Introduction to Social Psychology
Introduction to Social Psychology PSYC 320
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dorris Purdy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 320 at University of Idaho taught by Traci Craig in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/227917/psyc-320-university-of-idaho in Psychlogy at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
amaze Conflict and Cooperation Psychology 320 Social Psychology Listen to the audio leciure while viewing these slides l Psyc 320 7 Social Psychology Social Dilemma at 0 common good vs individual good 0 Prisoner s Dilemma o Titfortat strategy 0 Public Goods Dilemma Contribute to ool o Commons Dilemma Overuse gone Psyc 320 7 Social Psychology Resolving Conflict o Threats 0 Trucking Study from the text often referred to as the Acme Trucking Game on the Subject GRE 0 Communication is NOT the key Especially for the bilateral threatno threat Communication must be used for trust J Psyc 320 7 Social Psychology Integrative Solutions 0 Each party makes tradeoffs or compromises on the points they care least about 0 Know what you care about and what you don t 0 Caring about winning is not likely to lead anywhere 0 Best negotiation strategy is to find an integrative solution Q await Aggression amp Conflict Psychology 320 Social Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides J Psyc 320 7 Soclel Psychology Whiat is aggressive o Justified or not Physical vs Verbal Instrumental vs Emotional Intentional vs Unintentional Antisocial vs Prosocial Sanctioned aggression Behavior vs Feelings 0 Direct vs Indirect Psyc 320 7 Soclel Psychology Types of Aggression E o 1 Instrumental Aggression aggression in order to obtain something of value means to an end 0 2 Emotional Aggression impulsive behavior intended solely to hurt another person end in itself Psyc 320 7 Soclel Psychology Killing in Defense of SelfProtection Kah Andrews amp Head 1972 Percentng 50 seiner def def Family Hnllse Psyc 320 7 Soclel Psychology Sources of Anger l7 0 Attack 0 Frustration o Expectation of Retaliation opportunity more anger o Attributions about intent Psyc 320 7 Soclel psychology Social Learning m7 1 Behavior learned through observation or direct experience of punishmentrewards Can increase or decrease aggression psvcazu e Saciai psvcnaiaqv Bobo Km t A 39 h mmn gleam Psvc 32m 7 Saciai psvcnaiaqv FmstrationAggression Frustration biocking the attainment ofa goai aiwavs iea s to a motive to aggress When aggressive motive cannot be satisfied situationai constraints can be temporariiv innioited Displacement aggressing against a substitute target catharsis reduction of the motive to aggress after being aggressive or WitneSSing aggression Getting it out of one39s svstern Ll psvcazu e Saciai Psvchaiaqv Criticisms of FA HypothEis o Probl ms a agg ssive 99quot c Evidence for displacement is ambiguous d Little evidence for catharsis e I Frustration d0 notaiways lead to an re motive b Frustration not the onlycause of a ession Psvc 32m 7 Saciai Psvchaiaqv Negative Affect HypothEis Negative affect not frustration ieads to aggression Manv possioie sources of negative affect frustration pnvsicai pain provocation 4 Stages ofDrocess UripieasaritExperierioe frustration noxious rnuii provocation 2 Negative Affed 3 Trigge rnernorv thought and rnotor response asociations ght or ight 4 Hignerorde oognitive prooessing determine how one shouid feei and behave 11 psvcazu e Saciai psvcnaiaqv Ne ative Affect Hypothesis fourtn stages e g Weapons effect TV vioience a What kinds ofthoughts Occur in fourth Sta e7 Attributions of Intent to Harrn a Expectations of suocessfui Aggression a Mitigating Information tuational Cues Can In uence third and Psvc 32m 7 Saciai psvcnaiaqv o Myopia 0 alcohol restricts range of cus perceived and ability to procEs those cues Eg might notice provocation but not realize mitigau ng circumstancE Psyc 320 7 Soclal Psychology Gender Differences 177 o M gt F overall 0 Fgt M for indirect forms of aggression Psyc 320 7 Soclal Psychology Common Couple Violence CF 4 0 Women more likely than men to be violent physically and verbally in their relationships 0 Women more likely to start aggressive acts 0 25 of couples say violence is a normal part of the relations ip 0 Men most likely to suffer due to societal constrain s o Homosexual couple violence vew little support A Psyc 320 7 Soclal Psychology Cues to Aggress rkow l1 amp LePage 1967 a or shut ks delivered 5 4 3 z 1 Nn ammo Assnc abject Gun Gun Psyc 320 7 Soclal Psychology Priming Aggression L ey O Neal Craig ampYost 1992 Aggxes sive pn39mes ins ult stab anger Irrelevant hold zone move Nonaggxes sive prais e 5 mile jolly n Aggessive n Irrelevant Nn ess Psyc 320 7 Soclal Psychology Punishing Aggression l o Deterrence o Anger is low 0 Instrumental aggression with small ard 0 Speed and magnitude of punishment 0 Probability of punishment Psyc 320 7 Soclal Psychology Effects of punishment re 0 We think it works 0 Test failed punishment improvement Not just regression to the mean 0 Biological Approaches o Hormone therapy 0 Age and Hormones release old criminals o Lobotom 0 Genetic proclivity Psvc 320 7 Social Psvcnologv soliutions using Drive Theory 3 o Catharsis Exhaustion but not effective 0 Imagined catharsis doesn t work Psvc 320 7 Social Psvcnologv Solutions using Social Learning at 0 Teach nonaggressive responding 0 Plant nonaggressive models 0 Cue a nonaggressive response 0 Incompatible responding 39 r JClil l Emotion and Affect i iv 7 new F l iclorli Emotion Mood or Affect o Emotion conscious evaluative reaction to some event 0 Mood feeling state not clearly linked to some event 0 Affect automatic response that something is good or bad ii 7 actual l vilil Duplex Mind 0 Conscious Emotion 0 Powerful and unified feeling state 0 Automatic Affect Quick response of liking or disliking good or bad feelings Is Bad Stronger Than Good 0 Bad emotions gt good emotions o Anthropolinguistic study of emotional language 62 ofemotion words refer to bad 74 emotional traits were negative Of 12 most common emotions listed 11 are negative ll Emotional Arousal o JamesLange theory of emotion 0 Physiological arousal 9 emotional experience 0 Facial Feedback Hypothesis 0 Feedback from face muscles evokes or magnifies emotions i Emotional Arousal 7 o CanonBard theory of emotion o Thalamus sends two simultaneous messages to produce the emotional experience and the physiological arousal A r wciai l l or Emotional Arousal Bodily state ofarousal o SchacterSinger theory of emotion o Emotion has two components Cognitive label specifying the emotion l r Oclal F liclorir Misattribution of Arousal o Excitation transfer o Mislabeling and relabeling arousal le 7 mai mlul w Objective Roots of Happiness those without children happier than those alone 0 Hedonic treadmill 0 Objective predictors little effect except 0 Couples with children are less happy than 0 People with strong social connections are Anger 7 o Emotional response to real or imagined threat or provocation 0 Angry people 0 Downplay risks and overlook dangers o Are impulsive and fail to consider consequences of actions Increasing Happiness o Forgiving others 0 Gratitude for blessings o Practicing religious beliefs 0 Optimism o Focused attention on positive things 0 Happiness is linked to good health Causes of Anger o Perceived reaction to someone else s wrongdomg 0 Greater anger accompanies o More harm the other person does 0 Other39s behavior viewed as random or arbitrary o Other39s behavior viewed as cruel JClil l l or Expression of Anger 0 Never show anger o Vent one s anger o Catharsis theory 0 Intense physical exercise 0 Get rid of anger o Decrease arousal Guilt and Shame o Guilt 0 action that is bad or wrong 0 constructive o Shame o spreads to whole person 0 Shame is destructive mm W Effects 7 7 if c Apology can be motivated by guilt o Conveys implicit agreement that action was wron Suggests person will try not to do it again Counteract implication that person doesn t care about the relationship Are Emotions Different Across Cultures 0 Six basic emotions 0 Happiness surprise fear anger sadness and disgu 0 People in many different cultures can identify facial expression of these emot39ons Positive Emotions if 0 Good mood helps flexibility creativity and problemsolving 0 People in a good mood perform better are more persistent more motivated 0 Being in a good mood avoid risks Cultural Differences In Emotion o Emotional moderation 0 Asian Americans gt European Americans 0 Presence of Duchenne smiles o Collectivist culture 0 assessment of social worth 0 outer world 0 selfother relationships 0 Cultural difference in amount of concealment of emotion i r wciai l clan Men and Women and Emotion o Contrary to stereotype no gender differences exist 0 In young children greater emotionality in boys 0 Men may be slightly more emotional but women are more willing to report emotions i u 7 new ii liclorir Men and Women and Love 0 Men fall in love faster 0 Women fall out of love faster 0 Men have more experiences of loving someone who does not reciprocate their love 0 Women have more experiences of receiving love but not reciprocating it 0 Men suffer more intense emotional distress after a break up E CH 7 axial l dilul w Arousal Attention and Perfor a e o YerkesDodson Law 0 Inverted U 0 Optimal level of arousal le 7 n i l i A l w Mood Regulation Strategies 0 Altering your mood 0 Do things that produce good feelings 0 Do something to take your mind off the problem 0 Raise or lower your arousal level 0 Seek social support