Engineering Psychology PSYC 446
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dorris Purdy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 446 at University of Idaho taught by Brian Dyre in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/227922/psyc-446-university-of-idaho in Psychlogy at University of Idaho.
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Engineering Psychology amp Human Performance u Review Distinction between Working Memory WM and Longterm Memory LTM Capacity limitations of working memory Interference in working memory I Outline of Lecture 1 More on Human Memory Training Working Memory i impiicationstor system design r nlng anoconsistency I highly trained experts chunk intormation more ettectiyeiy due to bust LTM representations II training only helps if environment is consistent with training 7 cnase amp simon 1973 cness masters y cyices i1 real board masters have better memory mrandorn board no difference in memory 7 Barnett 1989 yerbai communication between pilots and ATC airrtrafnc control anorrnal communications sequence experts better Jrandorn communications sequence no difference Working Memory I Implications for system design cont Capitalizing on Familiarity make items a need to be remembered easily chunkable Examples Jpasswords that form real words or phrases IBZMUCH zphone numbers 1800collectquot Working Memory 5 Implications for system design cont arsin 9 I introduce physical discontinuities to enhance chunking i examples phone numbers outlining indentations of program statements in computer programming Sequencing Data output I output items less likely to be remembered rst unchunked items eg last 4 digits of phone 1 items from middle and end of list Working Memory amp System Design 5 Display modality and working memory codes Dualcode Theory Paivio 1986 hi memory for abstract vs concrete terms I concrete terms are easier to remember due to use of both phonetic and imagebased codes Working Memory amp System Design Stimuluscentral processingresponse compatibility Wickens Sandry ampVidulich 1983 I What is the optimum matching between stimulus S and working memory codes C and responses l Spatial tasks are best served by analog visual displays Verbal tasks are best served by auditory displays unless the mcssagcislongcr an 45 words Longterm Memory amp Types of knowledge I Declarative knowledge of encyclopedic easily retrieved and communicated to others learned episodi memory of speci c events I rote learning It analog code semantic knowledge abstracted from events the gist I based on semantic relationships meanings betwe conce ts I propositional code Ca 5 have whiskers I Structur mental models schemata scripts sometimes verbatim knowledge is require I passwords codes name jokes gt mnemonics Longterm Memory amp Types of knowledge I Procedural knowledge genera y involve motor behavior diffcult to conceptualize and communicate best learned through rehearsal or practice Structure procedures or highly automated scripts skills Longterm Memory amp Training l Encoding Learning or Training Training Efficiency i level of pro ciency per dollar ofinvestment it requires procedures that pro uce the greatest rate oflearning quickness of training the greatest retention permanency of training are cheap to imple ent Best training method depends on the type of knowledge you are trying to convey i Declarative study and rehearsal are best It Procedural practice and performing to gain automaticify Training and Feed back n Feedback providing knowledge of error critical for ef cient training Practicing errors is detrimental l dif cult to unlearn bad habit i guided training prevent large errors 39om occurring so hat they can t be learned I offtargetleedback provide feedback only when errors exceed prede ned limits u ack au ent training environment to simplify the proced re39 t ining w s Feedback is most effective if it immediately follows to training 5quot m E Training to Encode Declarative Knowledge I Types of rehear Rote rehearsal pure recycling ofthe phonetic code 00 for maintaining informat39on i I contributes little to transfer of information into LTM Elaborative rehearsal actively seeking assoc39ati ns between material to be learned and existing knowledge I greater focus on visual and semantic codes form associations between known concepts already stored in LTM and incoming information i much greater transfer of informa ion into LTM than rote rehearsal I Practice and overlearning Training to Encode Procedural Knowledge consistent practice makes perfectquot i consistent practice leads to the development of automatici skilled performance continues to improve even alter errors are no lo being ma e i speed of performance increases at a rate proportional to the log of he number of practice trials I attention and resource demands decline as task becomes more automatic Training to Encode Procedural Knowledge Training very complex skills learning requires attention effective learning cannot take place i I extraneous task demands divert atten ion attention to too many things a Tasks that are overly complex are dif cult to lear component of the task for effective training D operator is under high attentional workload must pay because not enough attention may be directed to each Training to Encode Procedural Knowledge 5 Reducing task complexity in complex training Adaptive tra39n39ng I simplify one component ofthe complex task to decrease initial level of dif culty I as training proceeds gradually increase complexity until component compl 39 39 i proble Is normal m people will learn strategies during the I Example learnin to drive a standard shilt simpli cation eliminate need to avoid 0 her vehicles 4 Training to Encode Procedural Knowledge l Methods for Reducing task complexity in complex training Adaptive training i sim lify one component ofthe complex task to decrease initial level of dif culty l as training proceeds gradually increase complexity 39 omplexity is normal I problem people will learn strategies during the simple phase that may be incompatible with strategies needed in the dif cult p ase I Example learning to drive a standard shi simpli cation eliminate need to avoid other Training to Encode Procedural Knowledge a Reducing task complexity in complex training cunt Parttask training learn elements ofa complex task separately 5 segmentation divide task in time sequential phases examples speeches or musical performance problem some complexity co concurrence of task comp I 39acti onization practice concurrent components ofa task separately mes about due to onents examples right and lelt hand of piano piece prac ice shilting and clutching before drivi g I Problem doesn t train effective timesharing Evaluating Training Comparison of group with no training to group with training Measuring transferoftraining read on your ow transfer I quotA difference in time to criterion on target task savings do ccount for time spent in training transfer effectiveness ratio ii ratio of time saved to time spent in training period Longterm Memory and Retrieval I Knowledge in the world and in the e realworld tasks are generally recognition NOT recall I Great precision of memory is therefore not required l retrieval requires knowledge in the world to operate effectively out of sight out o mindquot i this is why visibility of function is so important in design Encoding speci city utility of retrieval cues is determined by their similarity to associations made during encoding example route vs survey knowledge Longterm Memory and Retrieval Cues I Types of knowledge in the worldquot constraints eg medieval bards recalling epic poems i literally an in nite number of possible phrases It number of possible phrases is reduced by three constraints meter rhyme syntax and meaning I constraints reduce the number of potential phrases and phraseending words to a very small number I poems are thus recreated rather than recited I poems appear to be the same because listeners code he gist ofinformation semantics or meaning rather han verbatim information analog or structural Longterm Memory and Retrieval Cues I Types of knowledge in the worldquot cont Reminders I technological aids calendars appointment books alarm clocks I examples of constraints in reminding tying a string around your nger taking out the garbage I Designs that don t remind Answering machine which buttons should be pushed for turning it onoff or setting the time This knowledge is not in the worldquot To Prepare for Next Class I lfyou have not already done so Read W8 I Lecture 16 Topic Decision Making Engineering Psychology amp Human Performance I Outline of Lecture 2 i cry ofHuman Factors and Engineering Psychology Designing the human into a technological system Human Information Processing History of Human Factors E Engineering at the beginning of the 20th century Taylor s 1911 motion and time stud Four principles I management must be concerned with detailed characteristics ofjobs notjust the big nancial pic ure 5 scienti cally design each element ofa job to produce maximum ef ciency I scienti cally select workers and train them t ensure that the job is done as prescribed Taylor s Successes History of Human Factors WWI Personnel Selection psychometricians I WWII and the genesis ofHuman Factors Engineering Psychology Personnel Selection continued to be emphasized t the man to thejobquot Human Performance experimental psychologists t the job to the manquot History of Human Factors Post WWII Formal Human Factors research laboratories established 1945 Air Force establishes the Aero Medical Research Laboratory engineering psychologyquot 1945 Navy establishes psychological research units 1951 US army establishes the Human Engineering Laboratory Many military and civilian scientists return to universities and continue human factors research History of Human Factors in Applications emphasized during 1950 1970 Military Systems Civilian aviation and manned spacecralt Transportation systems Process control and nuclear power e it Other applications emphasized since the mid70s Humancomputer interaction HCI Virtual Environments Medical Systems Current Areas of Emphasis Aerospace Aging Communications Consumer Products Computer Systems Decision Making Environmental Design Individual Differences Internet Safety orensics Industrial Ergonomics Medical Systems Surface Transportation raining Virtual Environments Perception amp Performance Designing the Human into a Technological System i The Design Process Mission Analysis ii establish overall goals and objectives of the total system i identify constraints under which the system must operate Function Analysis ii identify specific sequence of functions necessary to achieve the mission operational sequence diagram ii allocate functions to humans and machines i configure system to provide human operators the necessary information to make proper decisions 7 Designing the Human into a Technological System I An example Return from Salyut 1971 3 Soviet cosmonauts died returning from the Soviet space station Salyut in the Soyuz 11 command module What happened Physiological effects of rapid decompression ii brain is oxygenstarved ii pockets of air in sinuses explode shattering the facial bones 1 cells in body expand arms and legs balloon ii roughly 45 s until unconsciousness Designing the Human into a Technological System is How did the design of the system contribute to the accident Failure to perform proper functional analysis Design did not take into account the constraints of the environment and human limitations ii Anthropometry ii Psychology i Training Elimination of backup systems A Model of Human Information Processing A enllon I Resources 2 I l I i I l Longrlerm Memory I I I Working Memory Cognition H RESPOMS Selection System Environment Feedbackl r i I I I I I I I I Selection I I l H Sensory Iquot Processing In H Response Execution Sensory Processing I For human factors the primary emphasis is on the visual auditory and proprioceptive senses of the body although some olfactory displays do exist eg additives to natural gas that allow us to detect leaks what is proprioception i Perception of body states eg need to urinate stomach ache I also includes kinesthetic sense limb position i can refer to knowledge of your body s orientation in space the direction of gravity Characteristics of the senses apply important constraints on human performance Iii A Model of Human Information Processing Attention i 39l rquot Resources Aquoti I r I i I I r I I I 39 I 39 I Selection I II Sensory I 1 Processing I Percepiron l STSS H Response Selection System Envrronment lFeedbackl Short Term Sensory Store STSS E Each sense has a mechanism for prolonging the representation of the physical stimulus for a short period Characteristics of the STSS preattentive information is stored whether you attend it or not veridical does not change or process the stimulus appreciably decays rapidly Examples vision iconic memory duration 200300 ms audition echoic memory duration 28 s A Model of Human Information Processing AttentIon quotI 39I quotquot3 Resources jjnI Sensory In Processth II PerceptIun I STSS H Envtronmem Fee ac System db kl Perceptual Encoding and Attention w Incoming sensory information is interpreted in the context of previous experience information in longterm memory I Topdown and bottomup processing Topdown contribution of previous experience Bottomup contribution of incoming data A Model of Human Information Processing I I I I j I I I I I I I Seleclton l7 I I I v i Sensory 1 Processing 1 FeIceptIan I1 STSS System EnvIIonment Feedbackl Perceptual Encoding and Attention Perceptual encoding is limited by attention Attention selection of information for further processing attentional searchlightquot pool of resources limitation to the number of stimuli or tasks one can attend attention limits also apply to decision making and response execution stages Perceptual Encoding I Levels of Complexity simple detection stimulus present or absent recognition identification categorization vs analog judgments unidimensional vs multidimensional judgments i unidimensional absolute judgment i multidimensional pattern recognition A Model of Human Information Processing Attention 397 l Resources 7I Longrterm Memory Working Memory Cognition System Environment Feedback Response Selection Decision Making Once a stimulus is perceived we must decide what response to ma e Automatic vs controlled decisions automatic quick i no attention needed i learned reflexes ii longterm memory procedure executes automatically in response to the stimulus controlled slow i attention required typically conscious of thoughts ii interaction with working and longterm memory systems may involve rehearsal to store new information weighing of costs and benefits 20 A Model of Human Information Processing Working Memory 1 i q Sensory 1 Response Response ProScTe gmg 1 Fewephvn Selection Execution I Envnonmem I Feedback I Response Execution and Feedback Once the decision has been reached to execute a particular response the complex motor movements of the response must be executed Typically we monitor the consequences of our actions producing closedloop feedback Model is circular rather than linear A Model of Human Information Processing Longterm Memory I Working Memory Cognition I System Environment Feedbackl To Prepare for Next Week is If you have not already done so read the first Chapters of both the V ckens amp Hollands W and Norman N texts If you desire send me a fivedigit arbitrary number so that I may anonymously post your grade is Read N2 W2 pages 1734