced o Often uses reverse shaping to get Um mh w Greek and Roman Philosophers Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Simonedes SOObc Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learnlng 0 First person to point out the importance of organization and memory Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learhlhg Socrates 460399bc 0 Quote One thing only I know and that is I know nothing 0 Philosophy begins when one learns to doubt particularly one s cherished beliefs 0 There is no real philosophy until the mind begins to examine itself Know Thyself 0 Early philosopher Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Developed a Questioning Style 0 Demanded o Accurate Definitions 0 Clear Thinking o Exact Analysis 0 Ultimately was called The Socratic Method Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learhlhg Hippocrates 460bc o Considered the Father of Medicine 0 Developed a new method of inquiry o Careful obsenation o The collection and interpretation of ag 0 The method could be incorporated into physical mental and emotiona reactions of individuals 0 Was a major advance over faith in magic superstition supernatural powers etc ii Hippocrates 460bc Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning o Pioneered the application of applying systematic observation of facts to the study of human nature and experience Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learnlng Was a Very Knowledgeable PhysICIan for His Time 0 Used detailed case histories o Dissected dead bodies 0 Used dream analysis to analyze emotional disorders 0 Developed the Hippocratic oath which set high standards for physicians Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learnlng Plato 427437bc 0 Was a Nativist o Believed individuals had innate knowledge 0 Teach individuals by using the Socratic method bring out innate ideas by asking the right questions 0 Everything was in there All you have to do is ask the right questions Ll Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learl lll lg Knowledge exists in two worlds 1 World of Phenomena sensory world But they are like shadows and we can39t contact them directly 2 World of Forms Are external ideas inherent in every person This world was unchanging Was external and was known through reasoning NOT THROUGH SENSORY EXPERIENCE Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learnlng Knowledge exists in two worlds 1 0 Thus knowledge was the possession of truth 0 But knowledge relied on reasoning not sensory experience 0 The brain is the seat of perception Psyc 390 7 psychology or Learl lll lg Aristotle 384322bc o Disagreed with Plato o All knowledge comes from the senses and through experience 0 The mind is like a blank writing tablet Tabula Rasa 0 Knowledge should be based 0 obsenations of the external world 0 Anticipated two laws of learning Law of Contiguity Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learnlng o If two things are touching in space and time one will bring the other to min 0 Same as the Law of Association Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learhlhg Law of Similarity and Contrast 7 o If two things are similar one will bring the other to m39nd o If two things are opposite one will bring the other to min Other Items Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learnlng o Agreed with Hippocrates that mental illnesses come rom p ysical causes 0 Disagreed with Plato The Heart not the brain was the main organ of sensory experience 0 The brain was to reduce heat for the body Error lasted 1500 years Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Leernlng Roman Empire Galen 129199 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Leernlng 0 Most prolific and influential medical author after Hippocrates 0 Used a strong experimental approach 0 Writin s became dominant authoritative sources on biology psychology an medicine throughout the middle ages 0 Some findings are still in use today 0 Key for Galen Scientific investigation is the way to analyze things 3 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learhlhg Contributions o Recapitulated the principle discoveries of es Experimented extensively on animals monke s Described muscles of the eyes jaw head etc Assigned the sensow nerves of the brain Described in detail parts of animal brains Asserted that arteries are filled with blood not air as ot ers ad But did not believe the heart was a muscle 0 Diagnosed cases of Tuberculosis ll Clinical Contributions Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Leernlng o Attributed mental illnesses to both physical and psychological factors such as alcoholism brain injuries and shocking life experiences Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Quintilian o Advocated theories of learning that ave been implemented in many schools Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Educational Methods Should 1 Emphasize logical reasoning from premises to conclusions 2 Include systematic repetition and recall of facts no new or fuzzy math 3 Mastery of subject matter from simple to complex elements 4 Provide rewards such as praise for intellectual achievements Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Educational Methods Should 5 Practice free selfexpression 6 Adaptation of instruction to the interests and differing capacities of pupils Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Roman Empire Begins to Decline 0 Rise in Christianity Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Augustine 354430 0 Believed there was a distinction between the sensory world and the world of forms 0 However also embraced Christianity 0 Developed Neoplatoism to reconcile the differences Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Result 0 Changed Plato s ideas subtly o Distinguished between a 1 Sensow World known through the sensow organs 2 Intelligible World Mind known through the soul Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning MW 0 Plato Ultimate truth is found through reasoning o Augustine Ultimate truth is found through faith Augustine Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning o Augustine only wanted to know God and the Soul 0 Used faith to justify belief 0 After Augustine Neoplatoism colored every aspect of medieval thinking 0 Eventhing was part of God39s world Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning 475 Rome Falls um cabana Classical Conditioning Paradigm Also Called Pavlovian Conditioning Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Merer PhD Listen to the audio leclure while viewing hese slides Ll Psyc390 7 Psychoiogy of Learnrng Observers of CC before Pavlov o Whytt 1763 0 Was a Scott 0 Noted that the sight or even the recalled idea of food causes an uncommon flow of spittle into the mouth of a hungry person 0 Bernard 1872 o Noted salivation in horses rather than dogs ii Psyc390 7 Psychoiogy of Learnrng Pavlov 0 Was a Russian Physiologist 0 Before working on CC he already had won a Nobel prize for his work on digestion o Primarily worked with dogs 0 Would surgically make a hole in the dog s stomach and monitor digestive fluids ii Design Psyc390 7 Psychoiogy of Learnrng 0 Put food in the dog s mouth and monitor the amount of salivation and digestive juices o Ran into a problem 0 Dogs began to salivate when it saw Pavlov and before food was placed in the mouth 0 Had to figure out what was going on before going back to work on digestion Ll Psyc390 7 Psychoiogy of Learnrng Results o It you take an arbitrary stimulus one that does not evoke an Innate or automatic response 0 A BELL AND 0 Pair it with a nonarbitrary stimulus one that causes an automatic response 0 00D 0 The pairing will evoke a response to the arbitrary stimulus Bell that the organism has 0 ma e before Ll Non Arbitrary Stimuli Names Psyc390 7 Psychoiogy of Learnrn 9 Pavlov gave the Arbitrary and o Called the arbitrary stimulus Bell the Conditioned Stimulus o Called the nonarbitrary stimulus Food the Unconditioned Stimulus Psvc390 7 Psvchologv of Learning Example 0 UCS UCR Food Salivation 0 CS UCS UCR Bell Food Salivation 0 CS CR Bell Salivation Other Examples of CC Psvc390 7 Psvchologv of Learning Psvc390 7 Psvchologv of Learning Other Examples of CC Air puff Blink Tone Air puff Blink Tone Blink Other Examples of CC Psvc390 7 Psvchologv of Learning Spanking Pain Parent Spanking Pain Parent Pain Psvc390 7 Psvchologv of Learning Other Examples of CC Emetine NauseaVomiting Alcohol Emetine NV Alcohol NauseaVomiting Bechterev 18571927 Psvc390 7 Psvchologv of Learning o Developed a method motor conditioning where the CR was muscular rather than glandular o Became more popular because you did not have to do surgery Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Bechterev 18571927 0 Like others argued that mentalistic interpretations of psychological events were not necessary 0 Argued that high level psychological processes such as thinking consisted of lower level sensorymotor reflexes 0 Had less influence than Pavlov but advocated many principles later proposed by the behaviorists Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning General Points to Note About CC 0 1 CS must precede the UCS When UCS precedes the CS is called backward conditioning doesn t work well Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 2 CR Does Not Equal the UCR o Pavlov found the CR was not always the same as UCR Dogs salivate but the content is different Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 3 Is General Across Organisms o Occurs in Dogs rats human fetuses neurons Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 4 Can Appear in Many Environments o Classrooms 0 Restaurants 0 Woods Isa S S paradigm Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning um cabana Schools of Psychology Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Melel PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll psyc390 7 psychology of Learning Structuralism 18751930 5 o Wundt Considered the first psychologist Titchener Considered the first US psychologist Was the first real school or group of psychology Impressed with the sciences such as chemistry that were breaking down complex things into simple things Molecules to atoms Tried to do with mental thoughts ii psyc390 7 psychology of Learning Main Idea If we are trying to think about what is going on in someone s ea we need to think of smallest subjective unit This subjective unit for the Structuralists were the elementary elements of consciousness et at subunits they used the method of think 0 To g introspection sit down and Basically you trained an obsener to reflect on and analyze their mental experiences ii psyc390 7 psychology of Learning Main Idea Required a highly trained observer Person would sit down and think of a concept table and break it into its basic elements legs top etc psyc390 7 psychology of Learning Concepts to Note 1 Experience was important with a concep W39 no experience you cannot break it own The mind is passive One thought came and another followed associationism You oould break complex thoughts into simple thoughts an study these Each thought was the sum of other thoughts They were em piricists Information was gathered by observation and recording new 5 ii Problem psyc390 7 psychology of Learning 0 Which concept was right 0 Model had no reliability or validity Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Gestalt School 19121940 o Kohler Koffka Wertheimer o Developed as a reaction to the Structuralists and Behavior39sts o Disagreed with Structuralists and that complex thoughts could be broken into simple thoughts 0 Disagreed with the Behaviorists that complex behavior could be broken into simple behavior Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Problem Described by Gestaltists o The element of meaning is left out when you only look at the parts 0 For the Gestaltists The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning vs the Structuralists 0 Need naive observers not trained observers o Tried to explain perception o Developed lots of clever experiments 0 Had major impacts on the fields of Sensation and Perception and Cognitive Psychology Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning vs Behaviorists o Tried to knock learning by examining insite learning 0 Ultimately had little impact on Behaviorism Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning vs Behaviorists 0 Also influenced Social Psychology 0 Behavior of individuals or groups can be controlled by the whole situation Points to Note Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning o The whole is greater than the sum of the parts 0 As a school did not have much impact but did influence other areas Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Functionalism 18901930 s 0 James 0 Hall 0 Catte 0 Angel 0 Also developed as a reaction to the Structuralists 0 Was a US phenomenon Elements of Consciousness 1 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Weren t Concerned With Elementary 0 Were concerned with how the mind worked 0 How it mediated between the external world and internal events in the body 0 What is the function of things 0 How does an organism adapt and surVIve o Examined both humans and animals 1 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Points to Note 0 What was the function of some behavior Not what components made up behavior 0 Studied real life events 0 Allowed psychology to be applied to industry education and medicine Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Behaviorism l9l3Present 0 Watson 0 Rescorla 0 Hull 0 Many others 0 Did not become a school until Watson s publication 0 Psychology as a Behaviorist Views it E Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning For Watson 0 The only legitimate object of psychological study was objective behavior 0 Don t give me this stuff of the elementary units of consciousness o How do you know what it is 0 It39s not objective Science cannot study the Mind 39 usness or images because they are not obsenable 0 Should study objective behavior 5 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Goal for Watson and Behaviorists 0 Make Psychology an objective science 0 Discover the laws that could predict and control behavior Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Points to Note 0 Could use animals to discover laws evolution then evaluate humans 0 Can break complex behaviors into simple behaviors but NOT subjective thoughts Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Instrumental Conditioning o Thorndike 0 Hull 0 Spence 0 Miller amp Dollard Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Focus 0 Look at how stimuli in uence responding Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Skinner o Estes o Premack 0 Many others Radical Behaviorism Neo Behaviorism Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Focus 0 Focus is on the consequences of a behaVIor o Rewards and punishers 0 Has made major impacts in many areas of psychology education and business 3 Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Social Observational Learning 0 Bandura 0 Focus is on learning through observable events 0 Modeling Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Cognitive Learning 0 Emphasized internal processes of behavior What h person is important 0 Personality variables appens inside the 0 Internal vs external locus of control 0 Attributes 0 Looks at how the mind influences behavior Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Problems 0 Often uses correlational data to make causal inferences o Concentrating only on the mind and not behavior does not always work 0 Poor results in some areas eg workplace performance Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Points to Note 0 Is the dominant field in Psychology today Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning CognitionInformation Processing Models of Learning 0 Chomsky o Broadbent o Craik and Lockhart o Craik and Tulving 0 Many others Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning CognitionInformation Processing Models of Learning o Comes out of the memory literature 0 Emphasized internal processes of behavior What happens inside the person is important 0 Focus was not on the function of a structure Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning CognitionInformation Processing Models of Learning 0 Has made major impacts in how the mind works 0 Has made major contributions in industry and design um cabana Theories of Classical Conditioning Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Meier PhD Listen to the audio lecture while viewing hese slides Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Stimulus Substitution Theory 0 Pavlov 0 Presentation of a CS excites a particular brain area 0 When UCS follows the CS the structure responsible for processing the CS and UCS are active at the same time o Leads to a new neural pathway between the centers Ll Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Stimulus Substitution Theory Activate the one center the other becomes activated too Ultimately the CS becomes a substitute for the UCS Opponent Process Theory Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Siegel o Contends the CR and UCR are different 0 Used Morphine as a UCS o Analgesia became the UCR 0 Used light or a tone as a CS 0 Found there was an increased sensitivity to pain Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Other Studies 0 Found UCR to insulin is Hypoglycemia 0 CR to a stimulus paired with insulin was hyperglycemia o UCR to alcohol is hypothermia 0 CR to a stimulus paired with alcohol was hyperthermia ii Why Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning 0 Siegel Contends o Tolerance represents the conditioning of a response that is the opposite of the unconditioned drug effects 0 Environmental cues present during drug administration antagonize the drug s action and results in lower pharmacological reaction to the drug Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Evidence Application 0 Increased response to the drug can be 0 Take a drug in environment 1 Hotel induced by changing the stimulus 0 Develop tolerance context were the drug was administered 0 Move to a new enVIronment House 0 New enVIron ment does not eIICIt the CR k h fd opposite the drugs effect 39 Ta et e same amount 0 rug 0 But get a drug overdose Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Why Rescorla Wagner Model 0 The CS cues are different So don t get 0 Accommodates many criticisms that the opposite effect were encountered with other models of CC Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Psyc390 7 Psychology of Learning Rescorla Wagner Model Rescorla Wagner Model o Kamin assumed that surprise determined When CS and US are pa39redl an whether conditioning occurs assOCIation is formed between them 0 Rescorla and Wagner extended this assumption and said that surprise would also If repeaFedC the Strengthpf the determine HOW MUCH conditioning occurs aSSOCIation increases until it stabilizes o If surprised should get lots of conditioning 0 Tone followed by shock would get more conditioning than if the shock was expected w m w syc390 a Psycnoiogy of Learning The Associative Strength is not Constant over Trials I 0 At T1 Get a lot of associative strength 0 At T2 Get less 0 Ultimately V approaches a stable value 0 V represents the strength on each trial Vmax is the asymptotic value ofV V increases on each trial until Vmax Amount of conditioning on any trial will depend on the difference between V and Vmax ii Psyc390 a Psycnoiogy of Learning Rescorla Wagner Model Expresses Four Basic Ideas o 1 There is a maximum associative stren th that can develop between the CS and CS A Maximum associative strength 395 determined by the UCS B Different UCS39s have different associative stren th 0 2 Associative strength increases with each learning trial ever the amount of associative strength that is gained on a particular trial is affected by the amount of preVIous training Thus more associative strength will accrue during early learning trials than later trials Psyc390 a Psycnoiogy of Learning Rescorla Wagner Model Expresses Four Basic Ideas 1 o 3 The rateof conditioning is dependent on the particular CSs and UCSs that are presented a Some stimuli develop rapid amounts of 39 39 trength while other stimuli detvelop associative strength at slower ra es 1 In In 0 Q m 2 m In b Some UCSs produce more rapid learning than other UCSs o 4 The level of conditioning is dependent o a The amount of learning prior to conditioning of a stimulus and b The level of oonditioning to stimuli previously associated with the UCS 15 Psyc390 a psycnoiogy of Learning Thus 0 A particular UCS can only support a certain amount of conditioning regardless of how many stimuli are associated with it AND 0 When several stimuli are presented the stimuli must share the associative strength 3 Psyc390 a Psycnoiogy of Learning Rescorla Wagner Model The model has three different constructs that are similar to the ones described a ove o 1 The strength of association V R etween e CS and UCS contro s the amount of conditioning displayed 0 2 The maximum level 7 determines the strength the association can reach 0 3 The rate of learning 0c determines how rapidly the limit can e reache ll Psyc390 a Psycnoiogy of Learning AVn CVmax Vn AVN a 2i Vn 0 C 1B 0 oi alpha which refers to the power of CSA and o 3 beta which refers to the intensity of the UCS o Vmax 7 is solely determined by the UCS o defins the maximum level of conditioning supported by a UCS o the A Vn is the change in associative strength that develops on a particular trial 3 Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning AVn CVmax Vn AVn 0L vVn Trial Vn AVn CVmax Vn o 1 000 AVl 30 1 000 030 o 2 030 AVZ 30 1 030 021 o 3 051 AV3 30 1 051 015 o 4 066 AV4 30 1 066 010 Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Points to Note and Problems 1 0 V represents the strength of a theoretical association You can see dogs salivate but you cannot directly obsene the association presumed to produce the be aVIor o Eg If association strength was 10 how many drops of saliva would you expect to se e 0 You need to know the values of 0c and B or C before you can predict V Psvc390 7 Psychology of Learning Points to Note and Problems 0 Used arbitrary values to test the model 0 Their results showed that the model predicts a learning curve of the same general shape 0 You cannot predict the exact number of saliva drops but you can predict whether salivation will increase or decrease 39 21 quot02w Schedules of Operant Conditioning Psychology 390 Psychology of Learning Steven E Meier Ph D Listen tothe audio lecture vmileviewing lhese slides Ll Operant Chamber Psyc 390 7 Psychology or Learnan o Is a way we can measure responding Also called a Skinner Box Psyc 390 7 Psychology or Learnan Operant Chamber Psyc 390 7 Psychology or Learnan Operant Chamber Needle Psyc 390 7 Psychology or Learnan Result Responding Figure Psyc 390 7 Psychology or Learnan Rates of Responding 0 High Rate 0 Low Rate Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Types of Schedules 1 0 Continuous 0 Time and Response Schedules o Differentiation Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Continuous 1 0 You reinforce the organism after every correct response 0 Get high rates of responding 0 Get rapid extinction 0 Can get rapid satiation if to much reinforcement is given Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Time and Response Schedules o In the past were called partial schedules 0 Two Types 1 Ratio Based on numberof Responses Intenal Based on intenals of Time N Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Ratio Schedules o Depends on the number of responses that occur before a reinforcer is given 0 Two types Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Fixed Ratio FR A reinforcer is given after a fixed number 0 responses have been emitted S widgets get 10 5 widgets get another 10 5 widgets get 10 What schedule you are on number of responses that are required before a reinforcer is given 5 widgets per reinforcer FRS schedule Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Attributes o Gives high rates of responding o If you get the schedule to thin eg FR2000 the organism will stop responding o Called Ratio Strain 0 Get rapid extinction at low levels 0 Begin with a low schedule then increase it gradually 14 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Note 0 FRl is a continuous schedule Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Variable Ratio VR o A reinforcer is given after a variable number of responses have occurred 0 The number required for reinforcement changes every time o 2 widgets get 10 0 8 widgets get 10 0 6 widgets get 10 0 4 widgets get 10 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Variable Ratio VR 1 The schedule you are on the number of responses divided by the number of reinforcers given eg 20 widgets 4 reinforcers VRS schedule Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Attributes o Gives high rates of responding o Is very resistant to extinction 0 Does not suffer from ratio strain as much as FR schedules Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Interval Schedules 1 o Are based on time 0 Two things must occur 0 A certain interval of time must elapse before 0 the organism can get the reinforcer o The organism must make one response during the time interval to get the reinforcer o The first response the organism makes during the time intenal is the one that is reinforced Note The number of responses emitted during the time block is irrelevant 2 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Fixed Interval F1 0 A reinforcer is given for the Fir st Response that occurs after a fixed period of time has elapsed o eg every 5 minutes a reinforcer becomes available 0 If the organism responds in the interval they get the reinforcer If they e do not respond they don t get th reinforcer 3i Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Attributes 0 Does not give the rates 0 that ratio schedules prOVI o The organism takes a break after f responding de receiving its reinforcement Develops a Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Variable Interval VI o A reinforcer is given for the Fir st Response that occurs after a variable period of time has elapsed but the time period changes every time eg 3 minutes reinforcer is available 7 minutes reinforcer is available 2 minutes reinforcer is available 8 minutes reinforcer is available scalping effect on the cumulative recor er 21 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Variable Interval VI Schedule Number of minutes divided by the number of time intervals where a reinforcer is available 20 minutes 4reinforcers schedu le VIS Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Attributes 0 Generally gives low rates of responding 0 But in academics can give high rates of responding studying behavior 0 Eg Pop exams throughout the Semester 0 Is very resistant to extinction Attributes man ram mamma m 7 Wei war may m m am im mlnlouxmlml ywux ev hf m minimal 6 minimum mm mamas pinan mm Cumulative number of responses e xed Variable interval interval 400 300 200 100 14 16 1B 20 Attributes 26 8 1O 12 Time minutes Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Differentiation Schedules 0 Also called IRT schedules 0 Used where the reinforcer depends BOTH on time and and the number of reinforcers 0 Can be very effective in producing or reducing behavror i Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Differentiation Rate of High Responding DRH 0 Have to respond at a high rate within a certain 39 e amount of tIm Example your 25 page paper is due in two wee You work your tail off and get it in and receive an A o Is very effective Get very high rates of respon i ii Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Problem 1 Cannot make the level to high If the organism does not respond enough it will receive less reward and ultimately t decrease the response ra e Looks like an F1 schedule Work hard get paper in then you take a break 2 Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Differentiation Rate of Low Responding DRL o Is designed to create low levels of responding uring a particular time period 0 Eg Don t want a child to actout in class Give the kid a reinforcer when acting ut responses are low during a particular time period Will give low rates of responding Psyc 390 7 Psychology of Learning Attributes 1 0 Works well in applied settings 0 Schools 0 Group homes 0 Other
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