Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSYC 101
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Chapter 5 Sensation amp Perception Module 51 The Visual System Part 1 Psychology 100 Introduction to Psychology Listen tothe audio lecture Vlhlle viewing these slides Psyc 100 7 introduct on to Psychology The Adaptive Problems 0 How does the external message from the environment get translated into the language of the newous system 0 Transduction PIECES of translating exte39nal 5 into the internal language of the brain 0 How do the sensations get extracted from the message oes the brain build a stable and lasting interpretation of sensations once they39ve been extracted 2 Psyc 100 7 lntroducuon to Psychology Psyc 100 7 introduct on to Psychology The Sense of VisionOverview Visual Transduction 0 Visual Transduction o Visible light One part of the spectrum of all 0 How light enters the eye is transduced alecm magr em energy into neural messages and how we adapt Three ma39quot Pmpem 39 k Wavelength Corresponds to experience orhue E t t f I ht Intensty Corresponds to brightness X Vac quot 9 sensory message rom 399 Durty Correspondsto saturatonrchness Ers a gvnth osvy eregz wgz f on to the o Enters the eye through the cornea pupil and 39 p lens lens changes shape to focus light 0 Proclthan stable interpretations of Visual Shape changing meSS called accommdation inpu o How we identify objects and perceive motion depth perceptual constancies 4 Psyc 100 7 lntroducuon to Psychology Fig 51 Psyc 100 7 lritroduct on to Psychology Fig 52 7 own Hiuuc wsSeL 5 Psyc 100 Introduction to Psychology Psyc 100 Introduct on to Psychology Transduction of Light 1quot L0 U39I 4s 0 Light strikes the retina a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye 5 3 o Retina contains lightsens tive cells 39 39 that react to light by creating neural impulses o Rods Sensitive to low light 0 Cones Sensitive to fine detail color o Concentrated in the fovea o Photopigments create chem cal reaction to light o These break down in bright light regenerate after time in low light this enables dark Time in me Darlaquot adaptation rambles Erin3 aiiialnialligiri u Flori adapt1 In L El r V I adamanan V l l 1 Lil 51le 3r Inlemsily oi Ligh1 Required Hm Delineation Psyc 100 Introduction to Psychology Psyc 100 Introduct on to Psychology Extracting Sensory Messages Visual Fig 55 Processing in the Brain Neural messages travel to brain via optic nerve o Splits at optic chiasm so that information from left visual field goes to right hemisphere and vice versa 0 Within each hemisphere information goes to the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus c From the lateral geniculate nucleus goes to o Retina in addition to rods amp cones o bipolar cells 0 ganglion cells 0 horizontal amp amacrine cells lateral effects F b39 cera39 primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe In 399 some I x 0 Feature detectors Cells that react to simple CO HWan lavn Visual stimuli such as lines angles etc 9 1o Psyc 100 Introduction to Psychology Psyc 100 Introduct on to Psychology Fig 56 Instr 5 L1quot 119 M15 F1th viaml Mild g EIIWIUI 11 100 7 introducton to Psychology Extracting Sensory Messages Higher Level Detection 0 Some feature detectors respond to more complex patterns such as corners moving bars bars of certain length 0 Some respond to faces only 0 In humans certain forms of brain damage cause prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces 0 Other parts of the brain specialized to handle other aspects of vision such as motion mental imagery Psyc 100 7 introducton to Psychology Color Vision Trichromatic Theory 0 Three types of cones in retina each maximally sensitive to one range of wavelengt s o Wavelengths correspond to blue green and red 0 Colors sensed by comparing amount of activation coming from each type 0 Most colors are a mix such as orange 0 Missing one kind of receptor gt Certain kinds of color blindness ml Psyc 100 7 introducton to Psychology Color Vision Opponent Processes o Trichromatic theory can t explain everything about color vision 0 Why does yellow seem like a primary color too 0 Why do we see afterimages of complementary colors 0 Additional process Rece tors in visual system respond positively to one color and negatively to that complementary color Psyc 100 7 introducton to Psychology Fig 58 Psyc 100 7 introducton to Psychology Psyc 100 7 introducton to Psychology Fig 519 Sensation All sensory systems operate the same they only use different mechanisms 0 Have a physical stimulus eg light The stimulus emits some sort of energy Energy activates some sort of receptor system 0 N o w What is Sensation Perception and Cognition Sensation The receptor system is designed to convert transduce the energy to action potentials You then organize the physical energy to neural energy by electricalchemical reactions Perception You then organize and filter the energy as the information progresses through different neural ms Ultimately you develop patterns and process the material Cognition Allows you to determine what the pattern means 0 Sensation is involved with detecting the stimulus and converting the information to action potentials Perception is involved with organizing the action potentials Cognition is involved with giving the organization some meaning that we can understand Vision Light Consists of energy particles called photons Characteristics of a light wave Are examined by machines that measure them in sine waves 1 The number of photons Determines the intensity of the light Shown by the height of a sine wave 2 The distance between the peaks of the sine wave Called the wavelength Electromagnetic Spectrum mere g 3 may m Wagnth Ummady auhemmamupthe gamma quotgm gum um mmmmqu M mm MM awnm mww mm Sam Emmy mghmmm mm mm wsmehgm uwuv esanawuwhmd mmedeammagnamsva mm Damenmuqs n my 1 who mamaerl Lungawme enmhs Harm m mm sho erwawaenmhsareb uevma mme WhneHgM mns gsm 3H Wme enmhs The Eye Has a variety of structures Sclera Is a tough white coat Encloses the eye except at the front where it bulges out to form the cornea Cornea Is a thin clear outer cap Does most of the focusing of the eye 75 o Is where light first enters the eye Heals very rapidly usually 24 hours Can be altered for myopia to give normal vision l s Is a muscle and colored part of the eye ls circular and shaped like a donut Expands and contracts the hole in the middle PupH Is the hole in the middle of the lris Allows light to enter the eye Lens Light passes through the pupil and through the lens Lens helps to focus light on the retina ls involved with finer focus than the cornea Has muscles that make it flatter or more rounded Rama sensory receptors mrmea We DackmmeeyE EaHed Radiant cones Rods lack mm Mrs m mmmmmm penpherymme m varygnd mmm memm Deer 21d an m mummn W m mmedmthemmeutmeyun mm mm Am the in W x m hm mam uhgmuwm See mm m mygmdz me Mm m Dmrrtmmmoetm m ThreeTypes of cones Ezm 5 wmm 2 mum wimmgh Pumn e shun Eemuseunheamuum m th mg and mm ngma dusk new E uesmdgrasnswv a new Dark Adaptation new mm I II wmesm m m th wads ae uWaawaedm 522th m We are m varkmg ummady Reusv urssy avsem m monsch E pma we mm Emma mm th neurunmuea Bang mn ueHS Hovewr m E pma a 5mm Cd s Vac mmm Qrom my new mme eyg mum Anamne and Honmma Cd s Result vhewg M m Orgamxamnmr mm new mme eyE mnmm gingham ueHScumDme and em heQE mma maure Gamma am am ND menus 1e mam mm mm spa 0pm Nerve Yheamns urma quotN m edme am Name mm amnasvumme 0mm Name crossmme BPDOS e sde m he Dram at a We cam he 0mm Emasm Flbers then go to me Lalera Gemcmae Mm Mum 5 pan m M mam we Brahman prmssmg and Suvamr Eo hw usmcuordmae mm momma Uitimadya FiDas mm heEyEend up in m 7 mm 1Smme new ube mo Theorles of color Vision Opponent Process omzpnmzrycdmm w EM WWW WW k MW WM Mmesz W9 un ummady bmh heuneswurk lugaherm Ew am my man mymm ndeud y gt351sz T mi 2 mass am mzezoz Axons and Rained Strucmres mve mmy mus Axon HIllock 50 die were mums mom ser 2 mm czum mm wknhum many new Body of the Axon This structure can branch called a collateral Branching continues into smaller and smaller branches called Teleodendria Presynaptic Element Also called terminal buttons terminal boutons and other names We will call it presynaptic element Contains Several Structures Synaptic Vesicles sacks Sacks contain chemicals called neurotransmitters Presynaptic Membrane Calcium Channels m an hem mums Non Myellnated axons Minialum m m rave mm m S Mnmnmyzhnm 2m mwaver ammo mm mm m anpmm Wu 91 3 Dendrites Some neurons do not contain this structure only have soma s and axons Dendrites only receive information Contain a post synaptic element Has a post synaptic membrane Have receptor sites to receive neurotransmitters So both Dendrites and Soma s can receive information Both contain a post synaptic element Synapse and Related Structures Types ofNeurons Nec assmm avan ym Wm Flo Sc ass vewH muggy hem laxthew mth Neuronsama m magma bywem mnmmn and nuc ms ucyi v asmmram wpes ofneurons mm mnswburrs mm sum mxaummus mm Nmns mg m mm 2nd ms gums mg m 2m 21d ms m1 msumsmzzr MN m mm mm mum m0 ey 3 wwvma mmmymmms mso yomzxmmd ms mues msmmnmmsgmm rare umdmzvzndyd m WWW m How Neurons Work Essen uncontemramn grad emsm W m smmwa m wm swag UL and swam ms delhe am cam muons A Scrimmaan Massmmae Dostue y chagedand aeha anuedom by mm and mm Normally some sodium leaks into the axon But cells don t like sodium so they have pumps that remove sodium called sodium potassium pumps The pumps remove sodium to the outside The inside of axons have lots of potassium and anions and are negatively charged The outside of axons have lots of sodium and chloride and are positively charged So when an axon is at rest the outside of the axon is positively charged and the inside is negatively charged When a Stimulus Occurs 1 Mmmummm mm mm mm ismue w mam m m A mum Wm Mm gm rims re mnm mm m 21d ulmzxmm uck m mzv sgrmg mm msmsmmmmnpnmm 5 Hmcmrgusnngmrgenwme Rexmm nmumzuwmnm 5 mm mng m m cmssa m Mesm m ww m mdumvmrs x mm hezmngms mmmw m m wammemsoe s c souwnmezxmhkez mmsm mm msodum P zssum pimps mm m m heng m mgsumm 59 m Pvth vavgsgomgdovm new Yhemdmmemennglheamn Yhemdmmbemgvumvedum Ummaldymeraumsamga m undemm Wha heamn New quotEmma Presyni hc gem 1 unmesczwmumlhlmemum Presyvvhc mm Eicumczxses es mvs desm mm mm Vesym imm m mu nmmmems enmusedmu 0 5mm m m Mumsva vosss m M m was m mm mm Dm mm mm man cm a 5m mscmsm sma dadnm chage and he Probes mm m Hownmrmransmmerswnare Ma Qromme raxviors m 5 remoxai m Wm 1 n sdEQradedDIenxymes made mus ueHS wmmmspug synavhc memhrme 2 msrsabsurhm mothe Premav me ema Different drugs can block the degradation or reabsorption Prozac Cocaine There are lots of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides Each is involved with a variety of activities eg Dopamine is used to control muscle movement by the basal ganglia Acetylcholine is involved with muscle movement at your muscle Ill Chapter 3 Biological p Module 31 Basic Units and Functions of the Nervo s System Psychology 100 Introduction to Psychology LlS lEntEI the auer remre vmrle Viewing these shoes Psvc me e rntrneuetnn tn Psvehnrnev The Adaptive Problems 0 How dos the newous system communicate internally o How d s the brain initiate and coordinate behavior 0 How dos the body regulate growth and other internal functions 0 How do we adapt store and transmit the genetic code Psvcl e rntrneuetmn tn Psvchnln v Communicating Internally Neurons Sensory errerent lnt SHOWS Motor neurons effermt other ceus rn the nervous System Ghal oeHs broooebrern bamer outnumber neurons lnsuletE eentnh to meteb rnterect wrth blood et e exes Exempre PuHrng away rrorn e hot surrece Processed rn sonar cord not brern Psvc mu e rntrneuetnn tn Psvehnrnev ff Fig 31 11 Psvcl e rntrneuetmn tn Psvehnrnev Anatomy ofa Neuron Fig 32 Dendrrtes SomaceH body Axon I Termrnal buttons Myehn sheath sornetrnes Psvc me e rntrneuetnn tn Psvehnrnev Dendrits 0 Receive information 0 10005 of branchs I Enable neuron to receive inforrna on m many soumes Psyc 100 7 Introduc on m Psychology Psyc 100 7 Introducton m Psychology Soma Axon Main body of the cell Transmits information Metabolic center Action potential travels down the axon to Genetic material stored here other neurons Information is processed here Terminal buttons on end Synapses These release chemical neurotransmitters Fig 33 7 8 l Psyc 100 7 Introduc on m Psychology Psyc 100 7 Introducton m Psychology Resting Potential Fig 34 Tlny charge between inside outside of neuron a a o Created by electrically charged particles v 3 P ions 7 0 Some concentrated outside the cell Sodium and chloride ions 0 39 W 0 Some concentrated inside the cell 2 7 mums Potassium ions 397 A39 o How is the charge maintained mmu fmjm Sodium potassium pump AV Wafflj Selectiver permeable cell membrane 9 i m i Psyc 100 7 Introducton m Psychology Action Potentials Fig 36 0 Change in potential primarily because of mm messages from other neuro ns Mam g s o EXCItatory messages 1v oCelllosesthe immwi negative charge Depolarizaton o o Inhibitory messages 0 Cell becomes more negatively charged Hyperpolarizaton 12 Psvcluu a intradvctian ta Psvchnlnuv About Acu39on Potentials Fig 37 All or none Do not varv in strength or intensitv rn Speed increased it neuron is mvelinated I Nodes O Ranvlel Saltatorv condumon Psv mu 7 intrndvctnn tn Psvchnlnav Neural Ooding Fig 38 messages themselves varv in rate m pate w n thev bundle together at input stes Psvcluu a intradvctian ta Psvchnlnuv The Synapse 0 Tiny gap between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrite of the next one 0 Chemicals flow into the synapse from the terminal buttons 0 Neural transmission Dendrltes 9 Soma 9 Axon 9 Terminal Buttons Psv mu 7 intrndvctnn tn Psvchnlnav Neu rotransmitters When action potential reachesthe end arthe rhese activate reoeptors in the pastsvnaptic membrane Mav be excitamry or inhihtarv depending on the reoeptor 15 16 Psvcluu e intradvctian ta Psvchnlnuv Psvc mu 7 intradvctan ta Psvchnlnuv Some Common Neurotransmitters Dmgs and the Brain Norepinephrine Agonlsts 39 In olved in otation emotions Mrnic the aqion ofnealrotransmltters Acetvlchollne Example Nicotine mimics aoetvldnoline involved in triggering musdes to contract Antagomsts 39 Dof ce ff m d d u m t Blodlt the action ofnealrou39ansrnltters niiorvee ampmsal l smoo sou newi messages Example mrare blodlts aoetvlcholine I Serotonin I Neurom aorg involved in Sleep am dreaming increase or deoeae erreoiveness or other Gawmanawlnonbutvrlc acid GABA quoteurot msm tters involved in regulating an v 39 Example WWW m What is Psychology Behavior and the Psychology is the Scientific Study of Important Words Scientific Be Db39ec Ive unde Psychology is scienti c To do so it must Provide de nitions that are precise and fully andabie to any appropriately trained r on Must make observations that show what exists inthe real wond Allows you to precisely measure something Repeatable Science must be Repeatable You must get the same result over and over across different settings and at different occasions Science must be Public Must present information to others so they can examine it Second Important Words Behavior and the Mind What does Behavior include Everything we do Internal Events Are events that are verbally reported what we think or feel or are inferred from physiological indicators eg heart rate External Events Events observed by others Mind Feelings Thoughts Reasoning etc Problem How can you record thoughts feelings etc scienti cally Answer Very dif cult so you rely on verbal orts or instruments Problem Person may lie or not accurately report what they are thinking or fee Ing Big debate in the eld between psychologists who want to emphasize objective behavior vs psychologists who want to emphasize internal events Course Approach Will emphasize an objective approach For Psychology to be a science it must follow the rules and principles of science If it doesn t meet the rules and principles is isn t a science First rule of science is objectivity What are Psychologists Are Not Psychiatrists Psychiatrists Undergrad Med School Internship Do residency in psychiatry Psychologists Clinical Undergrad Grad School Internship Work under supervision Psychiatrists can give drugs Psychosurgery ECT Counseling So can some Psychologists Also give tests Intelligence Neuropsychology Assessments Counseling Experimental NonCounseling Psychologists Work in many other areas Do not perform counseling Work in Business Academics Other areas Two Main Types of Psychologists Clinical Experimental Usually work in Generally work in nonclinical areas the helping fields Car design Airplane cockpit design Computer esrgn Worker Safety Increased productivity it What thaloqm u Prmw Mutiny M w hwnmwm Bemn y exvuvverh psbeDgis mveyeiemmvidsmsomdy mn thWDMess mis mum 2 m were mama Sven ny Ala 11 thmnm s Ewenmema Vsychmugy smup Mmy waand mum Ill Speculum m Pmmqy Developmental Area In the past were only concerned with child development Today Examines all areas related to developme Prenatal to old age All areas are examined Most still work with children Human Experimental In the Past Sensation and Perception Learning and thinking e Today All of above plus Addictions Sleep Parapsychology ESP Human Computer Interaction Animal Experimental Conducts research on lower animals Dogs Rats Pigeons etc Tried to develop laws about behavior Made a lot of discoveries Much of human behavior obeys the same laws as animal behavior Physiological Brain and Behavior Closest to biological sciences Often have double degrees but is not required Is a hot area where you can make lots of money Examines Psychopharmacology Brain functioning and behavior High BP Psychometric or Quantitative Develop mathematical and statistical models to understand human behavior Do a lot of program evaluation Often try to predict behavior of societies Social Studies people in groups Also studies the interaction between people eg Examining the behavior of individuals reacting to a person lying on the street Dressed in a suit vs dressed shabbin Who stops to help Most People Don t The more people in the group the less likely you are to stop IndustrialOrganizational Applies psychological principles to work settings eg Increase worker morale or productivity Work in Human Resource Areas Give tests to potential workers for potential to steal motivation drug abuse ethics Council employees with problems and refer them to clinicians Can make big dollars as well EngineeringHuman Factors Work and study human machine interaction Study things such as where should a fuel indicator go Help in designing car dashboards airplane cockpits computer screens et Can make really big dollars Helping Fields Group Clinical Psychology Most psychologists receive their deg ree he re Clinical Psychologists are the most familiar to the public Frazier Newhart Don t use medicines or physical techniques to solve problems ls changing Some psychologists with training are being allowed to prescribe some medicines Is very controversial Clinical Continued Provide counseling to individuals with problems Give Psychological tests Intelligence neurological functioning personality other Two groups PhD type More research oriented PSY Type More counseling oriented Counseling Psychologists Are not clinical psychologists Receive degrees in counseling through educational problems EdD Work with people having problems in living eg marital problemsstudents other Educational or School Psychologists Similarto counseling psychologists except they work in school settings Give group IQ tests Don t usually provide long term counseling Usually refer to other specialists In the past there were major differences between Clinical Counseling and School Psychology provided Counseling Clinical Emphasis people wit majorpsychological pro lems plus other areas Counseling Didn t have the training to deal with major behavioral problems as clinicians did Deal with people who are more normal Are not trained to give drugs or deal with psychopathic individuals School Emphasis in School Settings K12 Trained to spot problems and refer Today Lots of overlap Also have masters level clinicians that do the same thing but at lower cost Applied Psychologists Technically are experimental psychologists Often have training in both clinical and experimental areas Emphasis is in studying and solving problems in applied settlngs Work in business schools criminal justice Work on applied problems eg reducing drinking and driving Conclusion Lots of types of psychologists Can make lots of money in the field Help lots of people and society Problem The field also has a lot of extraneous stuff Have major transitions in the field Can be very political some decisions were made by votes not science Also have debates between the approaches What is scientific vs not scientific Is a field in transition All sensory systems operate the same they only use different mechanisms Sensation Have a physical stimulus eg light The stimulus emits some sort of energy Energy activates some sort of receptor system N o w What is Sensation Perception and Cognition Sensation Perception The receptor system is designed to convert transduce the energy to You then organize and filter the action potentials energy as the information progresses through different neural systems You then organize the physical energy to neural energy by electricalchemical reactions Ultimately you develop patterns and process the material So Cognition Sensation is involved with detecting the stimulus and converting the information to action potentials Allows you to determine what the pattern means Perception is involved with organizing the action potentials Cognition is involved with giving the organization some meaning that we can understand Vrsron Light Consists of energy particles called photons Characteristics of a light wave 1 The number of photons o Are examined by machines that Determines the intensity of the light measure them in sine waves Shown bythe height of a sine wave 2 The distance between the peaks of the sine wave Called the wavelength Electromagnetic Spectrum mere g 3 may m Wagnth Ummady auhemmamupthe gamma quotgm gum um mmmmqu M mm MM awnm mww mm Sam Emmy mghmmm mm mm wsmehgm uwuv esanawuwhmd m he deammagnam Sva rum unsunanumys m a Lungawme enmhs Harm m mm sho erwawaenmhsareb uevma w my WhneHgM mns gsm 3H Wme enmhs The Eye Has 3 mm m mam selem 5 mth Mme m Endosalhe eyE ages a he mm were u bu gesuu umrm cornea mm usanoma cap gas was mmemwsmgmmgeye 75 svmaehgmws e gimme Heasmyrw dwlusua ym mm cam 4mm myup am mm mm mm Ins Pupil Samusdeandcu omdpa m smehmemmemmmemthe ns he a N oWS ngemameeyE 5 cvcu ar and 939m We a dam Ewandsmdcomra smehmem he Mame Lens ugM Dassa hmugh he pup am Has mch makem ata or more rounded Reuna Maehgm ma y a sensory receptors Neumtedmhehack mmeeye EaHed mg am We Rods mmhkemHMrs 39 quot iii m van621 mmm memm Deer 21d an m smz e mn was mmmmwm army m Mm uHed he Me Me 1e zwm mztdy x m hm m M pa rum Wm M Dar 1 mmundded m Three Types of cones hemssemnmmzdmmn m mm Purkln eshn Eemusemlhe amount m th mg am We wmgm a dusk new mumna grams we daever Dark Adaptation Ducursa a sham m I mmmesm cones are m varkmg um mady new Synapsem m monsch E pma we mm Cd s haw comm m neurunmuea Bang mn ueHS Hovewr m E pma a 5mm Cd s Vac mmm Qrom my new mme eyg mum Anamne and Honmma cm 3 5 Result vhewg M m Orgamxamnmr mm new mme eyE Amns romganghun ca scumme am Mg ha EyE rom a gruaure Enema mm m mmcsnuszmmmmmmum San Opuc Nerve m amns urmanenecd m he am New mum Emmermmme 0mm NM wossm he oppos e m m he Dram a a srumurecd ed he mm mm Flbers then go no the mam Emmi mm Mum 5 van m he Yhdamus w more urga39uxahuna mam mama Suvamr cummmsm coordmale mm mmema39 ummaewa mermmeemm upmarsa 1E and15mlhe new ohe eorles of Opponent Process Vhsd scmr beczmeVeHmz m mmmmmumo me w vm suahzlcdcrzs we Plums h w I am We Ex mns he cmee s a mm m exam WW m m mm Dimwhr ws ummady bmh heuneswurk lugaherm Ew am my man my hawmdmdud y Research Methods How Psychologists Conduct Research Methods Used Systematic or Naturalistic Observation Case Study Survey Method Experimental Method Correlation Methods Systematic or Naturalistic Observation Where researchers observe others and infer about what they are doing Usually involves counting behaviors Often is conducted in field settings and not in the lab Advantages You know the situation is real and not artificially set up Can observe things that may cause the behavior that you cannot do in the lab Can observe things where you cannot do experiments Generally provides a big picture Disadvantages Observers can distort information Results can change if the subject becomes aware they are being observed Isn t very accurate Case Study Is a major investigation of unit The unit can be a Individual University Town Generally is a detailed study of one individual or thing Advantages can mesa undasmdmg ma anew Wm 9mm emenmeme mdmgs Usue yaa Men yDu Menu nee em ma as am an Disadvantages cam erymswae n We Pour y canget vowed Dras em am m Ema ream Survey Manod wwwng QuEimnnaveSur mememm mm manna m 3 Advantages csngesmmnmammams vanaymmmgs gm rysensmenm m can measure 2 mm s new DWI msadvamages suneygmwe we he revresa39 ahxemlhev vmamn Other Problems People lie Questions can be biased Direct marketing in guise of surveys has people leery of providing information Experimental Method Most commonly used by aH the sciences Evaluates variables A variable is anything that varies over time Two types Independent Variable The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter The amount of money you are given The volume of noise that you are presented with Dependent Variable Is the variable that changes and which you observe Noise and Heart Rate Vary 3 Levels of Noise Low Medium High Examine Heart Rate Does the Heart Rate Increase stay the same decrease Heart rate changes because you are varying the level of noise Thing that you vary is noise Independent Variable Thing you observe changes in Is heart rate Dependent Variable Advantages Can reach precise conclusions x causes y to occur Can hold lots of extraneous things constant that may influence the outcome of a study Disadvantages Ethical issues Can be artificial The lab is not the real world but it can be close Cannot measure some things with experiments Attitudes Opinions Correlational Method Correlation is way to estimate the extent that two variables are related to each other However because two variables are related does not mean that one causes the other CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION Examples Rooster crowing causes the sun to come up Ice Cream and Drowning Your Genetics Cause Alcoholism and other Disorders Birth Control Pills Cause Breast Cancer Correlations are Expressed as a Number Numbers range between 1 and 1 o The closer the number is to zero the less relationship there is or o The closer the number is to plus or minus 1 the more relationship there is 9 has a greater relationship than a 4 OR 3 has less relationship than a 8 AGAIN THE NUMBER ONLY TELLS YOU HOW MUCH THE VARIABLES ARE RELATED 800000 What does the plus or minus sign tell you Posmve correlation As one enememmses 31th va m e W355 ammmmvmmymw e Vhemmeheeryuumrk mangerquot m m Mawth yuu W M Negative correlation Ema As enamemmse my m m eaeeem mm am 7 m am As he memoquot wees mm 5m Mag 3 Advantages mm mm enemeena means me we premium me me surly r he a n mamas can udyva m esy u mnnm a We Mavis an Disadvantages cam drawmuse ma re ahonyups Doesnm summer m vmm ma mayaaua ymmm he Dehavmr RENEMEER CORRELATION DOES NOT INFLY cAusATIoM Ways to Study Brain Structures and Functioning Can physically trace connections Is the most primitive Can be done with any structures Ablation Can remove a piece of the brain and see what happens If the behavior changes you can assume that part had some effect Occasionally done with epilepsy patients Accidents Tumors Strokes After they occur can look at changes in behavior Problem The whole system can be affected Electrical and Chemical Stimulation Fritsch and Hitzig later Pen eld Electrically stimulated the brain of humans 39n surgery and observed what happened Hands moved thoughts were recalled etc Commonly done today in neurosurgery called brain mapping Reaction depends on where the needle is placed Can also use chemicals to stimulate the system EEG Electroencephalogram Used to record the electrical activity of the brain Excellent for the diagnosis of epilepsy Best when the person is asleep MEG Magnetoencephalogram Records the changes in magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain Angiogram Used to examine blood vessels in the brain Important to diagnose strokes and tumors Can add contrast mediums dyes X Rays Can use to view brain structures Important for examining ventricles and other structures Not used as much today CAT Scan or CT Scan Computerized Axial Tomography or Computerized Tomography Provides a cross section XRay of the brain Good to diagnose tumors and strokes PET Scans Positron Emission Tomography Provides a picture of Brain Functioning Monitors the amount of glucose sugar the brain is using Make the glucose radioactive The more glucose you use the more brain activity there is MRI Magnetic Resonance lmagery Sets up a magnetic eld Causes water molecules to vibrate and changes ion structure Allows you to get a good picture of brain structures Excellent for diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis SPECT SinglePhoton Emission Computerized Tomography ls similar to PET Uses radioactivelytagged tracer Resolution is lower ls lower cost Makes it more practical for widespread use SQUID Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Very new Like MRI Senses changes in magnetic elds When nerves re they create magnetic elds Fields inclicate neural activity Found The brain hears loud sounds in different places than quiet sounds Areas were laid out like a piano keyboard D39s ance etween areas that hear low c and middle c is the same as middle c and high c Place where the brain remembers faces is different from where it remembers objects eg Faces were recalled in the right hemisphere that specializes in spatial 39ons Objects spatula Recalled in the cortex that originally processed how the spatula felt and the hands moved it Parietal Lobe Psychological Tests of Brain Functioning HalstadReitan Contains a variety of subtests Most tasks are simple and can be easily done by normal people Mth eyes close individual is asked Which hand am touchingquot Identify the number that has been traced on a nger Also have a lot of more complicated tests Aphasia Screening test WAISlll Lu riaNebraska Has 269 discrete items in several categories Includes categories such as Tracing objects on wrist Motor coordination Strong reliability and validity gt80 or better on identification of brain damaged subjects Other Tests Porteus Mazes Get out of mazes Look at errors and time to get out Bender Gestalt Give a picture and have the person draw it Line Orientation tests Which line is oriented with the stimulus line