Physiological Psychology PSYC 372
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Date Created: 10/23/15
await Action Potential Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology General Overview K 2 o Occurs because voltage gated channels open 0 Results in rapid and large Na influx 0 Get rapid depolarization and hyperpolarizaton mszmgmz p 0 T E N T I A L Action Potential I l 2 Process of an Action Potential 15timulation Begins 2 K begins to leave by passive channels Na enters by passive channels 0 Get a change in concentration gradients 0 Amount that leaves depends on the strength of the stimulus tempora summation etc o Begins depolarization 3If depolarization is reaches 15mV voltage gate Na channes open 0 Get Na influx 4 Na KATPases start 0 Removes Na and brings in K 0 Three Na per Two K 0 K also leaves through passive channeb 0 K voltage gated channel begins to open about V2 millisecond after Na voltage gated channels Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Process of an Action Potential cont K U1 Na voltage gated inactive channel finally closes 0 Action Potential begins to fall K inactive gate finally closes 0 K is still leaving by passive channels 0 Na is leavin 0 Action potential continues to f 0 1 all 0 Ge a nega Ive un ers out from resting state Ca voltage gated channel begins to open Still do not have enough K so get Ca influx Finally enough K so Ca inactive channel begins to c 10Ca channel y closed 11Process Repeats kDOOl ose fina J Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Review E 0 When a stimulus enters a receptor on a dendrite it causes change in polarity 0 Causes a change in the chemical concentration gradients o Allows sodium to enter in small amounts and depolarizes the neuron o The depolarization travels to the axon hillock If the charge depolarizes hillock lva get an action potential 0 If the charge is not strong enough the 39 g Slgnal stops Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Review t 0 Causes sodium gates in the axon to open 0 Get Na Influx 0 Result the axon goes from negative on the inside to positive on the inside 0 This change goes down the axon like a wave 0 After the sodium enters the sodium potassium pumps turn on and begin removing sodium 0 Also goes down like a wave Ll Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Review E 2 0 So we have two waves going down the axon o The sodium entering the axon o The sodium being pumped out o Ultimately the result is a negative undershoot Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv When the Axon Potential Reaches the Presypaptic Element Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv When the Axon Potential Reaches the Presxrnaptic Element 0 It causes calcium Ca to enter the presynaptic element 0 Calcium causes the synaptic vesicles to move down protein filaments and bind with the presynaptic membrane 0 No Ca no efflux of NT 0 Botulinum Toxin blocks Ca influx 0 Mg also interferes with Ca influx Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv When the Axon Potential Reaches the Presynaptic Element m7 j o The neurotransmitter is then released into the synaptic cleft o The neurotransmitter crosses the cleft and binds on receptors in the post synaptic element 0 Causes a small depolarization and the process repeats itself 0 Called a Excitatow Post Synaptic Potential EPSP ii Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Saltatory Conduction m 0 As action potentials travel down the axon 1 It depolarizs the next Na voltage gated nel 2 Process of each channel slows down conduction speed Depends on size ofthe axon o Myelin o Allows the action potential to jumps from one Node of Ranvier to another node 0 AP depolarizes next Na voltage gated channel at Node of Ranvier 0 Less work 0 Increases speed of the action potential even in small axons 12 Psvc 372 7 phvsiological Psvchologv Summary I o Is an all or none event 0 Has a fixed height SSmV 0 Has a specific velocity meterssec 0 Depending on two variables 0 Myelin and amount of it o Axon size 0 Has an absolute refractory period in which stimulation will not produce an AP 21 Unweisily mldahu Overview of the Nervous System Forebrain Structures Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Sievequot E Meer pno Listen tn the audio iecmre while Viewing mesa sliues mm 7 pnymiagmsi psymuqy Forebrain I Consists of several structures in two major areas Dienceohalon inter brain Teiencephaion end brain Encephalon Brain mm 7 Physiaiaqicai Psvohalaqv Diencephalon Consists of many structures Thaiamus Hypothalamus others you do not have to know about Diencephalon mum m W l 139i psycm e physmiaqicei psycnaiaqv Thalamus Is basically a relay station from sensory structures to the cortex and back I major center for collecting and integrating information Also has a role in memory formation psycm e physmiaqicei psycnaiaqv Hypothalamus Is part of the Papez Circuit Limbic System Receives information from many structures Is connected to the pituitary gland which secretes many hormones Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Functions I I o Governs eating drinking fighting and sexual behavior 0 Regulates endocrine activity 0 Is involved with emotion o Helps control the Autonomic NS 0 Has been suggested to be involved with sexual identity Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Diencephalon Conclusion I 2 o Is an older forebrain structure but is extremely important for norma functioning Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Telencephalon I 0 These structures have increased the most as evolution has progressed 0 Has several major groups of structures Olfactory System Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Has several structures 0 Is not as developed in humans as some other organisms eg dogs 0 Can be important in emotional arousal pheromones o Is involved with smell Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Limbic System i 0 Originally suggested by Papez o Added to and modified by MacLean 0 Highly involved with emotion 0 Specifically emotional memories 0 Also involved with pleasure St ructu res Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Cingulate Gyrus 0 Corpus Callosum o Septal area 0 Amygdala o Hippocampal Formation o Parahippocampal Gyrus o Fornix o Hypothalamus Mammillary Body 3 Structu res c MINI callnsum a cerebellum Hinvncamvu oi vlgm hemlinnam lghoslea ni psvom r thslalaqlcal Psychalaqv Cingulate Gyrus I Also Called Limbic Cortex I Involved with emotional memories Borders older and newer evolutionary structures psvom r thslalaqlcal Psychalaqv Corpus Callosum on pathway that connects the neocortex of the left and rig t hemispheres mm 7 Physialaqical psymuqy Septal Area Is involved with controlling aggression pleasure psvom r thslalaqlcal Psychalaqv Amygdala I Is involved with Cont a behavior and aggress rolling rage ion hen destroyed the organism attacks nything mm 7 Physialaqical psymuqy Hippocampal Formation and Parahippocampal Gyrus Has a major role in memory formation when damaged you cannot form any new memories Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Mammillary Body of the Hypothalamus o Is involved with regulation of emotional e aVlOl 0 May be involved with pleasure pain and anger Note Is also categorized in both the Diencephalon and Telencephalon Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Li mbic System 0 In general the limbic system controls animal instinctive behaVIor Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Basal Ganglia I 0 Has several structures as well 0 Caudate Nucleus o Lenticular Formation o Putamen 0 Red Nucleus o Substantia Nigra o Globus Pallidus Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Basal Ganglia o Are a set structures that lie just under the anterior aspect of the lateral ventricles Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Like the Cerebellum 1 o Is involved with controlling movement 0 While cerebellum controls rapid movement 0 Basal Ganglia helps with o Controlling slower movements 0 Starting and stopping movement 0 Balance Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology In General r o The basal ganglia controls the direction and amplitude of movement especially postural movement Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology When Damaged 0 Causes problems with posture walking etc Get a lot of tremors jerks twitching etc o Parkinson s syndrome 0 Classic symptom tremor at rest 0 Once you move the tremor stops until in later stages of the disease then you always have tremors o Occurs because the Substantia Nigra degenerates Discussed more later i Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Causes 1 o In the past it was thought to be genetic or viral 0 Today we know that it can be environmentally caused Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Conclusion I 0 Wide variety of older cortical areas 0 Are extremely important for many activities awe Neocortex Also called Cortex or Pallium Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Meier Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Neocortex I o Is the most developed in Humans 0 Has many folds and fissures o The folds of tissue are called gyri or a gyrus single 0 The fissures or valleys are called sulci or a sulcus single 0 Is what you see when you look at a brain from the outside 0 Provides more surface area for neurons Ll Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Neocortex 0 Structures are divided into several section or lobes 0 Each lobe has a different function Cortex is separated in half by a fissure called the central fissure Splits the brain into left and right halves called hemispheres i Hemispheres Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Brain controls the contralateral side of body 0 Left Hemisphere controls the right side of the body 0 Right Hemisphere controls the left side of the body Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Hemispheric Specialization j 0 Left tends to be for more serial tasks 0 Events that occur one after the other 0 Verbal behavior reading writing 0 Right is more specialized for combining elements 0 Visualspatial activities 0 Work together because of the corpus callosum connects the sides J Land marks for Lobe Separation Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Each lobe is separated by a fissure or a sulcus For us three are important 0 Central Sulcus o Separates the Frontal and Parietal lobe 0 Lateral Sulcus o Separates the Temporal lobe from the Frontal and Parietal lobe o Parietal Occipital Sulcus o Separates the Parietal lobe from the Occipital lobe ii PSVCCWZ e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Each Hemisphere Contains 4 lobes I Frontal 0ccipital PSVCCWZ e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Frontal Lobe tains a variety of structures Precentral Gyrus imary Motor Cortex Also called Area 4 1s responsibie tor voiuntarv motor movement Areas 6 and 8 Called Premotor Cortex IS responsibie for muscle tone and getting Area 4 to Work correcth Frontal Lobe PSVCCWZ e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv To Get Movement remotor areas prepare muscle to contract Area 4 causes the muscle to contract a al Gangila Cerebellum and other structures help smooth out the movement mm A manual Psychaiaqv Broca39s Area Is located at the bottom of 6 amp 8 Is concerned with speech when damaged the person can understand speech but thev cannot taik WeH Called Broca s Aphasia PSVCCWZ e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Association Area Remainder of the Frontal Lobe Is more important for th ug t es When damaged have problems with memory psycm e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Parietal Lobe Also contains a variety of structures Somatosensory area Area 3 1s concerned with sensory tunctioning 1s where you teel pain temperature etc Area 1 Area 2 and association cortex Interprets what is happening in Area 3 E Parietal Lobe psycm e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Temporal Lobe Is below the Lateral Sulcus Is concerned with hearing and rning of sound speech I Wernicke39s Are a 1s a Subaarea or the Temporai Lobe psycm e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Wernicke39s Area I Is Concerned with the comprehension of spe I Also receives information from other areas such as the occipital lobe when damaged you can speak fluently but the Content is Nonsense Caiied Wernicke39s Apha i when damaged it is also hard to comprehend and understand written stimuli reading integration and ech E psycm e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Arcuate Fasiculus Is a set of fibers that look like an arc I These fibers Connect Wernicke39s area with Broca39s Area hen damaged the symptoms look similar to Wernicke39s Aphasia psycm e thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv 0ccipital Lobe I Is Concerned with vision I Area 17 Is the primary vlsuai cortex with damage you g p o lind 1s where vlsuai intormation goes tirst Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Areas 18 and 19 0 Visual Association Cortex o Helps with organization of visual stimuli 0 With damage you cannot recognize stimuli 0 Information is then sent to other lobes o Eg Temporal Lobe Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Island of Reil I 0 Also called the Insular Lobe o Is located under the lateral Sulcus o Is concerned with smell Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Conclusion I o The Brain has lots of structures 0 Each structure is involved with lots of 39 s function 0 Is very resistant to damage 0 When damaged individuals can have lots of problems 0 Problems can identify where the brain is d i audio Hypothalamus An Extremely Important Structure Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Overview 1 o Is very small 0 Weighs only about 4 grams Brain1400 grams 0 Contains a variety of specialized structures Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Reg ulates I 0 Control of blood pressure and electrolyte composition 0 Body temperature 0 Energy metabolism 0 Reproduction 0 Emergency responses to stress Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Regulates Mechanisms by 0 Receiving sensory information from all areas of the 0 Comparing sensory information with biological set points 0 Adjusting the system to restore the body balance when deviations from biological set points occur Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Some Set Points 1 0 Blood sugar 0 Hormone levels 0 Temperature 0 Sodium Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Hypothalamic Regions and Related Structures r i 0 Can be divided into three regions 0 Anterior 0 Middle 0 Posterior Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Anterior 0 Contains the Preoptic Nucleus o Is concerned with the integration of sensory stimuli that is related to set points Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Preoptic Nuclei Control I 0 BP 0 Blood composition 0 Temperature 0 Hormones 0 Reproductive activity 0 Others Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Middle Third o Overlays the pituitary stalk 0 Contains 0 Dorsomedial Nuclei o Ventromedial Nuclei o Paraventricular Nuclei o Supraoptic Nuclei o Arcuate Nuclei Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Paraventricular Nuclei I 0 Includes magnocellular and parvocellular components 0 Controls the Pituitaw Gland 0 Contains neurons that innervate sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons in the Medulla and Spinal Cord o Regulates autonomic responses ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Ventromedial and Dorsomedial Nuclei Regulates Growth Feeding Maturation Reproduction Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Is Between the Medial Forebrain Bundle 0 MFB are long pathways 0 Runs through the lateral hypothalamus o Connects the hypothalamus with the 0 Brain Stem o Basal Forebrain o Amygdala o Cortex Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Function I 0 Help organize behaviors o Autonomic functioning 0 Highly involved with the addiction 0 Heavily loaded with Dopamine Neurons Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Posterior Third I o Mammillary Body 0 Function unknown 0 Posterior hypothalamic Nuclei 0 Contains Tuberoamammillary Nucleus Regulates wakefulness and arousal Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Endocrine System I o Regulated by the Hypothalamus 0 Direct Connection 0 Sends neuroendocrine materials from the posterior pituitary 0 Indirect o Sends hormones into the anterior pituitaw o Regulates the production and release pituitaw hormones into circulatow of i Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Some Hypothalamic Hormones o TRH ThyrotropinReleasing Hormone o Pit Thyrotropin and Prolactin o GRH Growth Releasing Hormone it Growt ormone ProlactinReleasing Factor 0 Pit Prolac 0P oPRF tin o PIH Prolactin ReleaseInhibiting Hormone tin o Pit Prolac 0 Others ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Thirst 0 Drinking is controlled by two mechanisms 0 Osmolarity Determined by Sodium 0 Vascular volume Fluid 0 Act on Osmoreceptors in Hypothalamus o Acts on the Kidney Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Kidney o Secretes Renin o Renin cleaves Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin 1 Al 0 Al is hydrolyzed into A2 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Angiotensin II I 0 Causes 0 vasoconstriction 0 Release of aldosterone 0 Release of Vasopressin by paraventricular nucleus Regulates water retention 0 Subfornical Organ is very sensitive I toAI o Preoptic area also receives information from baroreceptors 0 Both regulate drinking 2 Hunger Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Past 0 Regulated by 0 Lateral Hypothalamus Stimulate animal starts eating Destroy animal stops eating 0 Ventromedial Hypothalamus Stimulate animal stops eating Destroy animal becomes obese Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Today I 0 Not as clear cut 0 Usually damage nearby structures 0 Example 0 Damage Lateral damage trigemin system and dopamine fibers in al MFB 0 Results in decreased stimuli activating visual olfactory and somatosensow stimuli 0 Result don t start eating 0 May also alter set points 0 LH and VMH are still important but probably work with other systems i Pleasure Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Past When stimulated animal would not do anything else 0 Today Not as clear cut 0 Involved with MFB which is more important Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Conclusion 1 o Is an extremely important structu 0 Sexual behavior 0 Temperature 0 Etc 0 Damage causes lots of problems in re Is involved with many other things await Psychological Tests that Examine Brain Functioning Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physloioglcai Psychology Background 1 2 o Often involves giving a battery of tests 0 Tests are often based on what you are trying to examine 0 Motor function 0 Memory 0 SensowPerceptual Ability 0 Abstract Reasoning 0 Others Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Two Approaches I 0 Patient Centered o Is more flexible 0 Types of tests are based on presenting symptoms and referral issues 0 Fixed Battery of Tests 0 Involves giving specific tests to everyone 0 Adding others if necessaw Psyc 372 7 Physloioglcai Psychology Types of Tests Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology HalsteadReitan Neuropsychological Test Battery 1 0 Contains 10 subtests that examine a variety of brain functions 0 Abstract reasoning o Kinesthetic and Sensimotor Ability 0 Attention o Auditory Perception o SensowPerceptual ability 0 Others Some Tasks Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Have person close their eyes with their hands held out Have them say which hand is touched when touched 0 Which ear receives a barely audible finger snap 0 Identify a number or shapes traced on a finger or 0 Key tapping 0 Measuring grip strength by squeezing a dynamometer 0 Others 3 Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Issue 1 I 0 Normal person can perform the tasks well 0 Persons with neurological damage have difficulty with certain tasks 0 Based on anatomy and physiology you can deduce where the brain damage has occurre Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Additional Tests added to the HR 0 Memory Tests such as the WAI o MMPI 0 Others SIII Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology LuriaNebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery 1 o Is a second common test battery 0 Consists of 269 discrete items 0 Has high reliability 0 Also has some problems 0 High rates of false positives in older nts patie Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Some Scales r 0 Motor 0 Rhythm 0 Receptive Speech 0 Reading 0 Writing 0 Memory 0 Others Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Conclusions 1 0 Some people really like it 0 Others find problems 0 Results mixed Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Aphasia Screening Tests 0 Many types 0 Multilingual Aphasia Examination 0 Western Aphasia Battew 0 Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Exami o Token Test 0 Others nation Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Examine t o Spontaneous speech 0 Sentence or phrase repetition 0 Reading 0 Writing and copying 0 others Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Bender Gestalt Test K 0 Used to examine complex motor tasks 0 Has nine figures 0 Patient is asked to copy one at a time on a blank sheet of paper 0 Accuracy is the key Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Porteus Maze Test 0 Is very good at assessing executive functioning o Reasoning 0 Planning 0 Flexibility of thinking 0 Person has to trace a line through different mazes without lifting a pencil and avoiding dead ends 0 Is very sensitive to brain damage in the frontal lobes i Conclusion Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 There are many types of tests that examine brain functioning 0 Some tests are very sensitive and can be highly accurate in assessing damage 0 Can be used to help target brain damage before other techniques are used o Are not cheap to administer Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology ARE TO BE GIVEN AND INTERPRETED BY TRAINED PROFESSIONALS 0 Training to give these tests is time intensive Interpretation requires vew specific knowledge and ski s Tests take lots of practice to be given and interpreted correctly CT Scans and are interpreted by Radiologists MRIs o Neuropsychological test batteries are interpreted by trained psychologists usually neuropsychologists i await Spinal Cord Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides J psyc 372 e Physlologlcal psychology Overview K I 0 Has a central core of nonmyelinated neurons gray matter surrounded by myelinated neurons white matter 0 Gray matter is shaped like an H o Is shorter than the vertebral column 0 Is separated into regions which contain structures l Spinal Cord Lateral Funiculus Funiculus Dorsal Horn v Late ra Corticospinal Tract f Ventral Horn Ventral Funiwlus Ventral Corticospinal Tract psyc 372 e Physlologlcal psychology Some Structures E o Are different Sizes depending on where you are in the spinal column 0 Eg o Ventral horn is larger where motor neurons innenate the arms and legs 0 Need neurons for regulation 0 Dorsal Horn is larger where sensow nenes rom the limbs enter the spinal cord 0 Need more neurons because you have more receptors 5 psyc 372 7 Physiological psychology Some Structures o Dorsal Horn 0 Contains sensory nuclei 0 Forms clusters of nuclei 0 Receives information from outside the CNS 0 Ventral Horn 0 Contains motor nuclei 0 Receives information from major motor pathways 0 Sends information to muscles Dos not contain clusters are arran ed in columns that run the length of the spinal cord Internuncial Neurons K psyc 372 e physiological psychology 0 Also called interneurons o Are also in gray matter 0 Modulate information flowing from sensory neurons towards the brain and higher brain centers to motor neurons 0 Modulates neural activity within motor systems 0 Are also involved in reflexes psycm e physmiaqicei psycnalaqy psycm e physmiaqicei psycnaiaqy White Matter Dorsal Column Surrounds the Gray Matter Lie between the two dorsal horns Divided into three columns Sends only sensory information via Dorsal axons to the brain Lateral Uses the Gracile Fasciculus lower Ventral limbs and Cuneate Fasciculus upper Each column contains bundles of body pathways ascending and descending axons smile Fasunllus psycm e physmiaqicei psycnaiaqy Dorsal Column f Lateral Columns Sends information to the brain Also sends information from the m brainstem and cortex to lower motor rum neurons Lateral Corticospinal trac Sends moto r lnformatlon to Flnal Common Pathwa Most motor lnformatlon l5 Sent ll39l thlS pathway F mffm Ventnl chairman ma E psycm e physmiaqicei psycnaiaqy n Ventral Columns Ventral Columns Includes ascending and descending axons Ascending sends information about pain and thermal sensation Descending pathways help control axial m c nd posture Uses Ventral Corticospinal tract and others Sends remaining rnotor information 1 Psyc 372 7 PhySioiogicai Psychology Spinal Cord I o Divided into four major regions 0 Cenical o Thoracic o Lumbar o Sacral o Are related to body development segments 0 Nerves enter and leave through the intervertebral foramen 1 Psyc 372 7 PhySioiogicai Psychology Cervical Nerves I 0 Has 8 segments 0 Involved with o sensow perception 0 Motor function on the back of the head neck arms Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology Thoracic I 0 Has 12 segments 0 Innervates upper body Lumbar and Sacral Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology 0 Lumbar 5 segments 0 Sacral 5 segments 0 Innervates the lower body the back andlegs o Spinal Cord usually terminates in the lumbar area Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology Pyramidal Decussation 0 Located in the Medulla o Is where the majority of fibers cross over to the opposite side of the body 0 Eg 8085 of motor fibers cross over to contralateral opposite side Uses the lateral corticospinal tract 0 1520 remain ipsilateral on same side Uses the ventral corticospinal tract 5 Other Things Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology 1 0 Few sensory axons enter at sacral level 0 As you ascend up the spinal column more sensory neurons enter 0 Most descending axons terminate at cervical levels 0 Thus the sacral level has less white matter than at cervical levels U may Susana Techniques to Examine the Brain Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology LlSTEHtEI the audlo lemre Mlle wean mesa slldes Psvc 372 r Physmlnulcal Psychnln v Invasive Techniqus o Lesioning Radio Fequency 0 Electrical Recording 0 Cannulations o Push Pull o Invivo Autoradiography 0 Others Psvc372 r thsmlnmcal Psychnln v NonInvasi ve Techn iq us Psvc 372 r Physmlnulcal Psychnln v The stereotaxic Instmment o The holderallows you to swing in all directions 0 A vertical knob allows you to vary the depth of the probe 0 The anteriorposterior knob allows you to go front or back 0 A lateral knob allows you to go from side to side Psvc372 r thsmlnmcal Psychnln v Animal stereotaxic Instru ment General Proced ure 25v 372 r thsmlnulcal Psychnln v o Idenu fy and measure the dependent Esure in the organism Ansthetize the animal Open the scal Drill a trephine hole hole in the skull Place the animal into the stereotaxic instrument Use the brain atlas to see where you go want to l Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology General Procedure t 0 Find specific brain landmarks Use stereotaxic instrument to insert a electrodes b cannulas c other instruments Perform the techni ue you want or you can seal the material in place with a gluelike su stance Allow the animal to recover Monitor the dependent measure depending on the technique use Ll Techniques You Can Use Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal psychology 0 Lesioning Ablations o Cannulations 0 Push Pull 0 Electro recording Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Electrical Lesioning I I o Lesioning destroys particular brain structures 0 You then observe what happens to the animal before and after the lesioning c There are several ways to lesion Electrolytic Use DC current Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology 0 Observe the animal for the particular behavior of interest 0 Insert an insulated needle into the placement point The needle is insulated except at the tip 0 Apply current and burn the tissue which ultimately dies 0 Observe the animal for changes in behavior Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal psychology Disadvantages K o The electrode leaves a tract into the brain Thus you are also damaging other brain tissue 0 Solution destroy the tissue from several different angles 0 Apply too much current you will deposit metal particles from the electrode 0 Metal particles can irritate tissue 0 Can cause focal points which may result In selzures 11 Radio Frequency Techniques Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology 0 Radio frequency coagulates tissue Its action resembles that of a microwave oven 0 Insert an electrode insulated except at the tip 0 When energy is applied to the electrode water molecules oscillate inside neurons 0 The oscillation builds up heat and kills a E the cells In the are Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Advantages and Disadvantages I Advantage Avoids metal particles Disadvantage Still have the electrode tract Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Chemical Techniques 0 Most commonly used technique today 0 Instead of an electrode use a cannula or tube 0 Allows you to place chemicals in place where they can kill or influence neurons 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Neurotoxins I o 6 Hydroxydopamine 6HDA o Destroys dopamine neurons but leaves other neurons alone 0 Advantage Allows you to only kill one type of neuron o Kanic Acid 0 Destroys somas cell bodies of neurons bu leaves axon tracts from other neurons alone 0 Advantage Can kill neurons in one area but does not disturb neuron tracts from other areas 2 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Chemical Stimulation Techniques 0 Are the opposite of chemical lesioning o Researcher may stimulate neurons by putting in a neurotransmitter 0 May also put in agonists analogs of neurotransmitters that behave like them 0 May put in compounds with unknown effects ll Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology General Cannulation Procedures 1 0 Make a trephine hole 0 Insert cannula with stereotaxic device 0 Cement in place with dental cement 0 Allow animal to recover and behave normally 0 Later deliver compound by injection usually when the animal is behaving 0 Observe the animal 5 Disadvantage Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 1 0 Over time the area fills up with the chemical 0 Solution Use a pushpull technique psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology PushPull Technique Is similar to other chemical techniques except that the cannula is a little wider and has an extra tube within the main tube Allows you to insert solutions Also allows you to withdraw excess compounds or other products for analysis PushPull Techniqup psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Advantages of PushPull Localizes better Can add dyes or radioactive labels Can change dosages or concentrations Can change compounds Can analyze materials you withdraw if you get an effectgives better control Miniaturization is improving the technique further 3 C 0 m p 0 U n d psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Cannulations 0 Where you place a catheter into the circulatory system of an organism o Jugular vein Neck 0 Femoral Artery or Vein leg 0 Brachial Artery or Vein arm 0 Vena Cava vein that fills the heart 0 Aorta artery that leaves the heart psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Advantages j 0 Can put the catheter almost anywhere It s a good way to deliver materials in the venous system Some materials are inserted to get past i r the blood brain barre If the molecules of a drug are large they will stay in the vascular system and not cross the bloodbrain barrier You can do the procedure in alert animals 5 psyc 372 7 physiological psychology Disadvantages m i o Clotting occurs after some time period at the end of the catheter o Femoral o Descending Aorta 310 days 35 weeks Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Other Similar Techniques t 0 Can insert cannulas in the mouth 0 Can insert cannulas in the stomach 0 Can insert cannulas in the liver 0 Can insert to withdraw spinal uid 0 Can also place catheter in the fourth ventricle substantia nigra space above the cerebellum o Other locations 1 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Osmotic Pumps K I 0 Used to deliver compounds into an organism by osmosis 0 Can deliver one or multiple compounds over a prolonged period 0 Similar devices can be used in humans Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Osmotic Pumps I To Needle Osmaic Pressure Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Types 0 Single Barrel 0 MultiBarrel CompoundS olution Osmotic Pressure 27 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Procedure I j 0 Put a needle where you want it 0 Can use stereotaxic devices if needed 0 Put the pump inside the body usually the back and tie off the end with silk until you need to deliver the compound 0 Let animal recover from surgery 0 Cut the silk 0 Observe the animal Advantages Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 1 0 Can deliver a substance for prolonged iods 0 Can deliver a constant amount of a substance instead of one large amount 0 Decreases the spikes of a drug 0 Easy to do 0 Can use computer technology to deliver multiple compounds on some schedule 0 Can use multibarrel pumps 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Autoradiog raphy auto self generating radiography using radioisotopes to give you a pri on film nt Uses radioactive isotopes with unstable nuclei that throw off energy that can recor Used to locate receptor sites be Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Types of RadIOIsotopes or Radiolabels I o Plutonium 242 0 Carbon 14 o Uranium 239 o Tritium 0 Calcium 45 o Iodine 125 0 Carbon 11 0 Others P yc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Invivo Autoradiography Procedure I Take an isotope and attach it to the nonworking end of the substance you are evaluating eg hormones Resulting isotope is called a tag Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Steps o Radiolabel the substance you want to o Inject the compound into the animal 0 Let it circulate in the blood and go to the receptors 0 Kill sacrifice the animal 0 Take out the brain or other organ you d are intereste in o Microtone or slice the brain or organ ii Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Steps Put tissue slices on a piece of film Particles coming off the slice exposes the film xray 35mm Wait days or weeks Take tissue off the slice Put on a computerized counter screen Look for dark spots If you have any 5 ts that is where the receptor sites are located for the substance Tells you where the test receptor sites are located in or ii Advantages Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 1 o Is a first step in trying to find receptor 39t si es 0 Good procedure if you are not sure where receptor sites are located 0 Good techniques for new substances and you are not sure where they go o Is faster than invitro procedures Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Disadvantages t o Is more expensive 0 Sometimes you don t see anything so I 0 There may be procedural errors 0 The assay decayed 0 There may be no receptors If Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Invitro Autoradiography K I o In Vivo means quotin Iif 39 39n Vitro means llin a test tubequot literally quotin glassquot 0 Used when you have an idea of where the receptor is located 0 Used to determine finer detail Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Procedure I 0 Kill sacrifice the animal 0 Remove the brain or other tissue 0 Slice the brain 0 Pour the radioactive hormone or other substance over the tissue 0 Allow to incubate The radio labeled compound will bind to the receptors 0 Allow the label to bind a Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Procedure 0 Pour off the excess compound 0 Put the slice into a computer image analysis scan system to detectcount the particles 0 If the slice gives off activity the substance must be binding with receptors 0 If no activity there are no particles binding to receptors Thus you can conclude there are no receptors 0 You can put the tissue under a scanning computer and count the number of receptor sites 3 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Micropunch Techniques in 0 Use a microtone to slice the tissue 0 Use a specialized hypodermic needle sharpened at the end to punch out a piece of tissue 0 Microsample could be a nucleus 0 Sample size usually ranges between 10 ters 50 micrograms or microme 0 Take a core sample 0 Blow material from the needle into a test tube 3 Micropunch Techniques Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 0 Break up the Tissue 0 Use a Polytron 0 Radial blades vibrate cells mild enzymes separate ligands o Destroys ligands but not cell bodies 0 Exposes the cell membrane so all the receptor sites are expose 0 Incubate tissue in solution 0 Wash off liquid from cells with a buffer 0 Put tissue in a counter 0 High count you have lots of receptors 0 Low count means low receptors 3 Psvc 372 7 pHVSiOlOgiCal Psvcnologv Conclusion 0 Many invasive techniques 0 Used for lots of reasons 0 Allows for fine level of analysis await Movement Disorders Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Background 1 0 Early Studies 0 Found some patients with progressive weakness had problems with nerve cell bo ies r peripheral nerves but no problems with muscle fibers 0 Other patients had problems muscles with little problems in the nerve cells 0 Two important features 0 Some neurological disorders only affect sensory systems while others affect only motor systems 0 Neurological problems may only affect one component of the neuron Axon vs l Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Many Types I o NerveMuscle Synapse Problems 0 Myasthenia Gravis o Neurogenic and Myopathic Diseases 0 Amytrophic Lateral Scleros39s Lou Gehrig Disease 0 Muscular Dystrophies o BasalGanglia Disorders 0 Parkinson39s Disease 0 Hunting on39s Disease 0 Cerebellar Disorders Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Myasthenia Gravis 0 Means severe weakness of the muscle 0 Is a functional disorder at the synapse between the motor neuron and skeletal muscle 0 Two causes 0 Autoimmune Disorder 0 Genetic Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Autoi m mune Type 0 Antibodies are produced to attack the NicotinicAch receptor in the muscle 0 Reduces the number of receptors 0 Muscle becomes weakened Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Some Characteristics o Affects cranial muscles and limb muscles 0 Eyelids eye muscles 0 Legs Arms 0 Symptoms vary during the day and between 0 Get remission and exacerbation o No conventional clinical or electromyographic evidence of denervation although musce weakness is occurring 0 Weakness is reversed by drugs that inhibit acetylcholinesterase ii Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Some Symptoms Treatment I I I I 0 Muscle fatigue and weaknesses 0 Use of Anticholinesterases provide 0 Repetitive stimulation of the nerve symptomal39c quotel39e produces a decrimental response over 991 PYr39dOSt39Qn39i39ne time o Immunosuppressive Therapies 0 Patients generally complain of muscle suppress 39mmune funthn39ng weakness not fatigue 39 PlasmaphereSIS I I Generally progresses and becomes 0 Removes plasma and ACh antibodies worse overtime 0 Each does not alter the course of the disease l Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Other Treatment Neurogenic and Myopathic Diseases I I I o Thymectomy 0 Remove the Thymus 0 V2 of patients enter total remission 0 Have no more problems 0 Also is used when patients enter severe respiratow distress from M Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Symptoms Overview I I I o Appear slower than when a nerve is cut 0 Generally symptoms occur as the muscle Neurogemc dlsorders mes weak and begins to waste away May QGt diStal limb weakness Atrophy o Visible muscle twitches under the skin 0 Affects limb movement are a good indicator for neurogenic o Lifting and walking disorders 0 May also have Called Fasciculations o Cramps and ain 0 Muscle may not be able to relax 0 Red tinged urine Othe o Myopathic Disorders 0 May also get distal limb weakness rs o Other sympton39s 0 Does not influence Sensow Neurons 11 12 Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Motor Neurons Premotor and Lower Neurons I I I 39 Lower o Diseases in each group produce distinct o Are from the spinal cord and brain stem sympto o Directly innenate skeletal muscles 0 Lower o Premotor Atrophy 0 Past called Upper Motor Neurons FaSC39CUIat39onS o Originate in higher brain areas Cortex Eecreafste j TUSde tone o oss 0 en on re exes o Synapse on lower motor neurons 0 Result In weak wasted and tWItchIng 0 Combine With motor neurons In the muscles spinal cord 0 Make up the corticospinal tract 13 14 Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Upper Disorders 0 Symptoms 0 Muscle Spasticity o Overactive tendon reflexes 0 Get overactive tendon reflexes Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis Symptoms 0 Also called Lou Gehrig Disease 0 Involves both lower and premotor neurons 0 Characterized by Atrophy 0f the mUSCIe o Develops into weakness in the limbs o Hardening of the Spinal Cord due to 0 Get an increase in tendon reflexes astrocyte increases and scarring of the Other symptoms as we lateral columns 0 Usually begins around age 60 o Begins with fine movement difficulties 0 Playing the piano 0 Working with tools 0 Premotor neurons degenerate prog ressively E m Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Muscular Dystrophies o Are inherited 0 Symptoms begin by or before adolescence o All symptoms are caused by weakness 0 Weakness becomes more severe 0 Can also get a delayed relaxation of the muscle caed myotonIa Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Types 1 o Duchenne o Facioscapulohumeral o Myotonic o Limbgirdle 1 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Basal Ganglia Disorders Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Characteristics movements paralysis excessive move m ent o All have tremor or other involuntary 0 Have changes in posture and muscle tone 0 Have slowness of movement without 0 May have diminished movement or 0 Also have cognitive disorders as well 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Structures and Connections 1 o Consists of the o caudate nucleus 0 Putamen o Globus Pallidus 0 Gets input from 0 Primary motor cortex 0 Substantia Nigra Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Output r o Goes to 0 Primary motor cortex 0 Supplemental motor area 0 Premotor cortex i s o Corticalbasal ganglia loop cau ateputam Via thalamic nuclei mm motor nuclei ventromedial pathways 0 Frontal parietal temporal lobes send axons to en 0 Caudateputamen projects to the globus pallidus o Globus pallidus projects back to motor cortex j Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Pa rki nson s Disease 1 o Is a Hypokinetic Disorder 0 One of the most common movement disorders Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Major Symptoms I 0 Reduced spontaneous movement 0 Impaired initiation of movement Akinesia 0 Reduced amplitude and velocity of voluntary movement Bradykinesia 0 Increased muscular rigidity o Tremor at rest 0 Shuffling gait o Flexed Posture o Impaired Balance 3 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Classic Symptoms I o Tremor at rest 0 Rigid facial expression 0 Flexed posture 0 Few movement 0 Movements are slow Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Causes I o Occurs from a degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra 0 Many have environmental causes as well 0 MPTP exposure 0 Insecticides Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Results 1 1 0 Get more output from the BG goes to the Thalamus and cortex 0 Causes more activity 0 Get symptoms Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Treatment r 0 Drugs 0 Ldopa Works well 35 years then begins to lose effectiveness 0 Other Drugs 0 Entacapone Comtan o Tolcapone o Selegiline Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Transplants I 0 Fetal Tissue Implants 0 Place dopaminesecreting neurons from aborted fetuses into the BG 0 Mixed results 0 Globus Pallidus internal division lesions 0 Alleviates some symptoms of Parkinson s disease Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Huntington s Disease I o Is a Hyperkinetic disorder 0 Is a hereditary disorder caused by a dominant gene on chromosome 4 0 Gene encodes a large protein Huntingtin o Mutant huntingtin protein may react within the nuc eus 0 Results in neuronal degeneration Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Characterized by I o Heritability Behaviorpsychiatric disturbances Chorea Cognitive impairment dementia Death 1525 years after onset 0 Usually diagnosed between ages 3050 being diagnose Many people also have children before a Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Symptoms 0 Excessive motor activity which are Involuntary Dyskinesias o Decreased muscle tone Hypotonia 0 Usually see uncontrollable jerky limb ent movem ii Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Da m ag e r o Occurs across the brain 0 Begins in the striatum 0 Results in rigidity and akinesia o Damage occurs in other areas as well Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Cerebellar Disorders i 0 Results from damage to the cerebellum 0 Symptoms depend on the location of damage Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Symptoms and Damage I 0 Several Categories 0 Hypertonia o Abnormalities in movement 0 Tremor at the end of movements Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Hypertonia I o Is a reduced resistance to limb displacements 0 Tap knee with a percussion hammer 0 Lower leg normally reflexes and returns to resting position 0 With Hypertonia leg re exes and oscillates several times Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Abnormalities In Movement Ataxia I 0 Many types 0 Generally related to a lack of coordination 0 Get delays in initiating a response 0 Errors in the rate and regularity of movement 0 Cannot repeatedly tap the hand on the front then the back 0 Others 3 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Tremor at the End of Movements 0 Person moves arm to some location 0 Tries to stop when supposed to 0 Get lots of overcompensation and corrections 0 Get jerks Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Sites of Damage 0 Damage can be identified based on the type of symptom o Vermis lesions 0 Produce problems in the control of muscles to the trunk 0 People sit or stand with their legs apart to help with their balance Often seen in thiamine deficiency Alco olics 0 Also get slurring and slowing ofspeech One word at a time quality scanning Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Intermediate Cerebellum Damage r 0 Produce limb tremors 0 Results in uncoordinated actions 0 Often move one joint at a time Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Other Cerebellar Problems 0 Involved with procedural memories 0 Causes problems with motor learning 0 Also has a general role in some mental operations 0 Damage causes problems where a skill is developed through repeated practice Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Conclusion I 0 Multiple types of motor disorders 0 Some can be helped others cannot 0 Symptoms can be very useful in diagnosing brain damage await Sensation Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio ledure while viewing these slides LJ and Cognition Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Sensation Perception o All sensory systems operate the same ey only use different mechanisms 0 Have a physical stimulus eg weight heat cold light 0 The stimulus emits some sort of energy 0 Energy activates some sort of receptor Ll Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Sensation I o The receptor system is designed to convert transduce the energy to action potentials 0 You then organize the physical energy to neural energy by electricalchemical reactions Perception Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 You then organize and filter the energy as the information progresses through the different systems 0 Ultimately you develop patterns and process the material Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Cognition j o Allows you to determine what the pattern means 0 Uses different brain systems depending on the stimulus Summary Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Sensation is involved with detecting the stimulus and converting the information to action potentials o Perception is involved with organizing the action potentials o Cognition is involved with giving the organization some meaning that we can understand Ll psyem e thsm aqma Psychmaqv Somatosenses Prowdes mformatwon reatmg to events on the 5km and to events occurnng wrthrn the bodv Two groups ses recewe varnus S Qna s fmm the 5km thatfurm the sense Dfmuch Pressure rhraton heatrnecuohng strnruh that damage trssue and Dmdune Dam Krnesunesra medes mfnrrnatnn abuut budv DDStDn and mavement Are actan potentraxs fmm rEEEDtDrs Dcated wrthrn the lawns tendurvs and musc es mm 7 phrsmuamar Psychmaqv Touch Lots of Receptors Three mam Groups Nocrceptors Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Mechanoreceptors Musde and Ske eta Meohonoreoeotors J The Skin nee Meme Ending Merkels Reeemnr Enmemus nemus psyem e thsm aqma Psychmaqv Nociceptors Are receptors for detectrng pern Have free nerve espond to st uh Fou am tv sharp pnckhng parn Therma and Mechanormerrnax rung parn endmgs wrthrn the 5km that r m A so respond to heat aods and capsaron r rn es H S ow bur zlr Po ymoda Reeemnr S oW burmng 1 The Skin nee Meme Ending Merkels Reeemnr Enmemus nemus Hzlr Reeemnr psyem e thsm aqma Psychmaqv Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Mechanoreceptors Are responsible for Touch Sensations Merssner39s Cumusd tter Pamma c sde vmratron Ruf m Cnruusde Steadv 5km Indentatnn Merke Receptor Steadv 5km Indentatnn Harrsguaro utter oth rs The Skin nee Meme Endmv Merkeus Recerllnr Enmemus nemus Hzlr Recerllnr psvem e thsm aqma Psychamqv Pain mm s pnvsmramr psvmnqv Pain Receptors Nociceptors Are receptors for porn Have tree nerve endmgs networks wrtnrn nse tne 5km tnat respond to mte pressure M50 respond to nest acrds and capsarcrn Rece Chemical stimulati ptors are activated by mechanical on E psvem e thsm aqma Psychamqv Different Systems for Touch and Pain I DorsalrcolumnrMedial Lemniscal I Anterolateral psvem e thsm aqma Psychamqv Dorsalrcolumnr Medial Lemniscal System Involved with Drscnrnrnatrve toucn Vrbratron Percewmg and understandmg tne torrn and nature ofobjects stereognosrsgt Recewmg strrnuh wrtnrn tne trssues Wergnt drscnrnrnatron of Structu res Used psvem e thsm aqma Psychamqv Uses tne Fascwcu us Grscms and Fwscwcu us Cuneatus m tne Dorsa Co umn ottne Spma Cord Srgnsx Crosses at tne MeduHa Uses tne Medxa Lemmscus pathwav trorn tne Mrdbrarn to tne Tha amus Termmates m postenor sters nudeus and postenor sterd group ot tne Tha amus Srgnsx goes from Tha amus seoondarv sornatrc sensorv oomces Area 3 1 2 and postenor panetd cortex to p marv and E DorSaIVColumnrMedial Lemniscal System psyem e thslalaqlcal Psvchalaqv Anterolateral System Responsible for Palh Cold armth Pressure lck e Itch Crude Touch psyem e thslalaqlcal Psvchalaqv Structures Used Srgnel eros at the Splrlal co d Uses the Lateral Splrlothala Splrlal Cord to trav the Retlcular Farmstan r urn Ventral Duster Dr Lateral Nucleus Duster Dr nuclear QrDuD at the Thalamus Intrallmlnar nuce Slgrlal goes from Thalamus to prlmarv and Seoorldar somatlc sensory oortlces Area 3 1 2 and posterlor parletal cortex r mlc Tract of the 1 Anterolateral System psyem e thslalaqlcal Psvchalaqv Muscle and Skeletal Mechanoreceptors Again several different types Jolht Capsule Mechahreceptors Jolrlt Capsule Pressure H a llmlted role m llmb proprloceptlorl E Ullwelslly mldahu Voluntary Movement Brain and Spinal Systems Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Eleven E veer PhD Lllerl to the audio lecmre while VlEerlg mesa slides Motor Control P5vc372 e physiological Psychalaqv 1s organized hierarchically and in parallel Lower e Re exes and rhythmic motor patterns Higher 7 Give commands wilhout having to specify the details of the motor system Lots of overlap P5vc372 e physiological Psychalaqv Have Three Levels of Control Cort x Highest ary Motor Cortex Area 4 Lateral Premotor area Area 6 d pplementary Motor area Also part gt Area 6 Basal Ganglla Cortex P5vc372 e physiological Psychalaqv Precentral Gyrus Primary Motor Cortex P emotor area Superior and Middle Frontal Gyrus Supplementary Motor area Superior Frontal Gyrus Tertiary Motor Areas Middle and Inferior Frontal Gyrus Issues commands that act on lower levels Cortex Mmmm o Muscles SuDDlCmcmaW 39llomr area Plimal v molm cavlex Plolnmal Corlox limo lspac39nnoz Inmllnrl u l min Plans lar r4 movamami Mallory mmspllmfs and We V waqu Flelmnlnl Pimsmvrlu WHEX L Tsvllplvml lnh cll Pineal lobe max lob mm a mammal Psychalaqv Precentral Gyrus adman s Area 4 I IS the Primary Motor Cortex Controls the major systems that control body movement Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Precentral Gyrus Broadman s Area 4 t 0 Motor cortex is somatotopically organized motor homunculus 0 Most is taken up with the neck mouth face and hands Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Precentral Gyrus Receives Input From K o Premotor cortex 0 Supplemental motor area 0 Frontal association cortex 0 Post Central Gyrus Movement involves all of these structures ii Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Premotor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex I o Broadman s areas 6 and 8 0 Help coordinate and plan complex sequences of movement 0 Receives information from posterior and prefrontal association areas Tertiary Motor Area Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology o Broadman s Areas 9 10 11 45 46 47 o More planning and thinking of movement 0 45 46 47 Involved with speech Cortex Motor Areas Cortex Motor Areas Cerebellum Spinal Cord V Feedback Loop 439 Sensory Receptors Descending Motor Pathways Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Axons from Area 4 descend to the spinal cord via two groups 0 Lateral Group 0 Ventromedial Group psyem e physiaiaqieai psyenaiaqy Lateral Group Many Pathway Corticospinal moyements Generally controls independent limb movements s tract handfinger Cortlcobulbar tract moyements of face neck tongue Rubrosplrlal tract fore and l39lll39ld llmb muscles psyem e physiaiaqieai psyenaiaqy Ventromedial Group Controls gross limb movements estibulospinal tract control ofposture Tectospinal tract coordinate eye an headtrunk moyements Reticulospinal tract Walking sneeZing muscle tone yentral corticospinal tract muscles of upper legtrunk 1 psyem e physiaiaqieai psyenaiaqy Corticospinal Tract the gray matter of the spinal cord Beglris in layer 5 o primary Axons pass through the cere the midbrain dec lrl the me Becomes the Lateral Cortlcosplrial Tract 20 remain ipsilateral Becomes in e Ventral cortioospinal Tract Neurons terminate on motor neurons Within motor cortex bral peduncles of 80 cross over to the opposite side or the body ussate at the pyramidal decussation dulla psyem e physiaiaqieai psyenaiaqy Corticospinal Tract Terminate onto internuncial neurons or alpha m tor neurons of ventr horn mon pa hway Efferent neurons to the muscle group I Final Com psyem e physiaiaqieai psyenaiaqy Function I Controls fine motor moveme Destr ction loss of muscle strength reduced dexterity of hands and fingers No effect of corticospinal lesi ns on p0 39 Uses different brain structures BG Cerebellurn psyem e physiaiaqieai psyenaiaqy Final Common Pathway Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Neuromuscular Junction I I o The neuromuscularjunction is the synapse formed between an alpha motor neuron and a muscle fiber 0 Each axon forms synapses with several muscle fibers forming a my 0 The precision of muscle control is related to motor unit size Small precise movements of the hand Large movements of the leg 2 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology ACh 0 Primary NT at the neuromuscular junction p al 0 ACH release produces a large endplate otenti 0 Voltage changes open Ca channels 0 Ca entry triggers myosinactin interaction rowing action 0 Movement of myosin bridges shortens muscle fiber 0 Contraction occurs ii Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Golgi Tendon Organ Receptors 0 Function to prevent overcontraction of striated muscle 0 Are located within tendons 0 Sense degree of stretch on muscle 0 GT0 activation inhibits the agonist muscle via release of glycine onto alphamotor neuron Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Other Brain Structures Involved with Movement 0 Basal Ganglia o Cerebellum o Spinal Cord audio Glial Cells Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot P Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Overview 1 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Are very important 0 Are not neurons 0 Have no action potentials 0 But have threshold charges 0 Are there to help neurons 0 Act as a support function 0 Greater numbers 0 250 times as many glial cells than neurons Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Two Major Groups I o Microglia o Macroglia Microglia Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Are phagocytes 0 Eat up dead material and things 0 Will migrate to damaged areas 0 With Lesions get Gliosis Concentrate and clean up material Forms scar tissue 0 Serve as part of the immune system Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Macroglia 0 Types 0 Astrocytes o Oligodendrocytes o Ependymal o Schwann Ast rocytes r Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Hallow stars 0 Appear transparent and look like stars 0 Make contact with both white and gray matter 0 not migrate much 0 Fibrous Astrocytes 0 Find in Myelinated T39ssue but don t make myelin o Protoplasmic o Are starshaped and have lots of cytoplasm 0 Make function with capillaries Are phagocyto C Li Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Possible Function 0 Take up material digest it and push it through the capillary blood stream for removal Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Oligodendrocytes I o Are located in the CNS 0 Is a many branching cell c In CNS will myelinate 3040 axons Prob Do not regenerate well Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Schwann Cell 0 Are found in the PNS 0 Also make myelin 0 One cell makes one myelin sheath 0 Regenerate faster than Oligodendrocytes 0 Provide conduits for an axon to follow 0 Hypothesized why you get better neural regeneration when damage occurs Ll Schwann Cell Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 In CNS 0 When Oligodendrocytes are destroyed axon distribution becomes confused o No conduits 0 Growth cones are random Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Ependymal 0 Forms the lining of ventricles 0 Has cilia 0 Appears to aid in the movement of CSF through ventricles o CSF is made very fast and is very dynamic o Diffusion cannot explain the speed of CSF i Glial Functions r Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Myelination Salutatory Functions 0 NT uptake 0 Ion uptake 0 Glue o Nutritive Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Myelination I o Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells 0 Myelinates axons 0 Has a salutatow function 0 Allows electrical conductivity to jump from between No es of Ranvier 0 Get a field skipping effect 0 Result makes action potentials go faster Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology NT Uptake and Degradation 1 0 Removes NT after exocytotic release from presynaptic elements 0 Will also provide compounds to degrade NT 0 Good evidence for uptake and sto Glutamate and Aspartate o Weaker evidence for release rage Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Ion Upta e Communication with Neurons I o Glial cells are only permeable to Potassium K 0 Not permeable to Na Ca etc o Membrane potential Inside to Outside 8 difference 0 Vina concentration of 3mM of K o Depends on ion concentrations and diffusion Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Concept 0 Have a glial cell Usually an Astrocyte in a water bath of 3mM 0 Concentration outside cell is 3mM Kco3mM Concept Measuring Device 85mv V Glial Cell Kco3mM Water Bath Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Increase Kco to 30mM Kco30mM More K enters the glial cell by diffusion Result 7 Glial cell becomes more positive ii Increase Kco to 30mM Measuring Devic e 60mv 39 Kco30mM Glial Cell Water Bath Psvc 372 7 thsiologicel Psvchologv Decrease Kco to 3mM by Adding More Water K ch 3mM 2 More K leaves the glial cell by diffusion Result 7 Glial cell becomes more negative Decrease Kco to 3mM Measuring Device 95mv V ch 3mM Glial Cell Water Baih Psvc 372 7 thsiologicel Psvchologv Concept 1 Make the membrane more positive called Depolarization Make the membrane more negative called Hyperpolarization Psvc 372 7 thsiologicel Psvchologv Concept 2 E I o By manipulating the concentration of Potassium in the interstitial uid you can drive the glial cell HOW Stimulate the Neurons around it Neurons release Potassium More action potentials more Potassium Get greater depolarization of glial cells As N pumps start decrease K and glial diffuses from the glial and get hyperpolarization ii Psvc 372 7 thsiologicel Psvchologv Conclusion K o Glial Membrane Potential depends on the concentration of K int e interstitial fluid 0 Glial help to regulate the amount of K o Helps to buffer the Neurons o Prevents Seizures awe Spinal Reflexes Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Overview 0 Importance first recognized Sherrington o Believed that simple reflexes activated by receptors in the skin and muscls were the basic units of movement 0 Also complex sequences of movement were the combinations ofsimple reflexs 0 Has been the dominant view for 100 years 0 New data shows that you can complete coordinated movement without sensory information o Is still important Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Overview Continued I o Stimuli for reflexes comes from receptors in 0 Skin 0 Joints 0 Muscles Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Past o Reflexes were automatic and stereotyped o Occurred in response to some stimulus being applied to peripheral receptors Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Today 0 Know reflexes can be modified and adapt to tasks 0 Can be smoothly incorporated with movements initiated by the cortex Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 1 Three Principles of Reflexes 0 Transmission in reflex pathways is set according to the motor task 0 Called a functional set 0 Sensory input from a localized stimulus source produces reflex responses in many muscles 0 Some responses can be far away from the stimulus o Supraspinal centers modulate and help spinal reflexes adapt Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Reflexes I 0 Two types 0 Monosynaptic o Polysynaptic Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Stretch Reflex o Is a contraction of a muscle that occurs when a muscle is lengthened 0 As you begin to stretch out the muscle it begins to contract 0 Also the opposing muscles relax 0 Thus stretch stimuli cause excitation in some motor neurons and inhibition in others Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Polysynaptic Reflexes I o Involves multiple synapses between sensory axons lnterneurons and motor neurons 0 Axons from the afferent muscle spindles can synapse onto Alpha motor neuron connected to the agonist muscle An inhibitow interneuron connected to the antagonist muscle Signals from the muscle spindle activate the agonist and inhibit the antagonist muscle Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Monosynaptic Reflex I o Involves one synapse between a sensory fiber from a muscle and an alphamotor neuron o Monosynaptic stretch reflex posture o Patellar reflex Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology How 1 o Sensory receptors in the muscle sense that the muscle is beginning to stretch Their signals to neurons in the spinal cord tell other neurons to o Relax opposing muscles 0 Contract the muscle that begins to stretch o Allows a feedback loop Reflex Arcs 0 Also sends information to cortical Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Example NOXIOUS Stimulus Withdrawal i o Occurs from interaction with o Afferent neurons sensow o Internuncial neurons 0 Efferent neurons Motor structures Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Why are they important 0 Stimulus stepping on a nail o Afferent to dorsal horn in spinal cord Spinal cord pathways gracile and cuneate fasciculus to the tha amus halamus to areas 312 o 312 to supplementary premotor motor extrapyramidal pathway structures 0 Motor areas fire 0 Signal goes down lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts plus other pathways 0 What is the problem with this system 13 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Answer I o It takes a long time before you pick up your foot By the time you do the nail is through your foot Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Alternative I o Stimulus o Afferent neuron sends information to dorsal horn of spinal cord 0 Synapses on an internuncial neuron o Synapses with an efferent neuron o Efferent neuron sends information via final common pathway to muscle 0 Contraction takes pressure off the nail i Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Differences 0 Signi cantly less damage to the t issue 0 Is a gross system Do not get a fully defined movement Do not pick foot all the way 0 Need other pathways 0 Is an all or nothing system up the Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology So What Ultimately Happens o Stimulus step on a nail o Afferent to dorsal horn in spinal cord 0 Synapses on an internuncial neuron o Internuncial is a Unipolar neuron shaped like a T TCell o Sends to two pathways Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 1 To Motor Neurons o Connects to an efferent neuron in ventral horn o Efferent to final common pathway 0 To muscle contraction o Takes pressure off nail o Simultaneously Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 2 Contralateral Muscles I I o Are also stimulated to provide support during limb withdrawal 3 Inhibitory Interneurons Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 0 Shut down antagonistic muscles Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 4 Cortical Loop 0 Internuncial neuron usesspinal cord pathways gracile and cuneate fasciculus to the t alamus Thalamus to areas 312 association areas etc o 312 to supplementaw premotor motor extrapyramidal pathway structures Motor areas i e Si nal oes down lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts Also rubros inal tectospinal and other spinal pa hways Synapse at ventral horn Final common pathway Contract muscle Lift foot Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Other Structures from Thalamus o Goes to association areas memory areas to speech integration areas Wernickes o Wernicke s area to Broca s area 0 You say ouch or other things Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Finally 1 j c As you lift foot opposing muscles relax 0 Systems related to balance fire so you do not fall down 0 You develop memory traces of what happened 0 Others Conclusion Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 0 Reflexes are biphasic 0 Have a initial removal of pressure 0 Remove limb from the damaging object 0 Many systems are involved depending on the stimulus event 0 Sometimes can be overridden by cognitive systems Train yourself not to pull away j arcane Vertebral Column Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Vertebral Column I o Consists of 26 bones o 24 individual vertebrae 0 Two groups that fuse together 0 Has a hole running through the middle Vertebral Foramen o ome have other holes as well Transverse Foramen o lso have intenertebral disks located between the vertebrae 0 Forms strong joints 0 Provides some flexibility o Cushionss ock ii Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Vertebrae are Grouped in Different Regions I o Cervical o Thoracic o Lumbar o Sacrum o Coccyx Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Cervical Contains 7 bones Named C1 through C7 C1 is called the Atlas C2 is called the Axis Only vertebrae to have three holes Foramina o Vertebral foramina in the centerof the vertebral column 0 Transverse foramina one on each side Are smaler o Vertebrae ave smaller bodies and shorter processes that stick straight back 0 C7 vertebra prominens o Is a prominent process that can be felt at the Li base of the neck Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Atlas and Axis o The atlas connects the occipital condyles of the skull and with the axis 0 Allows the head to move in a up down direction 0 Yes movement 0 Axis connects with the atlas o Allows the head to move from side to side 0 No movement J Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Thoracic m 0 Have 12 Bones plus disks 0 Are connected to the ribs 0 T1 is the vertebra where the top rib attac es 0 Has a single vertebral foramen in the middle of eac 0 Body of the vertebrae is heart shaped o Processes are long and point down 0 Can develop exaggerated thoracic curvature o Hunchback appearance Kyphosis J 6 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Lumbar I 1 o Consists of five vertebrae and disks in the lower back 0 Vertebrae are much larger 0 Have a bean sha e o Spinous process are short and point straight back 0 Is the location for a lumbar puncture spinal tap 0 Done between L3 and L4 or L4 and LS 0 Some eople can develop exaggerated lumbar cunature swayback 0 called Lordosis J Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Sacrum K 0 One group 0 Consists of S vertebrae that fuse together 0 Occurs in late teens to early 20 s 0 Is the location for epidural anesthesia o Is injected into the sacrum at the sacral hiatus l Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Coccyx I o Is the tailbone o Consists of one group 0 Contains 4 coccygeal vertebrae that fuse together Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Other Structures o Intervertebral Disks 0 Are located between each pair of vertebrae o Are made of fibrocartilage o Adds support 0 Absorbs shock Intervertebral foramen o Is the opening formed between two vertebrae o Is where newes go out to the body 0 Not the same as the vertebral foramen Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Some Disorders E j o Herniated slipped disc protrusion or rupture of an intervertebral disc 0 Scoliosis exaggerated meal bending of spinal column 0 Spina bifida have incomplete closure of the vertebral column ulta Types Usually symptomiess AsmaII defect orgap in the vermbrae Spinal cord and nerves usually are normal Most people have no robiens Meningooeie pronounced muh7NING7go7seaI Rarestform Cyst or Iump surrounding the spinal cord poles through the open partof the spine an be remove by surgery maI develo ment yelomeningoceie my7uh7iow7muh7NING7go7seaI Mostsevere form Cyst ooniains nerve roots of the spinal cord and often the cord tself May be no cystjust open section ofthe spinal cord Spinal ud mayiea ou High risk of infection until the back is closed surgically Antib otc treatment may offer Emporary promcton Usually have Ieg paralys39s and bladderand bowel I robiens 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Other Things 0 Is most common in the lumbarsacral region 0 Often occurs with Hydrocephalus o Is correlated with the lack of B vitamins Folic ACId 0 Treatment is usually surgical o Vew early 12 weeks post delivery 0 Prenatal surgew has begun as well audio Schizophrenia Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Overview 1 2 o Probably consists of more than one disorder 0 Is the most devastating disorder 0 Occurs in about 1 of the o ulation 0 Another 23 have Schizotypal Personality Disorder No major sex differences in prevalence rates Costs of care gt30 Billion Dollars annually Many homeless are untreated or stop meds Genera y o Is a d39sorder of thought and emotion o Is not a splitpersonalityquot d39sorder Ll Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Characterized by c Disorganized Thoughts 0 Hallucinations o Delusions o Bizarre behaviors Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Two Different Types of Schizophrenic Symmoms 0 Positive 0 Negative 0 Often are preceded by Prodromal signs 0 Social Isolation 0 Odd Behavior and Ideas 0 Poor Hygiene 0 Blunted Affect Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Positive Symptoms K t 0 Usually occur during psychotic episodes 0 Usually involve distinct abnormal behaviors 0 Includes 0 Delusions o Hallucinations o Disorders of thought Delusions r Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Are beliefs that are contrary to reality 0 Can involve 0 Control 0 Grandeur o Persecution Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Hallucinations o Are perceptions that occur in the absence of stimuli 0 Can be 0 Visual o Auditory Most Common 0 Olfactow o Tactile Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Disorders of Thought I 0 Can be 0 Disorganized o Irrational Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Negative Symptoms I I 0 Usually occurs during nonpsychotic periods 0 Generally involves a loss of normal behaviors 0 Reduced speech 0 Low initiative 0 Social withdrawal 0 Diminished affect Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Diagnosis I 0 Must be continuously ill for at least 6 months 0 Need to have one psychotic phase where you have 0 Delusions o Hallucinations o Disordered thoughts incoherence or other sympton39s 0 See DSM IV for more detail ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Many Subtypes of Schizophrenia K 0 Based on the symptoms that are presented 0 Paranoid o Catatonic o Disorganized 0 Others Causes of Schizophrenia Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Many Different Hypotheses t o Genetics 0 Brain Abnormality Hypothesis 0 Dopamine Hypothesis Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Genetic Contributions K 0 Highly probable schizophrenia is genetic o Is probably not caused by one gene 0 Would show in all monozygotic twin studies 0 Is probably caused by the combination of several genes 0 Not totally sure which ones 0 Has been identified with genes on Chromosome 22 and Chromosome 6 ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Brain Abnormality Hypothesis o Idatified by CT and Cerebral Blood Flow u Ies Some Patients have one or more of the following o Reductbn of blood flow to the left beus Pallidus 0 Problems in the frontal lobes o Medial temporal lobe is thinner o Anterior Hypothalamus is smaller especially left side 0 Lateral and third ventricles are enlarged Sulci are also enlarged specially in the temporal and frontal lobes Ind cated reduced numbers of neurons 2 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Causes of Brain Damage 0 Birth trauma obstetrical issues 0 Viral infections that impair neural development during the second and third trimester o Nutritional issues 0 Others Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Conclusion 1 0 Not purely a genetic problem 0 Not purely a abnormality problem 0 Is probably a combination problem triggered by an environmental event 0 Eg Infants exposed to influenza during second and third trimesters 0 Not really sure what causes the disorder 5 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Dopamine Hypothesis m o Contends 0 Positive symptoms occur due to increased levels of Dopamine 0 Get increased stimulation of Dopaminergic synapses Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology History t o Larobit 0 Was looking for a drug to calm patients before neurosur e 0 Found Chlorpromazine worked very well 0 Hypothesized it might be used on other patients 0 Delay and Deniker found that high dosages of Chlorpromazine calmed patients with schizophrenia or manic depressive symptoms 2 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Chloropromazine and other Phenothiazines 0 Part of the drug group Typical Antipsychotics o Other Typical Antipsychotics o Butyrophenones Haloperidol o Thioxanthenes chlorprothixene 0 Have clear effects on schizophrenia 0 Block 0 Delusions o Hallucinations o Disordered thinking 20 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Atypical Antipsychotics I o Are another group of drugs 0 Are better for negative symptoms and cognitive problems 0 Also have fewer side effects 0 Includes 0 Clozapine o Risperidone o Olanzapine Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Atypical Antipsychotics o Bind to D3 and D4 receptors 0 Are in the limbic system and cortex 0 Few in the BG 0 Reason for few extrapyramidal side Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Support for Hypothesis 1 0 Drugs that increase dopamine levels Amphetamine Cocaine can produce positive symptoms of schizophrenia 0 Drugs that block DA receptors also reverse schizophrenia Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Which Receptors m 0 At least five types of Dopamine receptors 0 D 5 0 D1 and D5 Dla Increase CAMP o Are in the cortex hippocampus caudate ucleus 0 D2 Group D2 D3 D4 decrease CAMP o Are in the caudate putamen nucleus accumbens amygdala hippocampus pans of the cortex 0 Are abo in the caudate and putamen j Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Four Major Systems for Dopamine t o Tuberoinfundibular o Nigrostriatal o Mesolimbic o Mesocortical Nigrostriatal K Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology 0 Contributes to Parkinson s Disorder 0 May be involved with shortterm and long term antipsychotic side effects 0 ShortTerm 0 Hand tremor 0 Muscle rigidity 0 Long Term 0 Tardive Dyskinesia Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Mesolimbic I 0 Several structures 0 Is involved with emotion and memory 0 Symptoms of thought and perception disturbances are characteristic of schizophrenia and psychomotor epilepsy o Carlsson o Hypothesizes the positive symptoms result from overactivity of this system i Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Mesocortical o Originates in ventral tegmental area 0 Projects to the cortex especially prefrontal cortex 0 Prefrontal cortex is involved in 0 Motivation 0 Planning 0 Attention 0 Social Behavior 0 Hypothesized to be involved with negative symptoms of schizophrenia El Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Weinberger j 0 Contents two dopamine systems are impacted by schizophrenia 0 Increased activity of mesolimbic pathway through D2 group especially D4 are associated with Positive symptoms 0 Decreased activity of mesocortical connections in prefrontal cortex is associated with negative symptoms 3 How m Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Mesocortical pathway to prefrontal cortex inhibits the mesolimbic pathway 0 Primary effect of schizophrenia is a reduction of inhibition 0 Leads to disinhibition in mesolimbic pathway 0 Get symptoms Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Drugs I 0 Many types 0 Given on the basis of symptoms and potency needed 0 Can be Typical or Atypical depending on the symptoms Some Drug Names Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Highest to lowest potency o Chlorpromazine o Clozapine o Molindone o Moperone o Haloperidol o Pimozide o Spiperone 0 Many others can be imserted in the list 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Drug Side Effects I 0 Include o Autonomic problems dry mouth 0 Skineye pigmentation 0 Breast development 0 Tardive dyskinesia facial tics and gestures 0 Others 0 Side effects cause people to stop their s a medication Conclusion Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Severe disorder 0 Most people can be treated effectively 0 Many people stop taking their medications Revolving door syndrome Future work on decreasing drug side effects Examine the genetics associated underlying the disorder ii audio Brain Tumors Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio ledure while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Background o More than 120 types 0 Can occur in any part of the brain or SC 0 Only 31 survive five years after diagnosis 0 Often requires treating the entire brain rather than just some parts Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology The Brain I Z 0 Contains both Neurons and glial cells 0 Is covered by the meninges 0 Also contains blood vessels 0 Also contains cavities Tu mors I Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Many types 0 Are classified according to the type of cell which causes the tumor 0 Can be fast or slow growing 0 Are often different in children 0 Can arise from several places Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Tumors in the Brain 1 0 Start in the brain itself 0 Called Primary Tumors o Often involve many types of tumor cells 0 Makes it difficult to kill 0 Each type of cell is resistant do different 0 Many types 0 Astrocytoma o Glioblastoma o Oligodendroglioma o Ependymona iJ Location r Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Most tumors come from Astrocytes 65 c When come from glial cells called gliomas o Astrocytoma o Anaplastic Astrocytoma o Glioblastoma Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Tumors in the Meninges o Meningiomas Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Tumors In Nerves at the Base of the Brain I 0 Come from Schwann Cells 0 Acoustic neuromas o Schwannomas Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Tumors that Come from Outside the Brain 1 o Called Secondary Tumors o Metastatic brain tumors 0 Come from other body areas 0 Liver 0 Breast o Lun o Resemble the cells where the tumor starte J Symptoms of Brain Tumors Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Symptoms depend on where the tumor is locate o Frontal lobe muscle weakness confusion etc 0 Temporal Lobe Seizures types of aphasia etc o Occipital Lobe Visual problems 0 Parietal Lobe Loss of sensation Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Enlargement t c As becomes larger more tissue is destroyed o Tumors can also infiltrate between tissue 0 Makes it harder to remove Other Issues Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Some tumor cells live in low oxygen environments 0 Cells tend to be radioresistant and away from blood supplies 0 Decrease probability for success Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Treatment I 0 Many types of treatment Over 400 Protocols 0 Standard treatment 0 Use a combination of 0 Surgery 0 Radiotherapy o Chemotherapy Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Other Procedures and Technologies I o Lasers o Stereotactic computers 0 Radiosurgery o Gamma Knife 0 XKnife o Boron Neutron Capture 0 Others Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Treatment Issue for Physicians I o 1 gram of tumor contains approximately one billion ces 1000000000 0 Remove 99 990000000 of the tumor by some sort of surgery 0 Ultrasonic Aspiration 0 Computer Assisted Stereotactic surgery 0 Others 0 Regardless of best technique 0 Still have 10000000 cells 2 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Soooo 0 Use other techniques 1 Radiation at the site If 99 effective 9900000 gone Remaining cells left 100000 2 Use Chemotherapy at the site If 99 effective 99000 gone Remaining cells left 1000 Problem rarely do you get 99 removal rate ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Consequence 0 Cells grow in other locations 0 Result must treat the entire brain Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Newer Models 1 0 To increase success must treat the whole brain 0 How Surgew first Depending on the type of u Radiotherapy for the whole brain Chemotherapy for the while brain 0 Usually need other substancs to help the molecules cross the bbod brain barrier Immunotherapy way of the future 0 Use the immune system N w Psvc 372 7 phvsioiogicai Psvchoiogv Conclusion 1 0 Lots of work being done 0 Much better success rates than even years ago 0 Better techniques better technology better drugs 10 arcane Cerebral Vascular Structures and Disorders Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Lisilen to the audio lecture while viewing ihese slides Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Circulatory System Overview I c View Figure 99 in DeArmond et AI 0 From the Heart blood enters the Aorta o Branches off into two arteries 0 Carotid o Subclavian Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Carotid Artery 0 Again comes from the Aorta o Is the artery in the neck and under the jaw Branches into the internal carotid artery Enters the cranium Traverses the sinuses Branches off the opthalamic artery Penetrates the dura Branches into the Anterior and Middle cerebral arter39es Emerges from the sinuses and branches off anterior choroidal artery i Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Anterior Cerebral Artery o Supplies 0 the cortex 0 White matter of the inferior frontal lobe o edial surface of frontal and parietal lobes o Anterior corpus callosum o Branches into smaller branches Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Also Supplies 1 0 Deep cerebrum o Diencephalon o Limbic structures 0 Head of the caudate o Anterior limb of the internal capsule Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Middle Cerebral Artery o Supplies 0 Most of the cortex and white matter 0 Smaller branches supply 0 Deep white matter 0 Diencephalic structures Posterior limb of the internal capsule Putamen Outer Globus Pallidus Body of the Caudate Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Anterior Choroidal Artery I o Supplies 0 Anterior hippocampus o Posterior limb of the internal capsule Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Subclavian Artery I 0 Come from the Aorta or Innominate artery Supply the upper extremities arms 0 Each sends offa branch called vertebral artery 0 Vertebral artery enters the cranium through the Foramen Magnum 0 Each gives off anterior spinal artery and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery 0 Join at the junction of the pons and medulla to form the basilar artery ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Basilar Artery o Divides into the Posterior Cerebral arteries Supplies 0 Inferior Temporal Lobe o Medial Occipital Lobe Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Circle of Willis 0 Is a collection of major vessels that all connect together 0 Is located at the bottom of the cerebral cavity 0 Generally loops around the brain stem 0 Nice place for tumors to develop Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Structures 1 o Anterior Communicating Artery 0 Internal Carotid o Anterior Cerebral Arteries o Posterior Communicating arteries 0 Posterior cerebral arteries Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Loop r i 0 Two anterior cerebral arteries are connected by anterior communicating artery 0 Two posterior cerebral arteries are connected to the internal carotid by the posterior communicating arteries Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Anastomoses o Are interconnections between blood els vess 0 Generally protect the brain or other structures when blood supplies are blocked o Eg Circle of Willis Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Cerebral Vascular Accidents 1 o Strokes Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Two Major Types I o Occlusive o Hemorrhagic o Are due to problems with some blood vessels Occlusive I Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 0 Blood flow in the brain is obstructed for some reason 0 There is no blood loss 0 Unless blood gets to the tissue it will die insuf cient supply 0 Called ischemia Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Hemorrhagic o Occurs from the rupture of a vein or artery 0 Blood flows out of veins andor arteries 0 Blood is acidic o Destroys membranes and kills neurons 0 We all may have some small minor strokes 0 Good clotting damage is minimal or doe ur s not occ o If damage occurs to a major artery it can be a serious problem i Brain Damage Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 0 Depends on which structure is blocked or ruptured o Depends on the duration of blockage 0 Symptoms are related to the vessels that are impacted Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Middle Cerebral Artery o Is the most frequent disorder 0 Symptoms o Contralateral weakness 0 Sensow loss 0 Visual problems 0 May have language problems Damage Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Affects arms and face more due to location of the damage 0 Motor and sensory loss greatest in the hands 0 May get aphaisa or other language problems 0 Other symptoms Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Symptoms of CVA s I o Sudden weakness or numbness in a body structure 0 May also be gradual 0 Mistake for old age problems 0 Lack of coordination 0 Loss of memory confusion o Pupils may not be equal or constrict together 0 May be unconscious Treatment Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology o If having gradual weakness or problems with one side see your 39 39 o Sudden symptoms 0 Keep the person from moving around 0 Get the person to a hospital ASAP 0 Lots of newer drugs in development audio Basal Ganglia Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Listen to the audio ledure while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Basal Ganglia I I 0 Does not have direct input or output to the spinal cord 0 Receives information from the cortex 0 Sends output to 0 Brain stem via the thalamus o Cortex Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Past 0 Had specific systems involved with movement 0 Pyramidal o Extrapyramidal o Corticospinal o Other structures including BG Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Today 0 Many more parts are involved 0 Movement problems can also occur with problems in the 0 Brain stem 0 Red Nucleus o Cerebellum Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Consists of Four Principal Nuclei K o Striatum o Globus Pallidus Pallidum o Substantia Nigra o Subthalamic Nucleus Striatum r Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Has three important subdivisions 0 Caudate Nucleus o Putamen o Ventral Striatum Includes Nucleus Accumbens 0 Mostly divided by the internal capsule o Are fibers that go from the cortex to the thalamus in both directions ii Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Striatum I I o Receives most of the fibers from the o Cortex o Thalamus 0 Brain Stem Structures 0 Sends fibers to o Globus Pallidus o Substantia Nigra Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology St riatu m I o All areas of the cortex send excitatow glutaminergic fibers to the striatum Also gets dopaminergic projections from the ra in Finally gets serotonergic input from the Raphe uclei Contains mostly GABA neurons Has two separate parts called patches 0 Matrix 0 Striosome 0 Both are separate and have different types of receptors 3 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Globus Pallidus Pallidum I o Lies medial to the Putamen 0 Has two segments 0 External 0 Internal 0 Use GABA as a NT Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Substantia Nigra r 1 o Lies in the midbrain on medial side of the internal capsule 0 Has a compact zone pars compacta o Is a distinct nucleus 0 Contains Many Dopamine neurons Oxidized pigment from Do amine Neuromelanin makes the structure dark Increass with age 3 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Subthalamic Nucleus o Lies below the thalamus Lies above the substantia nigra Is closely connected to 0 Parts of the Globus Pallidus o Substantia Nigra Uses glutaminergic neurons 0 Are the only excitatow neurons in BG 0 All others are inhibitory i Subthalamic Nucleus Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal psychology Subthalamic Nucleus 0 Input to the basal ganglia ls from the 0 Primary motor cortex 0 Substantia Nigra 0 Output of the basal ganglia is to 0 Primary motor cort 0 Supplemental motor area 0 Premotor area 0 Brainstem motor nuclei ventromedial pathways Cortical Basal Ganglia Loop rontal arietal temporal cortex send axons to cau a e pu amen o Caudateputamen sends axons to the globus pallidus cortex Vla thalamic nuclei 0 Iobus pallidus sends information to the motor 13 Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal psychology Functions K 0 Past Only motor related function 0 Today 0 Motor 0 Cognitive o Emotional o Motivated behavior 5 Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal psychology Output from the BG 0 Output is very important 0 Output neurons discharge at high 0 Internal Paida Segment 0 Pars Reticulata of Substantia Nigra 0 Both tonically inhibit target nuclei in the halamus and Brain Stem o Modulated by two parallel pathways 0 Indirect Pathway 0 Direct 2 Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology Indirect o Is purely Gabainergic o Goes first to external Paida Segment 0 Then goes to subthalamic nucleus 0 Finally goes to output nuclei in subthalamic nucleus 0 Contains excitatory glutaminergic neurons Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal psychology Direct 1 o Striatum to Pallidum c When activated shuts down the tonicly active neurons 0 Permits the thalamus and cortex to be activated Psyc 372 7 physlologlcal Psychology Comparisons m 0 Direct 0 Provides positive feedback 0 Activation disinhibits the Thalamus o Increases thalamuscortical activity 0 Facilitates movement 0 Indirect 0 Provides negative feedback 0 Activation inhibits the thalamus 0 Has opposing effect 0 Shuts down movement Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Dopamine I o Is very important 0 Direct are D1 receptors are excitatow 0 Indirect are D2 receptors are inhibitory o Synaptic actions are different 0 Both decrease inhibition of thalamocortical ns 0 Thus both facilitate movement 0 Decrease dopamine in the striatum 0 Activity increases output nuclei increases 0 Output nuclei then inhibit thalamocortical runs 0 Movement decreases 1 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Disorders I 0 Many different types 0 Parkinson s syndromedisease o Huntington s Disease 0 Most involve some sort of motor functioning problem amid Mood Affective Disorders Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melelquot Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides J Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Overview o Mood Disorders 0 Usually are related to sustained emotional states 0 Lasts weeks or more 0 Range of stimuli causing mood variability is more limited 0 Affective Disorders 0 Usually relates to immediate or momentary states of emotion o Lasts a short period of time o Are more directly responsive to external stimuli l Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Mood Disorders 0 Generally classified in two groups 0 Unipolar disorders 0 Depression 0 Mania 0 Bipolar Disorders Unipolar Depression Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 First described by Hippocrates 0 Thought depression was caused by an excess of Black Bile o Called Melancholia Black Bile 0 First really to propose that a psychological problem was caused by a physiological problem Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Today i Is described in appnoximately 5 of the world on populat g Most 70 have more than 0 verage onset age 2 s ue Men rriay notseek outtreatrnen o n n a U o 5 5 lt o u n E E m m D I m m m m i gi E m U Q 3923 m Dysthymia t the elderly 8 Mill on people in the us suffer fromthe disorder he ep39sode men are affecmd 23 times more ofmn than men Some Symptoms Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Unpleasant mood 0 Mental Anguish o Inability to experience pleasure 0 Loss of interest in the world Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel Psychology Requires Three of these Symptoms 0 Disturbed sleep 0 Loss of Appetite and weight loss 0 Loss of energy 0 Decreased sex drive 0 Restlessness o Psychomotor retardation 0 Difficulty in concentrating o Indecisiveness o Feelings of worthlessness o Guilt o Pessimistic thoughts 0 Thoughts of dying or suicide 0 Can be others 7 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Other Variables I 2 0 Depression needs to greater than the loss experience 0 Time of duration days vs weeks 0 No recent precipitating event 0 Death of a family member 0 Is not pervasive or unrelenting o No health disorder 0 Thyroid Problems 0 Others Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Diagnosis I 0 Should be done by a professional 0 Many types of tests 0 Beck Depression Inventow Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Subtypes of Unipolar Depression o Mechancholic Depression 0 Atypical o Dysthymia Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Mechancholic Depression 1 0 Most frequent 4060 0 Has no precipitation event Often occurs more than once May lead to motor retardation Responds well to 0 ECT o Tricycles o SSRI39s Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Atypical r 0 Less common than melancholic depression 0 Symptoms are opposite of melancholic depression 0 Appears earlier in life 0 Tends to be chronic 0 Can cheer up temporarily o Often overeat and sleep more 0 Depression is worse in the evening 0 Respond better to MAOIs E Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Dysthymia Causes 1 I m 2 o Is a milder depression 0 Genetic Causes 0 Lasts for at least two years 0 Concordance rates in Bipolar Depression Symptoms are milder than major can reach 80 in monozygotic twins depression 0 Suicide rates higher as well 0 No one specific gene has been identified 0 Chromosome 18 198q2223 appears linked with depression i ii Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 PhySioiogicai Psychology Biogenic Amine Hypothesis Support 0 Developed from the Catecholamine o MAOIs Tricycles and SSRI s increase Hypothesis the levels of Biogenic Amines and o Contends that depression occurs from a decrease dePFeSSIVe Symptoms reduction of Norepinephrine Serotonin o ECT also increases serotonin levels or both Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 PhySioiogicai Psychology Problem Neuroendocrine Function 1 j I Tricycles and SSRIIS rapidly block 0 Severely depressive IndIVIduals also reu take s stems of NE and Serotonin have exceSSlve secret on p y Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH 0 Recovery from depression Is often slow secretion by the pituitary weeks 0 Increases levels of cortisol from the 0 Some patients with depression actuay adrenal cortex have an increase of serotonin o Follows a circadian rhythm 0 Many depressive individuals also have a disruption of their circadian rhythms 0 Returns to normal levels following recovery from depression il a Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Conclusion 1 0 Not as clear cut as before May involve multiple systems 0 Regardless of cause have effective treatments Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Treatment for Unipolar Depression I o Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA s o Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors o Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors OECT Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Trlcycllc Antidepressants STCA s 0 Block the reuptake of Norepinephrine 0 Block the reuptake of Serotonin 0 Block postsynaptic Histamine receptors 0 Block postsynaptic Acetylcholine receptors Many Types Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Imipramine Tofranil o Desiparmine Norpramin o Amitriptyline Elavil o Nortriptyline Pamelor Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Clinical Limitations 1 0 Have slow onset of action 0 Exert a wide variety of effects on the CSN causing side effects not shared by o Are cardiotoxic and can be potentially ata Other Issues Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Do not produce euphoria in normal individuals 0 Are not reinforcing low abuse potential 0 Withdrawal is usually no problem 0 Have a long halflife o Readily cross the placental barrier Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology MonoamIne OXIdase o Are enzymes 0 Break down NE and Serotonin after vesicular release 0 Two types o MAOA Good MAO Found in NE and Serotonin synapses MAOB Bad MAO Found in Dopamine Synapses Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology MAO A and B I o MAOA o Blockage is responsible for antidepressant activity 0 MAOB o Blockage is responsible for side effects Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psycholog V MonoamIne Oxidase Inhibitors MAOIs 0 Have been around since the 1950 s 0 Have serious side effects especially with some foo s 0 Can be as safe as TCAs or SSRIs 0 Can work in patients who do not respond to other drugs 0 Are excellent for atypical depression i Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Types I o Phenelzine Nardil o Tranylcypromine Parnate o Isocarboxazid Marplan o All block MAOA and MAOB Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Side Effects 0 Can be fatal 0 Occurs with 0 Food 0 Cheese 0 Beer Medicines Nasal Spra Antihistam o Fermented foods Cold Medicines o Other Cocaine ys ines Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Overall r 0 Can be effective is used carefully 72 7 Physlologlcal Psychol SsvecraotonInSpecific Reotglptake Inhibitors SSRIs 0 Block the reuptake of S the synaptic cleft erotonin from 0 Don t block other neurotransmitters o Appear to be equally ef fective o Are not interchangeable 0 Used for a variety of other disorders as well Bulimia Anorexia ADHD Others 1 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Side Effects 1 0 Can cause 0 Alterations of cognition eg confusion o FeverChills o Agitation restlessness 0 0t ers 0 Usually occurs in combination with other 0 60 develop serotonin withdrawal syn rome Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Types I o Fluoxetine o Sertraine o Paroxetine o Fluvoxamine o Citalopram Prozac Zoloft PaXH Luvox Celexa Issues Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 SSRIs have the same effectiveness as a placebo in doubleblind studies Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Electroconvulslve Therapy 0 Can be very useful for Depression 0 Produces full remission or marked improvement in 85 of major depression Use about 68 treatmen SYmP Why Unknown patients with Not the same as old ECT Still causes a brain seizure ts Not 5060 Usually get complete remission of toms 0 May still get some memow loss 35 Mania Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 More than general hyperactivity o Literay bouncing off the walls 0 Treatment 0 Lithium Salts o Stops manic episodes 0 Is toxic to the liver Good followup Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Psvc 372 7 thsiological Psvchologv Bipolar Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder I I I 2 o Alteration of Mania with Depression 0 SAD is a form of depression evident in o Often occurs following a depressive Winter months Short dayslong nights episode 0 SAD involves 0 Usually take several weeks before drugs 0 Mood and sleep disturbances become effeCtiVe in treating the o Carbohydrate cravings and weight gain disorder 0 Phototherapy for SAD increased exposure to light improves mood in SAD and also for unipolar depression 1 a alum Feedback LoopsControl Systems Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Overview 1 o Is often associated with the concept of motivation o Are designed to keep the body at balance 0 Are involved in many systems 9 0 Thirst o Endocrine o Kinesthetic Movement 0 emperature 0 Others Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Example of a Control System Feedback Detector Set Points Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology o Are desired values within a system 0 Are designed to keep you at some level 0 Examples Temperature Body Weight Water balance Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Error Detector I 1 o Generates a signal that the value of a controlled variable does not match the Set Point 0 Then drives the systems controlling elements that adjust to some desired direction 0 Is controlled by both internal and external stimuli Controlling Elements Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Are systems that make changes after being cued by the error detector 0 Systems can be 0 Endocrine o Behavioral o Autonomic Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Control led System 0 Is the system that makes the changes Feed back Detectors Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology 0 Identify the changes that have occurre 0 Indicates changes have occurred 0 If at set point homeostatic balance has reoccurred o If not need to do something more Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Motor Control System I 0 Similar to other systems 0 Have motor systems that send information to muscles 0 Stimulatory contract 0 Inhibitow relax Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Muscles have Sensory Receptors o Sends information back to spinal cord 0 Internuncial neurons send information to opposing neurons in the final common pathway 0 Sends information to the brain 0 Goes to sensow areas cerebellar areas other areas 0 Allows for fine motor control 3 Psyc 372 7 physiological Psychology Conclusion 1 0 Many types of feedback loops 0 Are specific to each system o Are extremely important for control and homeostasis ineislly mldahu Neuronal Structures Soma Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Meiei mo Listen tn the audio iecmre wniie Viewing mesa siiues Mom 7 thsmiaqicai psycnaiaqv Membrane Separates the internal environment rom the interstitial uid of the body Contains a Lipid Bilayer psycsvz Membrane Two La Eac e thsmiaqicai psycnaiaqv en Membrane Water fearing d h moiecuie Snm mick Psv2372 e thsmiaqicai Psychaiaqv Stuff in the Membrane Proteins Are chains of amino c RNA DNA Receptors NaK Pump channeis etc Have 0740 amino acids E g neurotransmitters GABAA 0 things that ciassic Neurotransmitter don39t do Psy2372 e prmuwu Psychaiaqy Soma Internal structures Major Components i oma Parikaryon Around Nucleus Dendrites Dostsynaptic Eiement Axon Axon HiHock ode na Presynaptic Ei s naptic Knob Myeh ment Terminai Button Terminai Bouton etc 4 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Soma or Cell body 1 0 Has places where messages from other neurons can be received Post Synaptic Element 0 Is where cell metabolism takes place 0 Has many Structurs Nucleus Mtochondria Endoplasmic Retculum Smooth Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Other Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Two Classes of Cell Components 1 o Inclusions o Organelles Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Inclusions I Different types 0 Lipofusion Are fats in the cell Accumulate over time Fat ultimately can destroy the neuron Suffocates the cell 0 Are pigmented areas of the cell Substantia Nigra Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Organelles I o Are structures in the neuron that keep it healthy and living 0 Are in o The Soma o Nucleus 0 Throughout the cell Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Structures 1 o Neurofilaments o Nissel Bodies Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum o Golgi Bodies o Neurotubules o Mitochondria o Lysosomes o Inclusions o Other 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Neurofilaments r 0 Forms the skeleton of the neuron o Gives the neuron its shape 0 Is distributed like a skeleton c As we age neurofilaments tangle up 0 May be related to Alzheimer39s Disease Get rapid tangles Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Neurotubules I o Receives material vesicles from Golgi dies 0 Tubules go from soma to presynaptic elements 0 Are small long tubes Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Nissel Bodies Rough ER 0 Produces Proteins o Are used to Replaoe RNA Repa ir structural damage Make NT 0 During heavy stress neurosis etc see a decrease in Nissel Bodies May not be able to leep up with the demand Are used up fasmr Cells under stress swell 273 times normal size Same number but because cytoplasm larger the ratio is decreased is E Psyc 372 e Physlologlcal Psychology Golgi Bodies 0 Make packaging for proteins Vesicles 0 Generally package the proteins made by the Nissel Bodies 0 After packaging put vesicles into neurotubules Called Axoplasmic Flow Psyc 372 e Physlologlcal Psychology Axoplasmic Flow 0 Three types 0 Fast 0 Slow o Retrograde o Goes from Soma to Teleodendria o Tubules have Actin in the walls 0 Lipids have Myosin 0 Causes contraction by Peristalsis Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Axoplasmic Flow 1 0 Fast 0 Uses Per39stalsis o 400 mmday 121620 inches day d 0 Can get up to 2800 mm 0 Slow 40 mmday 0 Works by diffusion 0 Fast is the most important 0 Carries more material 0 Mostly 3 o Carries proteins through the cell Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Retrograde m o Goes from Presynaptic Elements to Soma o Recycles products 0 Can reuse vesicles 0 200 mm day by diffusion 0 Material returned to the soma provides a feedback loop 0 Fast return speed up 0 Slow return slow down 3 Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Vesicular Hypothesis 0 NT is synthesized in the Soma and wra 0 Put into tubules 0 Final components are done in the presynaptic elemen 0 NT is released in the cleft Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology NonVesicular Hypothesis 0 Everything is done in the Presynaptic o No Packaging 0 NT is released in the cleft Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Lysosomes x 0 Ar Oval Shaped organelles in the whole neuron o Are enzyme packages 0 Helps clean up the inside of the cell 0 When damage to an organelle occurs 0 Enzymes chew up the damaged organelle 0 Generally break down proteins effective recycling rnechanisrrs 0 During cell death lysosome release all enzymes to selfdestruct the cell i Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Mitochondria 0 Provides energy for the cell UIINEEIIy mldahu Mesencephalun Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Sievequot E Malev PnD Listen to the audio iecmie while viewing mesa slides psyem e physiaiaqieei psyenaiaqv Mesencephalon stimuli s n in Wis M some Virime mm 72 e physiaiaqieei psyenaiaqv n rm Mesencepha o brain I Tectu m Tegmentum Two major parts psyem e physiaiaqieei psyenaiaqv Tectu m Is the dorsal part of the mesencephalon I Contains two major Structures Superior Colliculi Interior Colliculi psyem e physiaiaqieei psyenaiaqv Superior Colliculi Superior means above Function Receives bers from tne retina ofthe ends information to tne cerebral cortex 1s important for controlling eye movements especially tracking psyem e physiaiaqieei psyenaiaqv Inferior Colliculi I Receives information from the cochlea of the ar and sends to the cortex Has a role in organizing auditory stimuli Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Tegmentum I o Is the part of the midbrain below the tectum 0 Contains the rostral end of the reticular formation 0 Nuclei that help control eye movements 0 Periaqueductal gray matter 0 Red Nucleus o Substantia Nigra o Ventral Tegmental area Reticular Formation I Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Are sets of fibers that go from the medulla pons and extends to the Thalamus 0 Thus has fibers in both the hind and mid brain 0 Has about 90 nuclei 0 Receives information from the cortex thalamus and spinal cord Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Functions I o Is important for controlling your state of arousal 0 May play a role in sleep 0 Has an important role in focusing attention and acting as a filter 0 Allows you to concentrate on important things while ignoring unimportant things buzz of a light Ll Periaqueductal Gray Matter Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Consists mostly of neuronal soma s cell bodies 0 Helps control movements that are related to speciesspecific behaviors mating fighting etc Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Red Nucleus K o Involved with motor movement 0 Helps with control of fine movement 0 Receives information from the cortex and cerebellum o Sends information to the spinal cord Substantia Black Substance o Is part of the Basal Ganglia 0 Also is involved with fine motor movement 0 Provides input with Red Nucleus and other structures 0 Sends axons to the putamen and caudate nucleus Ps c 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology gra Psvc 372 7 pHVSiOiOgicai Psvcnoiogv BRAIN STEM 0 People talk about the brain stem 0 Consists of all structures in both the Hind and Mid Brain await The Cerebellum Little Brain Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Melel Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Overview o Is located behind the Medulla and Pens Contains only 10 of the Brain s volume Contains more that 50 of the brain s neurons Appears similar to the cortex 0 Also has two hemispheres Is connected to the Pons by three bundles of axons called the Cerebellar Peduncles 0 Superior Brachium Conjunctivum Middle Brachium Pontis o Inferior Restiform Body Ll Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Function Overview I 0 Basically evaluates and adjusts motor movement while it is in progress 0 Does a lot of integration and evaluation of incoming information o Is very important for balance and motor learning Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Has Three Distinct Regions m 1 o Cerebellar cortex outer coverin o Is composed mostly ofGray Matter 0 Internal White Matter 0 Are Myelinated AxonsFiber Tracts 0 Three pairs of Deep Nuclei o Fastigal o Interposed Gobose Emboliform o Dentate o Nuclei receive information from the cerebellar cortex 0 Nuclei send informatbn to the cerebellum and to other brain structures Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Three Major Tracts of Neurons Connect to the Brain Stem j o inferior Cerebellar Peduncle 0 Middle Cerebellar Peduncle 0 Superior Cerebellar Peduncle 0 Has the most connections 0 Most input begins in deep nuclei Anatomically Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology 0 Cerebellum surface has many parallel convolutions called Folia leaves that run from side to side 0 Has three distinct lobes separated by two ssures psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Posteriolateral fissure t o Separates the body of the cerebellum rom the Flocculonodular o e o Is the primary fissure in the body of the cerebellum o Separates the anterior lobe from the posterior lo e o Lobes are important functionally psyc 372 7 Physlologlcel psychology Fissures K 0 Define a ridge in the midline called the vermis o On each side of the vermis are the cerebellar hemispheres o Hemispheres are divided into intermediate and lateral regions 0 Each is important for specific motor functions psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Flocculonodular Lo e Vestibulocerebellum o Is most primitive 0 Gets information from vestibular areas of the brain 0 Semicircular canals o Otoliths o Is extremely important for balance and eye movemen s Ll psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Damage 0 Problems with eye movements du head rotations 0 Problems with limbs and bod ring structures during standing or walking 0 Have problems maintaining balance 0 Patients separate legs but the move their legs irregularly and often fall psyc 372 7 physiological psychology Vermis K 0 Gets information from visual auditory and vestibular areas 0 Also gets information from somatic sensory areas as well 0 Helps control the proximal muscles of the body and limbs 0 Generally governs posture locomotion and gaze i 0 Can move arms and legs accurately when lying down or when their head is supported 10 psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal psychology Intermediate Zone m 0 Gets somatosensory information from limbs o Helps control distal muscles of the limbs f ers and ing Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Vermis and Intermediate Zones Spinocerebellum o Receives information from the spinal cord 0 Also gets information from ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts o Receives information from the leg muscles and joints 0 Sends information to structures that develop into the rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts Function K Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Influences limb muscles and muscles in the body 0 Don t get limb deceleration so you get overshoot of the system o Is especially important for rhythmic activity during locomotion 0 Also contains inverted somatotopic maps that are inverte o Eg head is at the bottom in the vermis ll Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Cerebrocerebellum I I o Are lateral parts of the hemispheres 0 Only receives information from the cortex Is involved with planning and mental rehearsal of complex motor actions and Conscious assessment of movement errors Has a very important role in perceptual 9 and cognitive functionin i Damage Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology o Disrupts motor planning and prolongs reaction times 0 Have to plan out every movement before doing it Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Example tapping tests on Halstad Reitan K j o Rhythm is irregular and the motions vary in duration and force 0 Medial cerebellar lesions interfere only with accurate execution of the response 0 Lateral cerebellar lesions interfered with the timing of the events 0 Timing was also disrupted in other cognitive tasks as well Question m Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology 0 Is one tone longer than another 0 Is the speed of an object faster than another 0 Dentate also is important for tasks requiring complex spatial and temporal judgments o Is essential for conducting complex motor movements Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Some Disorders eg Hand Alternation Task I 0 Lots ofdisorders 0 Diagnosis is often done symptomatically 39 HaVe ngers hit alternate Palm 0f the 0 Examples hand 0 Hypotonia 0 Get tremor when you are trying to stop Kneelerk the movement anlggfh bum e leg does not come bad 0 Problem occurs when antagonistic 0 Instead ossicilates several tims mUSCIeS are trY39ng to Stop the o Ataxia movement 0 Lack of coordination 0 Also get a delay in initiating responses with the affected limb 0 Also get errors in the range and regularity of movement i E Psyc 372 7 Physiological Psychology Overall Damage to Cerebellum 0 Generally results in jerky exaggerated erratic motor movements 0 Movements are also poorly coordinated Inferior parietal lobule Postcentral sulcus Lateral sulcus Postcentral gyrus l Sylvian fissure Supramarginal gyrus Central sulcus Precentral gyrus Rolandic fissure lnterparietal sulcus Precentral sulcus Angular gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Superior frontal sulcus Superior parietal lobule Cingulate sulcus pars marginalis Transverse occipital sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Parietooccipital sulcus Superior occipital gyrus lnterhemispheric fissure Frontal pole quot 3quot r a a z I 4 J Occrpltal pole j 53 l I z 4 a I g w 53 3 I h Wyn1 2 quot 5 Parietalquotx l b quot ci pital nL quot3 ob Figure 1 Superior surface of the brain actual size audio Membrane Neurophysiology rview of the Neuronal Membrane Associated Ions and Ion Channels Psychology 372 Physiological Psychology Steven E Meler Ph D Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Psvc 372 7 thslologlcal Psychology Structure of a Neuron at Rest I Na Cl K Anions Psvc 372 7 thslologlcal Psychology Measuring the Difference Between the Inside and Outside of a Neuron I o A axon from a Voltmeter Microelectrode V I microelectrode Is amp inserted into axon Axon o Volta e measures inside Ch b with respect to am er outside 3 mm m i Psvc 372 7 thslologlcal Psychology Resting Membrane Potential 0 Is the difference in voltage between the inside and outside of the axon membrane Psvc 372 7 thslologlcal Psychology Concept 1 E o Influx Material Ions moving to the inside of a membrane 0 Efflux Material Ions moving from e inside to the outside of a membrane 0 Equilibrium 0 Where material ions concentrations etc are equal on both sides of a membrane J Psvc 372 7 thslologlcal Psychology Why do Ion s Move 0 Concentration Differences 0 Compounds move from high concentrations to lower concentrations 0 Electrostatic Pressure 0 Like charges repel each other 0 Opposite charges attract each other psvem a pnvsialaqieal psvenalaqv mm a thslaiaqlcai Psychaiaqv Why is There a Resting state Resting state The neuron membran e is selectively permeable to certain ions 39 At rest K ions can leave the axon while few Na ions can enter the axon odlum Na Causes the exterior of e nerve cell potassium K membrane to b m e positive than the chloride cl inside of the ax n Calcium Ca psvem a pnvsialaqieal psvenalaqv psvem a pnvsialaqieal psvenalaqv Result Ion Concentrations at Rest I Have high concentrations of Na and CI on the outside of the axon I Hm NW Hm Cquot Lqu High concentrations of K and Anions on the inside of the High w Arllurls 7 Law Na psvem a pnvsialaqieal Psvchaiaqv psvem a pnvsialaqieal psvenalaqv Relative Ion Concentrations Across the Axon Membrane Channels Axons have two types of channels or p t ions ores for differen Passive chann is a x x Are open all or the tlrne and allow ions to WWW 3 pass through the membrane lUL liLl ilHil lLllllHi39KiL KILV HK IHLIUL Voitage Gated nels LAM W by changes in voitage g voitageagated Na channels Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Passive t o Are open all the time Channel Outside Cell Membrane Inside Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Passive K I 0 Many K passive channels are open 0 Some Na passive channels are also open 0 Channels are ion selectiv e 0 Na channels are only selective for Na K doesn39t get through 0 K channels are only selective for K Na does not get through 0 Ions also go through channels at different rats 12 Kto 1 Na Some ions are moving but not many If lots of movement you get equilibrium 14 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology VoltageGated Channels 0 Are needed for the action potential 0 Several types Na K Ca 0 Channels are ion specific 0 Open at some level of depolarizaton then inactive gate closes a bit later 0 After inactive gate closes active gate closes inactive gate then reopens 0 Repeat 2 Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Steps 1 0 Get Depolarization o If depolarize lSmV Active gate opens 0 Sodium enters 0 Get an action potential 0 If does not depolarize lSmV Nothing So all or nothing is happening at the Axon Hillock Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Sodium Voltage Gated Channel Inactive Active Gates are Usually Closed With Depolariztion Active Gates open Potassium Voltage Gated Channel Psyc 372 7 Physlologlcal Psychology Inactive Active Gates are Usually Closed With Depolariztion Active Gaes open Psvc 372 7 thsioiogicai Psvchoiogv Points 0 Like the Na Channel the inactive gate is sluggis o It takes awhile for them to close
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