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Abnormal Psychology

by: Dorris Purdy

Abnormal Psychology PSYC 311

Marketplace > University of Idaho > Psychlogy > PSYC 311 > Abnormal Psychology
Dorris Purdy
GPA 3.5

Lori Coburn

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Lori Coburn
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dorris Purdy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 311 at University of Idaho taught by Lori Coburn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/227919/psyc-311-university-of-idaho in Psychlogy at University of Idaho.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
await Pa ra phi ias Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Overview 0 Includes 0 Fantasies o Urges o Behaviors 0 Must last5 months considered a disorder o Are a group of disorders involving 0 Sexual attraction to unusual objects 0 Sexual activities that are unusual in nature 0 Must cause significant distrss or impairment 0 Anyone can have occasional unusual fantasy Must be 6 months and stressful to be l Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Issues Regarding the Category o Considerable debate 0 Many people with paraphilias are not distressed or impaired 0 Example 0 Person who has repeated sex with young children and 395 not istressed or impaired cannot be diagnosed as having pedophilia according to DSM criter39a o Difficult to ascertain how many people have the disor er 0 Greatly underreported o More males than females i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Many Disorders o Fetishism o Transvestic Fetishism o Pedophilia and Incest o Voyeurism o Exhibitionism o Frotteurism 0 Sexual SadismMasochism Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Fetishism 0 Usually occurs in males Requires an innate object for sexual arousal Recurrent and intense sexual urges to nonliving object 0 Presence of object is strongly preferred or even necessary for arousal J Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Many types of Items 0 Underpants 0 Most common item 0 Feet 0 Shoes 0 Sheer Stockings 0 Rubber Products 0 Raincoats o Gloves 0 Toilet Articles 0 Furs Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Issues 1 0 May play with items in private or ask a mate to participate with them 0 Have been know to commit burglary week after week to add to their hoard o Attraction has a compulsive quality 0 Is involuntaw and irresistible Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Degree of Erotic Focalization 1 0 Example heterosexual 0 Men like high heals and jeans 0 Man with a boot fetish must see or touch a boot to be aroused and arousal is ovenNhelming 0 Usually begins in adolescence and have other disorders 0 Pedophilia o Sadism o Masochism Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Transvestic Fetishism 0 Usually a man sexually aroused by dressing in a woman39s clothes 0 Still regards self as a man 0 Usually begins as partialcrossdressing in childhood Heterosexuals always males 0 Tend to be masculine in Sexual Preference 0 Many are married with family dress in secret L Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Pedophi ia 0 Adults who derive sexual gratification through 0 Research does not support the DSM s physicalsexual contact with prepuberty children unrelated to them prepuberty child 0 Some victimize any children under the legal age of consent More frequent in men than women Often connected to mood anxiety disorders and substance abuse Person can be heterosexual or homosexual i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Transvestic Fetishism 0 Criteria for distress and disability do not fit this disorder at all 0 Is typically connected with masochism Related issues Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Internet pays a big role 0 Acquire child pornography and contact potential victims 0 Governments and organizations play a role too 0 Netherlands 12 Years old is age of consent 0 NAMBLA and similar organizations Psyc 311 r Abnormal Psychology North American ManBoy Love Association o Contends all people should be able to engage In consensual sexual relationships 0 Oppose sexual laws merely based on age 0 Condemns all coercive or nonconsensual acts sexual or othenNise between people of an 0 Problem many people use NAMBLA to develop contacts 0 Also has a Women s Group as well Women s Auxiliary of NAMBLA o ForWomen and Girls 13 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Incest 1 0 Listed as a subtype of Pedophilia 0 Sexual relations between close relatives for whom marriage is forbidden o Is a universal taboo 0 Except for Egyptian Pharaohs 0 Did not want contamination of royal blood from outsiders o Taboo is important Would provide two recessive genes and increase birth defects Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Sociologically o Is typically patriarchal 0 Parents tend to neglect and be emotionally distant 0 Mother is absent or disabled 0 392 of all child molestations committed by adolescent males 0 Were typically abused 0 Have poor social skills 0 Neglectful family life 0 Substance abuse issues Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Recent Studies 0 Survey of 796 college students 0 19 of women abused o 86 of men abused 0 State laws 0 States that pass legislation requiring reporting of molestation by teachers health care workers etc Confirmed cases increased 50500 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Voyeurism o Involves a marked preference for obtaining sexual grati cation by watching others in a state of undress or having sexual relations 0 Minimal if any contact between voyeur and the victim Most go undetected by law Usually begins in adolescence Fear contact with others 0 Have minimal social skills Denmark Study Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 1960 s 0 All restrictions on pornography were lifted 0 Result lower rates of peeping Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Exhibitionism 1 0 Obtain sexual gratification by exposing genitals to an unwilling stranger 0 Sometimes a child 0 Usually begins in adolescence o More common in men 0 Usually arrested for indecent exposure 0 Are usually immature 0 Over 392 are married 0 Have poor sexual relations with their spouse 2 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Behaviors 1 I 0 Have a desire to shock or embarrass the observer 0 Want to avoid contact with the victim o Urge is ovenNhelming to expose o Is triggered by restlessness anxiety and sexual arousa Classic negative reinforcement paradigm o Is compulsive Oblivious to social and legal ramifications y Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology During exposu re 0 Have headaches palpitations sense of unreality derealization o Afterwards they flee trembling and in remorse Frotteurism Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Sexually oriented touching with unsuspecting persons 0 Typically occur in crowded places 0 Busses subways sidewalks 0 Typically starts in adolescence o Occurs with other paraphilias 0 Not studied much Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Sexual Sadism Masochism o Sadism 0 Obtain or increases sexual gratification by in icting pain or psychological suffering humiliation on another 0 Masochism 0 Receive pain or suffering for gratification E Background Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Is found in both heterosexuals and homosexuals o Surveys find 2030 of SampM clubs are fema es 0 Most are comfortable with their lives 0 Alcoholism is common among sadists 0 Most have above average income and educational status j Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Etiology 0 Starts in early adulthood 0 Stories are created 0 Mischievous child is disciplined by the principal o A slave is sold to a powerful sultan 0 Have themes ofsubmission and domination 0 Store corpses Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Models for Paraphilias 0 Many Models 0 Psychodynamic o Behavioral and Cognitive 0 Biological Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psychodynamic Perspective o Is defensive in nature 0 Guarding ego from dealing with repressed fears and memories 0 Castration anxiety 0 Exhibitionists reaffirm their masculinity Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Behavioral and Cognitive Perspective 0 Some contend all paraphilias are classically conditione 0 May masturbate to a picture of a naked women in bac oots 0 Through repetition black boots become arousing o Operant conditioning 0 Negative reinforcement When ou perform some behavior to remove anxiety stress etc is yew reinforcin Escape from aversive conditions 28 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Cognitive Distortions 1 0 Women undressing with blinds up want to be seen 0 Others 0 She desened it 0 She was dressed in black 0 She said no but her body said yes Biological Perspectives Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology o Contends male hormones may play a role 0 Find that comparisons between individuals with paraphilias and normals are inconclusive Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Therapies 1 0 Most paraphilias are illegal 0 Most people who are caught are imprisoned 0 Treatment outcomes vary from 3090 0 Problem poor research designs Ethical dilemmas for using control groups Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Treatment compliance 1 o Is low 0 Blame the child for being seductive 0 Believe they can control themselves 0 Don t believe they have a problem 0 Psychoanalytic Support 0 It is a character problem no treatment can help El Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Behavioral treatments 0 Basically use conditioning approaches 0 Aversion therapy Shock a boot fetish May not eliminate the attraction but gives more control over overt behavior 0 Social skills training Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Biological Treatments 0 Europe Use castration 0 Has ethical dilemmas 0 Not used n w 0 Today 0 Drugs Lower testosterone levels Reduce frequency of erections Inhibit sexual arousal Physical problems Diabetes Infertility Are side effects ethical 35 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Cognitive Treatments 0 Challenge the distortions 0 Example Client The girl was to young to be harmed Therapist The younger the girl the worse the harm 0 Train in empathy toward others Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Sociological Approaches o Megan s law 0 Occurred when a second grader in New Jersey was kidnapped and brutally murdered o Perpetrator was a twice convicted child molster 0 Result 0 Police can publicize whereabouts of offenders o Permits citizens to use police computers to see who is living in the neighborhood 0 Civil Rights issues El Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psvchologv Conclusions 1 0 Many types Difficult to treat Treatment success is not good Citizens try to protect themselves 0 Don t care about the individuals with the problem Need better research and treatment models 1 awe Anxiety Disorders Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll Overview 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Definition 0 Diffuse vague unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension o Worries about unknown dangers 0 Different from Fear 0 Fear you can state what you are afraid of 0 Anxiety Usually cannot identify the cause Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology More overview o More common in women 0 Becomes evident in late teens and early twenties 0 Can last 20 years or more 0 Children who have experiences in which they have no control 0 May be vulnerable to anxiety disorders i Symptoms Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Physical o Shortnss of breath 0 Rapid heart rate 0 Frequent Urination o Diarrhea 0 Loss of appetite o Sleeplessness o Fainting o Dizzinss o Sweating o Tremors 0 Others Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psychological 1 o Exaggerated distressing interpretations o Nervous o Irritable o Jumpy o Tense Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Types of Maladaptive Behavior 0 Two Groups 0 Frequent experience of anxiety worry and apprehension Is more intense and lasts longer than the average person 0 Frequent development of avoidance behaviors ritual acts or repetitive thoughts Protects the individual from experiencing anxiety Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Four Types of Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorders 0 Generalized Anxiety Disorders 0 Anxiety that persists for at least 6 months 0 Panic disorders 0 Phobic Disorders 0 Obsessive Compulsive Disorders 0 Is not attributed to a recent life event Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Symptoms Other Symptoms o Worry and apprehensive feelings about Motor Tension the future Worry over 0 Unable to relax stay keyed up Self 0 Motor tremors shakes People close to them 0 Have strained facial expressions 39 valHeFl PosseSSlonS 0 Deep sighs furrowed brow o Hypervrgilance o Easin startled o Constantly scan environment for danger Always alert to potential threats distrac ions Cannot fall asleep LJ 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Other Symptoms Result 1 1 0 Many individuals with anxiety disorders experience substance abuse problems 0 Often are used to stop symptoms 0 Alcohol Makes the person relax 0 Automatic Reactivity o Sympathetic and parasympathetic nenous systems work overtime 0 Dizzy sweating heart racing or pounding 0 Hot cold spells o Upset stomach o Lump in the throat o Frequent bathroom use 0 High pulse rate 0 Methamphetamine Makes the person feel Normal Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Treatment 1 o Is dif cult to treat 0 No clinical technique results in a cure 0 Drug treatment 0 Longterm use Often develop side effects 0 Develop tolerance 0 Try to identify cues 0 Use negative reinforcement models to remove the fear 2 Panic Attacks Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Background o Indicators 0 Are similar to generalized disorder 0 Symptoms are sudden and magnified o Occurs more often in women 0 Can differ in degree of incapacitation 0 Usually no evidence for a childhood traumatic event 0 Are heavy users of health care facilities and hospital emergency rooms 2 Symptoms Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology o Sudden overwhelming senseless terror 0 Feeling of impending doom 0 Is an intense surge of anxiety that raises to a peak 0 Can last a few seconds to days 0 Can occur anywhere and at anytime 0 Movie 0 In bed 0 In cars Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Panic Disorders 1 o Cued by a thought or particular stimulus 0 May also have an intense fear of another panic attack 0 Anticipatory anxiety 0 Must occur for at least one month Research 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Individuals see themselves at having impairments in their physical and emotional well being 0 Depression is more common 0 Alcoholism is more common 0 Panic sufferers are more prone than the general population to think about committing suicide 0 20 report attempting suicide El Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Cognitive Processes 1 0 Include thoughts of o Humiliation o Losing control 0 Helplessness 0 Failure Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Treatment 1 o Impramine used for depression 0 Has been shown to help panic attacks not occur Does not help anticipatory anxiety 0 Thought blocking techniques with relaxation training also helpful 0 Best seen from a biological and psychological perspective 0 Incorporate treatment from both area S l await Biological Treatments for Depression Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio leclure while viewing lhese slides Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Many Models 1 0 Biological Models 0 Drugs 0 ECT o Psychodynamic o Humanistic o Operant o Depends on the hypothesized cause 0 Interpersonal Psychotherapy IPT 0 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Biological I 0 Focus is on the levels of NT at the synapse site in the neuron 0 Background 0 NT is released 0 Binds to receptors Synamc Vesicles Calcium Channels Reuptake Channels Structures Receptor Sites Ion Channeb Post Synaptic Element St ruct u res Post Synaptic Membrane Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Re m ove NT 0 Decreased 0 Through degradation o By reuptake into presynaptic elements Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Degradation 1 0 NT is broken down into nonactive molecules Example 0 NorEpinephrine 0 Broken down by Mono Amine Oxidase o Reduces the amount of NT in the synaptic cleft 0 NT moves off receptors due to concentration gradients Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Reuptake 0 NT is reabsorbed into the presynaptic element by an active transport system o Is NT specific Different systems for f NT different types 0 0 Examples 0 Nor Epinephrine o Serotonin o Dopamine Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors MAOI s 0 Block the secretion of MAO 0 Result Increase the levels of NE in the synaptic cleft for longer perio s Get more firing on the next neuron Person becomes more stimulated Stops being depressed Problem 0 Side effects can kill you Food pro u 0 often interacts with other drugs Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Reversible Monamine Oxidase Inhibitors gRIMA39s 0 Have fewer side effects than MAOI s o Are more selective o Are safer and influence fewer brain structures than traditional MAOIs Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Tricyclics 0 Use a different mechanism than MAOIs Block the reuptake of NE by the presynaptic element Get increased amounts of NE in synaptic cleft and on receptors 0 Get more stimulation 0 Get more firing in the next neuron 0 Depression goes away Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Side Effects 0 Dry Mouth 0 Lick and smack lips a lot 0 Constipation o Headaches sometimes Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSSRIs 0 Designed to increase Serotonin levels 0 Block reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic elements 0 Uses a similar process to the Tricyclics o Increases Serotonin in the synaptic cleft Issues with Drug Treatment 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Only 2946 respond fully to antidepressants o In many studies placebo s were shown to be effective 0 For those who continued antidepressants 6 months after recovery 70 lowered their chance of a relapse ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Considerations in Prescribing o What has worked in the past 0 What the past history is 0 Cost 0 Side effects of the medication 0 Chances of an overdose and result 0 Age Elderly do not metabolize as fast 0 Takes less medication 0 Liver disease 0 Same as elderly 2 SSRI ls Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Usually first drug of choice for drug treatment 0 Prozac Fluoxetine 0 Best selling drug in the world Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Problems with Drugs o Takes 26 weeks before changes begin to occur 0 If person commits suicide Some say the drug caused the suicide 0 Drugs have side effects 0 Also develop tolerance to the drug 0 Creates problen39s for the psychiatrist to maintain dose ii Patient Status Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 If symptoms reappear relapse o If symptoms decrease and patient returns to a normal state Remission o If in continuous remission for 6 months recovered o If symptoms come back recurrence 0 If person has 3 or more episodes keep them on drugs Maintenance therapy 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Electroconvulsive Therapy 1 0 Past 0 Was used for everything 0 Patients given many Treatments 150 was common 0 Results were mixed 0 Clients had major memory loss 0 Today 0 Has madea comeback o Primarily used in major deprssion responde o rugs 0 May be betterthan drugs Minimal side effects when done correctly 2 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Procedure I 0 Give the person a muscle relaxant 0 Provide a shock to usually one side of the scalp 0 Person experiences a seizure o Allowed to sleep 0 Patient wakes up several hours later 0 Is not like you see in the movies 0 Very humane Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Results round of treatment 37 shocks 0 Often person does not relapse 0 Have no idea why it works 0 Does increase Norepinephrine levels 0 Often complete recovery after a single Problems Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Today minimal from a medical standpoint 0 Still causes major ethical and social discussions await Treatments for Schizophrenia Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lemme while viewing these slides Ll Early treatments I Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Trephining 0 Open a hole in the skull 0 Let out the evil spirit 0 Some people even sunived had multiple holes with different levels of healing 0 Not much success Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Greeks o Hippocrates 0 First real medical model 0 Herbs o Vegetarianism 0 Sexual abstinence 0 Did not work well but was a start toward a nonspiritual approach Ll Romans Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Similar approach to the Greeks 0 Techniques became more refined Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Dark and Middle Ages o Demons return 0 Exorcism prayers o Torture o Dunking 0 Islamic approaches 0 Similar to the GreekRoman models 0 Late middle ages medical model returns 0 Approaches had no or minimal success l Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Larobit 0 Was looking for a drug to calm patients before neurosurger 0 Found Chlorpromazine worked very well 0 Hypothesized it might be used on other atients 0 Delay and Deniker found that high dosages of Chlorpromazine calmed patients with schizophrenia or manic depressive symptoms 0 Drug treatments begin Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Chloropromazine and other Phenothiazines 1 0 Part of the drug group Typical Antipsychotics o Other Typical Antipsychotics o Butyrophenones Haloperidol o Thioxanthenes chlorprothixene 0 Have clear effects on schizophrenia 0 Block 0 Delusions o Hallucinations o Disordered thinking L Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Atypical Antipsychotics I o Are another group of drugs 0 Are better for negative symptoms and cognitive problems 0 Also have fewer side effects 0 Includes 0 Clozapine o Risperidone o Olanzapine Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Atypical Antipsychotics o Bind to D3 and D4 receptors 0 Are in the limbic system and cortex 0 Few in the BG 0 Reason for few extrapyramidal side cts Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Four Major Systems for Dopamine o Tuberoinfundibular o Nigrostriatal o Mesolimbic o Mesocortical Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Which Receptors 0 At least five types of Dopamine receptors oDlD S 0 D1 and D5 Dla Increase CAMP o Are in the cortex hippocampus nuc eus 0 D2 Group D2 D3 D4 decreas o Are in the caudate putamen nucleus accumbens amygdala hippocampus parts of the cortex 0 Are also in the caudate and putamen caudate e CAMP Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Nigrostriatal o Contributes to Parkinson s Disorder 0 May be involved with shortterm long term antipsychotic side effects 0 ShortTerm 0 Hand tremor 0 Muscle rigidity 0 Long Term 0 Tardive Dyskinesia and Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Mesolimbic 0 Several structures 0 Is involved with emotion and memory 0 Symptoms of thought and perception disturbances are characteristic of schizophrenia and psychomotor epilepsy o Carlsson o Hypothesizes the positive symptoms result from overactivity of this system i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Mesocortical o Originates in ventral tegmental area 0 Projects to the cortex especially prefrontal cortex 0 Prefrontal cortex is involved in 0 Social Behavior 0 Hypothesized to be involved with negative symptoms of schizophrenia ii Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Weinberger 0 Contents two dopamine systems are impacted by schizophrenia 0 Increased activity of mesolimbic pathway through D2 group especially D4 are associated with Positive symptoms 0 Decreased activity of mesocortical connections in prefrontal cortex is associated with negative symptoms 2 How Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology o Mesocortical pathway to prefrontal cortex inhibits the mesolimbic pathway 0 Primary effect of schizophrenia is a reduction of inhibition 0 Leads to disinhibition in mesolimbic pathway 0 Get symptoms Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Drugs 0 Many types 0 Given on the basis of symptoms and potency needed 0 Can be Typical or Atypical depending on the symptoms Some Drug Names Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Highest to lowest potency o Chlorpromazine o Clozapine o Molindone o Moperone Haloperidol Pimozide Spiperone Many others can be imserted in the list 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Drug Side Effects 1 0 Include o Autonomic problems dry mouth 0 Skineye pigmentation 0 Breast development 0 Tardive dyskinesia facial tics and gestures 0 Others eg feel weird 0 Side effects cause people to stop their medications 21 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral 1 o Are often used in conjunction with drug treatments 0 Behavioral often used with certain types of schizophrenia in institutional settings 0 Catatonic Schizophrenia Use reinforcement for movement Behaviors increase 0 CognitiveBehavioral 0 Works with the thought patterns l Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Effectiveness o Behavioral models work well when used alone or in conjunction with drugs 0 Depends on the type of disorder when used alone 0 Cognitive works well when used with drugs to help person deal with thought disorders 0 Also works when abuse or other problems occur as well i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Other treatments o ECT o Psychoanalysis o Nutritional o All ineffective in controlled evaluations Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Issues and Problems in Treatment o How to decrease side effects of the drugs 0 Keep person on drugs 0 Reduce tolerance 0 Drug costs expensive 0 Identification of neurotransmitters and receptors involved with schizophrenia E Social issues 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Development of community and social support mechanisms to help schizophrenics 0 Problem Society does not want to support high taxes 0 Illicit drugs often cause schizophrenic symptoms to occur 0 Methamphetamines o Hallucinogens j Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psvchologv Conclusion o Treatments work for most people 0 Societal costs are very high 0 Need more research to solve the disorder amaze Dementia Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Overview 1 I o Is a gradual loss of intellectual abilities o Interferes with social or occupational functioning 0 Usually has gradual onset Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Senile Dementia 0 Usually occurs in individuals 65 or older 0 Get progressive atrophy of brain tissue 0 Get abnormal brain waves 0 Primarily distinguished by memory and cognitive impairment Effects more females than males 21 56 of all people 65 or older living in institutions are diagnosed with dementia i Includes Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Memory loss 0 Loss of Self Control 0 Confusion 0 Problems with personal hygiene 0 Language problems 0 Motor problems 0 Personality Changes 0 Lives in the past 0 Anterograde or Retrograde Amnesia Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Symptoms 0 Get worse later in the day 0 Dueto fatigue 0 Decrease in NT with use 0 Other reasons 0 Confabulation o Is a key symptom o Occurs when you loose part of your memory Fill in the gaps 0 often is inaccurate but usually is very detailed J Other Symptoms Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Paranoid Thinking o Agitation o Depressive symptoms 0 Irritability o Restlessness 0 Others Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Specific Diseases Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Alzheimer s Disease 1 I o Identified by Aois Alzheimer in 1907 0 Most common form of Senile Dementia o More than V2 the cases 0 Brain tissue deteriorates 0 Death 1012 0 Statistics vary 0 230000 die each year 0 100000 die each year 0 Places huge demands on health care resources 0 60 ofall nursing home patients 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Biology 0 May have a genetic component but evidence is mixed 0 Chromosome 21 0 Not sure ifAIzheimer s Disease is the cause of neural degeneration or the result of neural ion 0 23 o n r m 3 5 0 Patients have less Ach in the brain No known brain tri 0 Can use brain scans to confirm diagnosis by rulln ses 9 out other cau Confirmation is only at autopsy o Neurofibular tangles o Senile Paques Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Issues o Caregivers most common complaints about Alzheimer s Patients 0 Depression 0 Hostility belligerence aggression to staff 0 Confused about people places time o Wandering off restless 0 Anxiety suspicious 0 Most caregivers experience extreme ss 0 Have a general lack of control over what happens next 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Treatment o No real treatment 0 Give Ach inhibitors 0 Increases Ach at synapse sites 0 Have been twing at earlier ages when initial symptoms begin Appears to delay onset Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Pick s Disease 0 Much less common than Alzheimer s o Develops between 6070 years old 0 Symptoms are similar to Alzheimer39s 0 Can only tell at autops Has specific types of brain atrophy 0 May have a genetic factor 0 Effects more males than females Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Huntington s Disease 1 o Is a rare hereditary disorder 0 Is transmitted by a single gene 0 Chromosome 4 0 Get progressive degeneration o Onset begins about age 3050 0 New children by the person passes on the gene 0 Screening is available 21 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Sym ptoms I 0 Four types 0 Dementia o Irritability o Apathy 0 Depression 0 Get involuntary spasmodic jerking o Twisting movements 0 Facial grimacing Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Other symptoms 0 Memory lessens 0 Intelligence decreases before the appearance of movement disorders 0 Paranoia 0 Depression Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Parkinson s Disease o Progression begins about age 50 o Is a progressive disease 0 Symptoms o Tremor at rest 0 Progresses to rigidity 0 Get a loss of vocal power 0 Have social withdrawal 0 Emotionally are overcontrolled 0 Intellectual ability decreases Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Causes and Treatment 0 Reduction of Dopamine in Basal Ganglia structure 0 Treatment 0 Drugs Ldopa Is a precursor to dopamine Crosses the blood brain barrier and is converted to dopamine Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Other Disorders Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Traumatic Brain Injury 1 0 Can occur from o AccidentsInjuries o Cerebral Vascular Accidents Strokes Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Broken Down into Groups I o Concussions o Are temporary 0 Causes temporary changs in mentalstates 0 Do not cause permanent structural damage 0 Contusions o Are diffuse 0 Give fine structural damage 0 Get rupturing of tiny vesseb o Lacerations o Are major tears or ruptures of brain t39ssue 0 Cause major damage very rapidly 0 May be fatal 2 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Symptoms o Headaches 0 Vision problems 0 Can be rapid or gradual onset o Unequal pupils o Paralysis or numbing on one or both sides of the body 0 May have bleeding or fluid from ears nose or Skull 3 Treatment Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Prevention 0 Use helmets where head injuries may 0 Reduce hypertension weight 0 Use of drugs later in life ASA 0 Don t wait if symptoms develop 0 Immediate treatment is a MUST Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Treatment Options 0 Drugs 0 Clotting or thinning o Neurosurgery o Releasing of brain pressure caused by blood 0 Key 0 Prevention General Paresis Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Caused by untreated infections 0 Example 0 Syphilis If treated in early stages no problems If untreated brain deteriora es Ultimately death Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Korsa koff s Syndrome 0 Results from vitamin B and nutritional deficiency 0 Usually seen in chronic alcoholics o Is a irreversible disorder 0 Get recent and past memory loss 0 Get perceptual deficits o Longer the vitamin deficiency the less response to vitamin therapy 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Treatment 1 0 Start on B vitamins ASAP 0 May use injection to get started 0 Oral administration may not have an effect due to problems with absorption in the intestines 0 Try to reduce or eliminate alcohol consumption Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Epilepsy o Is not a disease 0 Is a symptom of recurrent changes in state of consciousness 0 Electrical state in the brain changes 0 Causes an electrical storm in the brain 0 Result seizure 0 Several types of seizures Grand mal Great Illness Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Lasts 25 minutes 0 Usually proceeded with an Aura o Smell Taste Flash of light 0 Often begins with a cry 0 Get a loss of consciousness 0 Extreme muscle spasms fall to floor 0 Get contraction and relaxation of muscles 0 May experience head injuries 0 May bite mouth or tongue Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Petit Mal o Is more common in children 0 Do not have convulsions 0 May or may not have a loss of consCIousness 0 Person experiences blank stare 0 May last up to 1 minute 0 May occur many times a day Incidence 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Highest in early years of life 0 Remains steady through middle age 0 Peaks in elderly Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psvchologv Treatment 1 o Antiepileptic Drugs 0 Often a Phenobarbital derivative 0 Surgery 0 Usually done with focal point seizures Problem often return due to scar tissue 0 Also use desensitization and relaxation training 0 Change thoughts 1


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