Developmental Psychology PSYC 305
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Date Created: 10/23/15
U Netslty 3mm Infant Personality amp Attachment Psychology 305 Developmental Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Infant Social Goals 0 Understand others 0 Are they responsive available 0 Do they demonstrate value of baby 0 Appropriate Emotional Expression 0 Express annoyance 0 Express affection o Shapes Personality o Erikson o Freud Stages of Personality Development Erikson s Stage Freud s Stage Basic Trust F39rSt versus Oral Year Mlstrust Autonomy Second Versus Anal Year Shame and Doubt u l u lll nil 39 Erik Erikson 0 Basic Trust vs Mistrust Conflict of first year 0 Positive resolution Child will trust others Child learns others loving Interactions with parents Relieve discomfort Respond patiently Realistic expectations Erik Erikson o Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 0 Conflict of second year 39 0 Positive resolution Healthy sense of independence Control over behavior Meet challenges with confidence 0 Interactions with parents Allow child some control Teach new skills Avoid criticism overreation Successful Resolution of these Conflicts 0 Personality Develops 0 Child learns trust 0 Child is comfortable with autonomy 0 Learn value of connection amp separation Supports subsequent stages of development Ll m Parent Child Interactions attachment 0 Quality of early bonds 0 Provide template for later bonds o With friends partners o With our own children 0 Provide sense of trust amp confidence o The very same qualities identified by Erik Erikson Secure Attachment defined o Reflected in level of trust Find parents comforting when distressed o Relieve distress promptly warmly o Interactional synchronicity Find parents more comforting than strangers Feel anxious when separated 0 Confidence being independent Feel safe exploring when parent is there o Parents let baby exert some power amp control Support learning new skills Psyb 3635 Deve opt nenta Psyct uo ogy Why do we form attachments o Behaviorists 0 baby loves you because you feed him 0 Not true harlow s Monkeys 3N1 7 5 V 1 Attachment Theory 0 John Bowlby o Genetically wired to form bonds 0 Babies engage parents a Crying smiling reaching Loving bonds build through interaction Pre attachment birth 6 weeks In the making 6 weeks 6 months Full attachment 6 months 1 0 e Behavior Shifts at 6 months 0 Separation anxiety Unhappy fearful when separated from caregiver o Stranger anxiety 0 Fear in the company of unfamiliar others 0 Explore more 0 In the presence safety of parent I W iiiifii ricgi i39ifi l PS3 lt1il rc7loci The Strange Situation 0 Laboratory assessment of attachment 0 Series of 3 minute events 0 Interactions with stranger being left alone exploring with caregiver there 0 Increasingly stressful for baby o Baby s reactions are observed amp rated VWN 397 V V Attachment Styles Secure 65 Avoidant 20 7 Anxious 10 4 Disorganized 5 10 13J Pew 363 Deve opmenta nget m ogy Secure Attachment Uhamcl ris u of Secure Attachment A5 Chlhdren As Adu tg Separate easily from garent Have trugting lasting trela mshins Seek mmfart fmm parent Tend ta have g d self when frightmecli esteem Comfortable siha ng feelings Greet parents positively WPI EITEE pare 10 stranger geeky nut SOCIBLEUPPGE i ngc BUS Daveiopmentai ngthaiagy Avoidant Attachment Cihamcteristiim f Avnidam Attachment A5 VChiidifen 575 duits Maiquot amid PEFEWS Halve difficulties with intimacy Dues not seek much mm iort m cuntact From parmts Inveat iittie emutinn in rela39 nn hips Shows rm preference between parent and stranger Llnabie tn ShBE E thnnughts and feeling with UthEl39S 1 5 Peyc 3amp5 u Deve epmenta Peyche egy Ambivalent Attachment A39s Ehtldrem Ase Adults Waw at strangeri Feel reluctant about becem ng c ese tn ethere Became greatly distreeeed W rry that their partner wit51 parent leavesa deee net eve them Become werer distraught when re atienshipns end De net seem cemferted by Haremts return 1 6J PSyC 3amp5 u Dave epmenta ngchm agy Disorganized Attachment At age 1 At age 6 Shaw 3 mixture at resistant and avnidant behavinra Take on a parental mlie Seem cnn Jsed dazed r apprehensive Same children act as a caregiver tnward the parent rdapted fr nm Main Ell CEBEid39f 19335 i e What causes attachment style 0 Parenting 0 Secure responsive loving o Avoidant non responsive o Anxious inconsistent o Disorganized abusive neglectful 1 8 f 7 it j r 1 v Attachment shapes cognitive schemes 0 75 stable from infancy to school age 0 May change with change circumstances 0 Predicts outcomes 0 Secure better peer relationships positive behavior More persistent problem solving More successful marriage amp career 1 9 CI e E3 i i Attachment Disorganization and Difficult Behavior Distress increases over time in disorganized babies Mean Vocal Distrnss Z Score in i 0 U1 5 I D U1 Disorganizadfdisurianhed Other attachment patterns 12 Months 13 Months What effects attachment parenting Parent have their own attachment style 0 Insecurer attached parents tend to have insecurely attached children 0 Family circumstances 0 Stress amp poverty predict insecure attachment 0 Job loss divorce a full time daycare before 12 months o 3036 develop avoidant attachment 0 Culture 0 Parenting differs by culture 0 Japan amp Germany as examples 5 l r if m c n if i ii iii gr Cultural Variations in Attachment Security 0 German Parents 0 Promote independence 0 Japanese Parents 0 Don t leave children Percentage of Irfants 80 7390 60 50 40 30 C Lin J Moidant Secure I Raism nl Ge rrnany Japan United States 2 7 Cl 7 7 9747 V 1 l r Babies also shape attachment o Temperament o fussy children harder to comfort 0 Illness prematurity birth complication 0 May be harder to parent 0 Success of attachment depends on Fit between child needs AND 0 Parent ability Goodness of Fit 3 Psyc 305 Developmental Psychalogy Effects of Mother amp Child on Attachment 70 Percentage urf Irfants M m 41 s U 5 C D G D D D D I Attachment security il Attachment insecurity Maternal Child Normal Problems Problems Samples J Psvc 305 Developmental Psychology Is it only mom Of course not 0 Babies form multiple attachments o Fathers Siblings Grandparents o Professionals 0 Research on Fathers 0 Dads interact with infants less 0 Strength of bond is related to level of involvement 0 Higher Dad Involvement if 0 Believe it s important to baby s outcomes 0 Happily married 0 Society supports it E 571 U giverslty Early Childhood Personality amp Emotion Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides g Developi nental Psycl lology Personality Development 0 Erik Erikson 0 3rd stage of development 0 Initiative versus guilt Achieved through play a Practice new skills a Cooperate to achieve goals Poor outcome a Threat criticism punishment is Leads to inhibition 1 Exuberant play is not present h Self Image 0 Self concept 0 Definition of the self 0 Cognitive 0 Self esteem 0 Evaluation of the self 0 Emotional Self Concept o Preschoolers use 0 concrete observable facts 0 Everyday behaviors o Belongings o Possessiveness can reflect self concept 0 Understand psychological traits o Rarely use them in self definition Self Esteem 0 Important dimension of development 0 Impacts behavior Impacts longterm adjustment 0 By age 4 have three domains of SE Academic social beauty Tend to overestimate ability Contributes to persistence amp learning a Critical parenting undermines this persistence ii I Dom liisvcl iolth L we it we 53 Emotional Development in Early Childhood o By age 4 5 0 Know causes amp outcomes of most basic emotions Emphasize external causes a Can predict which emotion is causes by particular behavior Know how to calm another v 1 i What aids emotional understanding o Scaffolding 0 Discussion of emotions amp causes 0 Explaining why someone is sad 0 Acknowledging labeling child s emotions 0 Parental intervention in peer disputes 9 Helping to understand and resolve o Pretend play 9 Acting out emotions Self Regulation o By 34 have many strategies 0 Decrease sensory input cover ears Talk to self reassurance 0 Change goals I don t like it anyway 0 What helps 0 Parents as good models 0 Direct teaching What to do in emotional situations 0 Easy temperament 1 e iijiiiirng mii3l Pisa39lt1ll m7lmi How to foster Self Esteem 0 Help child feel important Spend time with them Share your thoughts amp feelings with them 0 Use specific praise you read all the words correctly on t at page NOT you did a good job 0 Acknowledge child s feelings even negative ones 0 oh you re feeling angry with your sister 0 Provide care that is warm Set realistic limits 0 Limit punishment or criticism w l3 Self Conscious Emotion o By age 3 a Linked to self evaluation Shame sense of personal inadequacy o Linked to maladjustment o Depression aggression withdrawal ense of wrong behavior 39 ed to adjustment Limits transgressions Promotes repairs Feelings linked to level amp frequency of feedback o More evaluation more shame o Emphasize how to improve more guilt adaptive 1 0 Psyc 3amp5 Developmental Psychology What is empathy o Empathy The ability to feel with another Regardless of the emotion o Sympathy Feeling sorry for another s plight More able good self regulation 0 Both lead to helping others e What promotes empathy o Sensitive parenting 0 Modeling empathy kindness 0 Direct teaching of kindness o What disrupts it Angry punitive judgmental parenting children respond to a hurt peer with fear anger attack Friendship o What qualities make a person a friend 0 Shared interests caring trust for adults 0 For preschoolers Someone who likes you 0 Someone you share toys with 0 Preschool friendships Can be shortlived o Characterized by more sharing praise emotional expression 13 Play Social Dimensions Nonsocial oonlooker behavior oSolitary play Parallel Plays near other children but no interaction Associative oPIay near others perhaps exchange play materials talk odoing own thing Cooperative oInteractive play with other cthren i Social Play 0 Move from nonsocial to social play with development 0 Later stages don t replace earlier ones 0 Nonsocial play remains important 0 From 36 years of age Solitary parallel play 50 Cooperative play 50 i Psyc 305 Developmental Psychology Rates of Social Play in Preschool Early Childhood Plav Behavior 2 25 Years 25 3 Years 3 35 Years 35 4 Years 4 45 Years N U1 N O 5 l39l 10 I on L o 0 U c co a 2 U1 lE l V Solitary Parallel Associative Cooperative Play Cognitive Dimensions Functional Play Simple repetitive motor movements with or without objects Constructive Play Creating or constructing something Make believe Play Acting out imaginative roles i Cognitive dimensions of play 0 Functional play common in young children up to age 2 or 3 0 Functional play in older children can be cause for concern 0 Cognitive levels of play can be social or non social Constructive play alone or together Make believe play alone or together 1 8 Playing with others leads to conflicts 0 Social success 0 Predicted by conflict resolution ability a Have good solutions polite requests suggestions for alternatives Accurately interpret social cues Behave to enhance relationships 0 Social Problems Exclusion a Have poor solutions threats force fearful hovedng Misinterpret social cues a Behave to satisfy personal impulses 1 9 Social Problem Solving can be taught Trainers teach children the key elements for social success Notice social cues olnterpret accurately oGenerate solutions Pick the best one Notice peer response Sequence through again A 5 EWILIHIE 4 Galena probable possible problem eimenm anmmegies solving strategies m 3 1 WV WE is f Child39s Manta Scam Knowledge ofsorcial miles Rnprnsentations afpas social upm cnccs 1 Social expectations winl c nu social tun 20 Parental promote social success as well Direct Indirect Arrange play dates 0 Secure attachment Emotionally o GUIdance on expressive I effective play sensitive EffeCtOf communication misbehavior on other s feelings 0 Playing With child 0 Child s responsibility mOdels play SKINS for their behavior 5 1 3 Growth amp Motor Skills Psychology 305 Developmental Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides 1J Psyc 305 Developmental Psychology Infants Children and Adolescents aura F Berk srh edition 0 well we ve finished the first section of the course 0 How is it going so far 0 Let me know if you have any comments or concerns Infancy 0 Birth to age 2 roughly 0 This section covers 0 Physical development 0 Cognitive development 0 Social emotional development 0 Not really separable in this way w Body Growth 0 Body increases in size dramatically in first 2 years 0 More than any other period 0 height 0 Gain 50 in height by age 1 o Gain 75 by age 2 0 Weight 0 Tripled by age 1 o Quadrupled by age 2 o Grow in spurts 0 Girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys 5 r Developmental mythology 0 At birth 0 Head is 25 0 legs 33 o By age 2 0 Head is 20 0 legs 50 Psyc 305 Deve apmental Psycho agy Growth occurs in spurts w a c TE cm m w W rig H Riff M m M m Ira Lg N years iJ l syc 305 Developmental Psychology Changes in Body Proportions Zmanth smonms Newborn Zyears ayms myms 23 yum Prenatal age BEL ri39 l39lt Different Body Body Grow at Different Rates Before birth 39 After Birth 0 Head amp chest grows 39 Arms amp legs grow before trunk amp legs before hands amp feet Cephalocaudal 0 Proximodistal Head to Tailquot 0 Near to far 0 Top to bottom growth 0 Middle out growth 0 Lower part of body Extremities grow grows later than the later inner part of head the body Motor development also follows these trends iJ Skeletal Growth 0 Body size amp age NOT best predictor of physical maturity 0 Bone growth IS the best predictor 0 Counting epipyses 0 Appearance amp loss of teeth also predict maturity 0 Early teeth more developed iJ EC 7 7quot F39iw39 71 quotr r f l quotl39lt quotIquot1139l39rli39 f Epiphyses of the Bon quot 3 quot7 U ere l hlsls o Epiphyses pp pp 59quot l Growth plate w CartIIage cells produced 239 gt at bone ends l o Harden into bone l Bone sha 0 Make bones longer l o By counting epiphyses l 0 Tell how much growth has Jquot Growth plate already occurred at a given age Lower epiphysis Done with x ray of bone 39 1 0 r C rm rl WT 9 Growth Curves 0 African Americans growth spurts occur before Caucasian 0 Girls have growth spurts before boys 0 46 weeks ahead at birth 0 Couple years in adolescence quot EOE ix ritrlt12 if Many Factors Affect Growth o Heredity 0 Height weight influenced by genetics 0 Height more so 0 Nutrition 0 25 of food intake for baby Directly support growth Poor nutrition stunted growth Page 305 Developltxental Psycl lolog y Malnutrition 0 4060 of the world s children don t get enough to eat Negatively affects 0 Physical growth 0 Cognitive development 0 Can result in death 0 Can be reversed if changed early enough 0 2 types Marasmus Kwashiorkor quota M e x w A If Film c w a lt2 l quotx m w z L as J 3 Ma LHQJFJ l l le l Lu 2 e t V n F o Breast Feeding Affects growth also Breast milk is the perfect food for human babies Nothing else needed for 6 months In developing nations 0 614 times more likely to survive Advantages of Breast Milk Mom s antibodies passed to baby Milk evolves as baby grows Human milk easier to digest Protects mother from cancer Promotes cognitive development 0 Higher IQ than bottle fed babies Psy 305 Developmei ltzl Psychology Disadvantages of Breastfeeding 0 Babies eat more frequently 0 Transmits anything in the mothers system 0 HIV 0 Alcohol amp drugs an I I w l Non organic failure to thrive o Emotional deprivation o Impacts child like food deprivation 0 Who is affected 0 Under stimulated babies Babies in orphanages Abused neglected babies 0 Over stimulation can also cause this Babies withdraw to cope Immunization S in the first 5 years Saves many lives US rates lag behind Idaho lags in US statistics 0 73 get shots mmquot mmmnyonwnnm immmmww numluwmwmmuw mnmmmwummwmm imanmnmu 32 LEW Chapter 13 Personality Psychalogy 305 Developmental Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides 1J i39 E39lt 32 m gig Personality Development 0 Erik Erikson s Stage 0 Industry versus inferiority Develop sense of competence having useful skills Respect for others cooperation Pride in accomplishment Realistic self concept a Negative outcome pessimism about abilities Caused by negative interactions with peers amp teachers 2J Psyc 305 Developmental Psycholngy Personality Development Psy 305 Developmental Psychology Self Concept o Descriptions now use trait 0 Both negative amp positive 0 Begin to integrate competencies o Becomes realistic o Reflects social comparisons o Integrate feedback from me increasingly influential Self Esteem w m mm is o Drops during the first few Si agigm years of elementary school ML 0 Due to social comparisons 0 Not harmful 0 Most adopt realistic goals to reflect realities m new c My mwm l5 mums w 3 BMW 0 Esteem rises for most by end of elementary school v i rm m if nw I 3 am 2 z l L quot quot Willi HUI quot l i l l LL f 1f 23 it i j Domains of Self Esteem W Elm lll I I I Ataxiama 5021 Wpimh a rhlclx Physical DCII39HPIEHHEE EmftHIEE competence appurante 3111 V v i Language Math an summitup Relationsnip L Iurdcar VanELI art 7 H I ZI I pcen wim pawn g z 39it t man when o 4 self esteems in place by age 7 or I o Differentiate over the school years into complex hierarchical scheme Changes in self esteem over time Is this good in u m z 1 o linked to positive outcomes ONLY if 0 Predicts motivation toward worthwhile goals quot394 xl39i o Linked to o Adjustment 0 Social acceptance 0 Conscientiousness 0 I371 Hm Eal mm lnva mry Sam 3 i 45 4 I quotElfll 39l39l E39l ill393 FRED Fi 3969 1095 o Anxrety depreSSIon m o misbehavior quotr r lquotquotE39 f 5 l 1 391 ls i231 Influences on Self Esteem Childrearing practices 0 Warmth amp maturity expectations Attributions o Masteryoriented o Learned helplessness o What are attributions Everyday explanations for success or failure 0 Types of attribution Things under our control 0 Effort internal Things not under our control 0 Luck external 39 quot if I Achievement Related Attributions Mastery Learned Oriented Helplessness Beneve causes can be 0 Believe causes can t be controed controlled 0 Success clue to luck 9 Failure clue to poor ability 0 Cannotchange outcomes 0 success clue to ability 0 Failure clue to poor effort 0 Can improve by trying 0 Less persistence 0 Avoid challenges 1 0 Psyc 305 E Deitielopmental Psychology How does attributional style emerge o Learned helpless style 0 Parents teachers set high standards Yet convey child isn t capable o Mastery Oriented Parents teachers emphasize effort over good grades quotr r i39 E39 3 i 1quot l 7 Gender amp Culture Attributions 0 Girls 0 More likely blame failure on ability 0 More often told ability is at fault when they do poorly This is basically training in learned helplessness 0 Same pattern true for low SES minority children w More on Culture o Israli ampAsian Children 0 Trained that effort is at fault when they do poo y 0 Develop mastery oriented attributions 1 l Emotional Development 0 Self Conscious Emotion o More governed by personal responsibility 0 Doesn t require adult monitoring 0 Guilt intentional wrongdoing o Shame accidental violations 0 Unless child has been reared harshy Emotional Understanding o understand internal states can cause emotion 0 Understand mixed emotions 0 Understand emotions have complex causes Promoted by 0 Discussion with adults 0 Parental sensitivity to child emotional states Self Regulation Express emotion verbally Lessened tendency to express physically Problem centered coping 0 Modify changeable situations Active problem solving Social support Emotion centered coping 0 Modify feelings when situation can t be changed Distraction Redefining the situation 1 6 w Outcomes of Regulation 0 Well regulated kids Happy 0 Prosocial o Liked by peers o Poorly regulated kids 0 Overwhelmed emotionally 0 Less liked by peers 0 Less prosocial i I l39quot i39 lt 3 w 1quot l f39 Moral Development o Internalized standards now in place 0 Distributive justice how to share 0 Equality 56 a Merit 67 0 Benevolence 8 o Distinguish moral rules amp social conventions 0 Breaking convention viewed as ok if you lack knowledge of it 18 How do children view God 0 Similar to adult views 0 Blends of concrete elements amp abstract elements in Piagetian terms Concrete parent in the sky god Abstract disembodied support Moral Education o 4 stages recommended 0 Moral sensitivity figuring how one s actions impact another 0 Moral judgment figuring out which actions are just 0 Moral motivation putting moral values above personal values 0 Moral character developing strength of character action 3 U Netslty 3mm Infant Cognitive Development Piaget Psychology 305 Developmental Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Jean Piaget 0 One of the most influential cognitive theorists of our time o Theories grew from study of own children 0 His work provides the foundation of much of modern understanding 0 he was also inaccurate o Underestimated ability 0 Due to limited research techniques available Piaget s Stages His Perspective 0 Stages are sequenUal o Emerge from interaction with environment 0 Bounded by limits of brain maturation mumg 5mm re Copmwn e was uc mwlIIIComplrIuhelll mm mm TABLEZJ THEF UR TA E NITIVE DEVEL F PMENT Stage Approximate Chieti Characteristics Ages Sensorlmotor Birth 2 years Discovery 01 relationships between sensation and motor behavior Preoperatlonsl 4 7 years Use of symbols to represent oblects intennally especially through language Concrete 7t1 years Mastery of logic and development operations of quotrationalquot thinking 11 years Development of abstract and Formal operations hypothetical reasoning i Dwig epr emw PS y CE MMQg gf Types of Thinking in the 4 Stages Piaget Summary is the Child s Thinking Symbolic Lugical Abstract Sensurimator HQ ND ND Preoperatians YES gt r N r H N0 33235515 YES YES NO Egrg gians YES YES YES Stage One o Sensorimotor Stage 0 Active explorers 0 Babies think with Eyes Hands Mouths Direct contact lead to learning gtquotll 7 5 39 E39 V l quot Elements of Piaget s Theory Schemes 0 Children organize experiences cognitively Create schemes knowledge 0 Mental level schemes a Example Restaurant places to eat where you have choices and pay for food 0 Action based schemes a Example Riding a bike you balance on two wheels slow down for bums steer and pedal at the same time i Schemes Continued Adaptation o Schemes aren t static 0 They are ADAPTED as new relevant experience is integrated 52 12 F l a Two ways to adapt schemes Assimilation Use existing scheme but add something Child remains in equilibrium comfortable oAccomodation Have to discard a scheme its wrong Child enters disequilibrium disquieted Ll ssimilation Eiminate dissonance tn assimilating information into existing model Cognitive Dissonance 4 a l New Equilibrium quotxx Equilibrium New information doesn39t mesh with existing conceptual model Conceptual model seems Larger and more adequate comprehensive understanding ccommodation Elminate dissonance by revising the quot F existing model to accommodate the new information adaptation e Linking Schemes 0 Organization 0 Join schemes together for increasingly complex understanding 0 ExamplePicking up cheerios action scheme Review of Terms o Schemes o Adaptation Assimilation Accomodation Organization 0 These steps have been demonstrated by research 0 Happen at all ages 1 0 Psyc 305 Deveiopmentai Psychoiogy The Sensorimotor Stage 0 Birth to 2 years 0 Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration 0 Circular reactions actions repeated over and over Six Sensorimotor Substages Reflexive Schemes Primary Circular Reactions Secondary Circular Reactions Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions Tertiary Circular Reactions Mental Representations Birth 1 month 1 2 months 2 8 months 8 12 months 12 18 months 18 months 2 years 1 2 Substage 2 Primary Circular Reaction 0 Interest in something that first happens reflexively 0 Repeat because its interesting 0 Only concerned with own body 1 3 Substage 3 Secondary Circular Reaction Interested in something that they make happen in the environment 0 At first accidentally Repeat because its interesting Now extends to toys and other people Coordinated Secondary Circular Reaction o Engage in intentional goal directed behavior 0 They want something and get it 0 1st evidence they understand cause and effect 0 Object permanence emerges 0 Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight 0 According to Piaget develops with Secondary Circular Reaction 8 months 0 Incomplete at first A B Search Error Easily confused WATCH quotOU PUT BREAD THEN N A PEN MN m nus sum mm wan Tom Pops 09MB mu WHERE DCMN ms LEVERquot Calvin is a little delayed m Tertiary Circular Reaction 0 Use Experimentation to understand how to do something new 0 Intentionally vary behavior 339 to produce new effects l l Mental Representation 0 Up to this point understanding occurred by doing 0 Now simple problems can be solved mentally think it out 0 Begin to use toys representationally engage in pretend play Developl nental Psycl lology How Does Piaget s Theory Stack Up Right about many things How schemes are modified Reflexes are the basis of learning Learn by doing partly at least Errors in searching for hidden objects Make believe play emerges at 18mos Piaget s Under estimation 0 He underestimated many abilities 0 Cause and effect first few weeks of life a Not 8 months as Piaget suggested 0 Mental representation first few weeks of life Not 18 months as Piaget suggested 0 Object permanence 35 months o Not 8 months as Piaget suggested 0 Can solve problems mentally physical realities o Not 18 months as Piaget suggested 5 Psyc 305 e Developmental Psychology Violation of Expectations Method Object Permanence Hahituation Evan s Shortcarrot event Tallcarrot event gt nir Tesl Events Possible event Impossible event w l3 h Emerging Views On Infant Cognition 0 Babies are born with innate ability Learn through sensory interactions 0 Also learn perceptually 0 Watching and finding relationships Depth perception Physical Realties of Objects Moving on o Piaget u Viewed children s thought as distinctly different from adult s 0 Viewed it as developing through stages discontinuous 0 Information Processing Theory 0 View children s thought as similar to adult s just less refined amp efficient a Development is a gradual process of refinement of cognitive skills continuous r it 52 Physical Growth Middle Ch dhood Psyehelegy 3amp5 Dewelepmel ltel Psyehelegy Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides 1J Body Growth Ages 6 11 roughly o By age 6 0 Ave weight 46 lbs 0 Ave height 35 ft 0 Over this time pe od o Grow 23 inches yr 0 Gain 5 Ibs yr Deveioprnentai Psycholow Growth Spurts Girls have more body fat than boys Girls hit spurts earlier Spurts occur at about ages 7 amp Girls complete about 6 months earlier o Appear taller at the same ages than boys o The trends reverse once boys catch up Legs are growing rapidly Have growing pains as muscles stretch with bone growt 3Q evelmprm x rel Psycholmgy Teeth Baby teeth replaced by mature teeth by age 12 o 50 of children have some decay 0 Reduced with dental checkups amp good hygiene Secular Trends in Growth Kids are taller amp heavier than their grandparents of the same age 1973 1992 c Gained 13 inch per decade 0 Why 0 Faster rate of development Gains less in mature adults 3i yijri irmiial i i j il fi gx Middle Childhood Growth Worldwide 0 Cultural differences in size 0 Shortest children South America Asia Pacific Islands parts of Africa o Tallest children North amp central Europe Australia Canada US Brain Development in Middle Childhood o By age 6 95 of adult size 0 White matter myelinated nerve fiber growing 0 in cerebral cortex 0 In parietal lobes o In corpus callosum 0 Gray matter neurons ampconnections 0 Declines due to synaptic pruning o Neurotra nsmitte Cerebral cortex 0 Aid communication among neurons 0 When disrupted I ADHD Depression epilepsy Heath 0 Health Problems 0 More common in poor children Poorer nutrition Limited access to health care I3le tiEi v jlii frlfjl i ilial Common Health Problems 0 Vision Most common myopia o 25 are nearsighted o 60 by adulthood Predicted by c Heredity 2 parents 5x the risk o Low birth weight o Lighting while reading mom was right Malnutrition 0 Children who eat with the family eat better 0 More fresh food 0 Less fried food 0 Children will eat healthy if options are provided 0 Outcomes of poor nutrition Deficient neurotransmittors Malnourishment o When prolonged hard to reverse o Retards growth o Low IQ o Deficient neurotransmittors Inattention distraction l el39ital Z75xrcl 3lc3gl Obesity in Childhood o More than 20 over normal 0 For sex age build 0 Yikes 25 of children are obese 25 more are overweight o 61 of adults are overweight or obese o 80 of obese kids become overweight adults Outcomes for Overweight Kids TEsed rejected by peers Stereotyped as lazy ugly stupid By middle childhood Depressed More behavior problems Health problems Hi BP high cholesmrol I Predicls later heart disease Predicls many can ers Girls reach puberty earlier Risk for early sexual behavior By adulthood Complem less years of schooling I Have lower incom Less likely m marry Causes of Obesity in Middle Childhood Genetics 0 5x the risk with 2 parents SES 0 Tendency to buy high fat low cost food 0 Less knowledge about healthy diet Family Eating Habits 0 Clean plate rule 0 Using high fat sugary food for rewards Personal Habits 0 Use external cues for eating Clock TV 0 Eat faster chew less As early as 18 months of age 0 Less active lifestyle Society 0 Super size meals 0 Fast paced lifestyles 0 Cheap sources of commercial fat and sugar ngc 335 Deve apmemal Psychamgy ngsim lggggg 5ggi 9 WW Nodal 71 1t i I 19145 Nodal 15 19 L 39139345 23 24 I 131qu 215 2m Unisnd Smsji igl de i Psy Developmental Psychology Treatment for Obesity 0 Treat as a family disorder Change habits of family Change activity level of family 0 Support child change Decrease sedentary activity Reward physical activity Teach self monitoring o Triggers of hunger 5 Damiopmental Fycitology Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity maxxl Odds Ratio for Obesity u is 5 ormm 273 374 4 Houvs ofTv per Day Psyr 305 I opinental F ology Illnesses in Middle Child hood o More acute illnesses first two years of school 0 Chronic Diseases 1520 0 Asthma most common 0 Can interfere with social amp academic functioning 0 Outcomes 0 Parental functioning 0 School accommodation of child39s needs Psyc 305 Developmental Psychology Bedwetting 10 have nocturnal enuresis Usually biologically based Muscle development slow Hormone imbalances Treatments Most outgrow it Urine alarm o Helps 60 70 after a few months Antidepressants commonly trie o Not effective Support the child s emotional nee s o Embarassment shame Injury in Middle Childhood 0 Most common types Motor vehicle 1 cause Bicycle 2 cause 0 Prevention Teach safety Model safe behavior ReqUire helmets What s wrong with this picture Watch high risk 1 children more 1 3 Maj m a s m l quot 397 A 1 a quot X 4 r 7 L lt w39 zi J l C l 1 LC U 5 REM Deaths from Injuries 0 Boys versus girls 60 ITDE39 5W5 IGiHs 0 2x the risk quot3 0 Judge activities 3 50 less risky a 0 Pay less attention E 40 to risk cues 3 g 30 0 High risk takers 0 Active impulsive 20 3 boys Ta o Pardenlts vx hto don t f m i I I mo e sa e y 5 g I 0 5 9 years 10 14 years 15 19 years Asia I w Child Understanding of Health o By age 910 0 Know biological causes of illness 0 Earlier ages 0 May attribute to not eating well c Or to not sleeping well orng Adolescent Physical Development Puberty Peychmlugy 305 Deve opmental Psychmlmgg Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides 1J Adolescence Historically viewed as a time of stress 0 Rebelliousness emotional upheaval In reality 0 No greater psychological problems than in adulthood 0 But its true that there is U More depression eating disorders substance abuse and suicide than in childhood Psyc 305 Developmental Psychology Phases of Adolescence Early 11 to 14 years Rapid pubertal changes Middle 14 to 16 yea rs Wears Puberty nearly complete aeeom mg c lojll ooj eca Psy 305 Developmenwl Psychology A few facts 0 Emotional moodiness does increase 0 Linked to negative events 0 More nl39ioody that children ts 0 Teens are happiest with friends 0 Least ha ay in adult structure events o Moods level off by 10 grade 0 By middle adolescence Beeper Study Middle and junior high High schno 015 39 gt v1 005 Mm rdmy Tmesday Wtdrmsday Thwrsday Friday Saturday i39iundayr 5J r C rm 37 WT 9 More on Growth 0 Add 10 11 inches 0 Gain 50 75 pounds 0 Most growth occurs in the torso 0 But preceded by growth in hands feet amp legs 0 Creates awkward physical appearance iJ 0 Growth Spurts 0 Females o Starts by age 10 o Ends by age 16 o Males o Starts by 125 Ends by 175 Psyc 305 Develop V sycholccy Sex Differences in Growth Males Shoulders broaden Larger muscles 0 Higher counts of red blood cells 7 Females Hips broaden Add more fat to arms legs trunk o Fat triggers sexual maturation D d J e tittietital Growth 0 Changes over adolescence o Wide variation 39 early on o Substantial growth M wquot gammy At 15 you nliglil All yw39ll 596E155 slil FlaIE a mung lack lm a child dimerlan e between bgy39s Indy or a mung man either 3m and 39pciur mi 3 ml is nermal iJ r i39 E39 5 w 1quot l T39 Sports become Sex Segregated 0 Physical gains 0 Females slow and gradual By 14 few girls perform above the average boy in running throwing o Males dramatic spurt in strength endurance Few boys score as low as the average girl in running throwing w More Facts about Motor Development 0 Girls are less active than boys 0 74 vs 52 reporting regular exercise 0 Male sports more emphasized in schools Changing 0 Government requires public funds to provide equal opportunities 7 Vientialiiirirllentil lieschillhgix Hormonal Changes in Puberty o Begins to increase around ages 8 to 9 0 Both sexes secrete estrogen amp testosterone Females o More estrogen Maturation of sex organs Breast growth Males o More testosterone Maturation of sex organs Facial and body hair 0 50 of males secrete enough estrogen to have temporary breast enlargement 1 2 Hormonal Influences I Owes Growth spur Gams m bequot my Mumquot ofbady m Smilax arm Np Mammtiun offemalc mpmducnvc urgang opmem ufbmislx quotU Regulztiun arm mcnst um Kym Pixuiury clams Adrenal omex Thymid mwzh spurt Skeleul maturatmn Tums 70 ns G39Mquot Testosmmg A d s Immmn awn spun Gunth spur cm m bone mm Mamvauon ofmalc reprodunwt arms Cmth of publz mg m and body hair Sex dnv inrmns i Sexual Maturation El Fiszg cl39ioln i l I Primary Characteristics 0 Maturation of the reproductive organs 0 Girls menarche 0 Boys spermarche Secondary Characteristics 0 Other visible parts of the body that signal sexual maturity 0 Girls breasts 0 Boys facial hair voice change Both underarm pubic hair a l39quot 539 f c 1 l 1 391 ls 22 Sex Differences in Maturation 0 Females 0 Reach puberty 2 years earlier 0 Begins with budding breasts pubic hair 0 Then growth spurt menarche about 125 o Takes 34 years c Males o Begins with testes enlarging pubic hair 0 Growth spurt in the middle 0 Spermarche about 13 i A W 1quot Some facts about puberty o Fraternal twins 0 Mature within 12 months of each other 0 Identical twins 0 Mature within 2 months of each other 0 Secular trend 0 Puberty coming much earlier 0 34 months since 1900 0 Due to better nutrition amp health Secular Trends in Menarche TIILI hallllv39IJJrd 5 CWJEIL I Fungal Hugmm funWIme Ilmll 4 13 H I E 1 F g 134 g 13 J 39I39I 5 13 E a i r E 12 g 131 quotJ 13 I H l l 39I REED I F 3390 1 Elfhi I 556 1 SEC 3071C f39m Elf a l39quot 539 f c 1 l 1 391 ls 22 What effects sexual maturation o Genetics twins statistics 0 Diet 0 High SES girls reach puberty earlier than low SES girls 0 Thin girls reach puberty later 0 Family Environment Puberty earlier in high conflict families 0 Why a Creates distance in the absence of actually leaving the family 1 8 w A little on nutrition o Adolescent eating is haphazard 0 Skip meals 0 Eat empty calories vending machines and fast food 7 7 0 Many are deficient Calcium amp iron 0 Healthy eating more likely With family meals Psyr holog y Brain Development in Adolescence o Pruning slows o Myelination speeds up 0 Improved cognition o Neurons more sensitive to neurotransmitters Adolescents react more strongly levels out by 10 h grade 3
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