Abnormal Psychology PSYC 311
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Date Created: 10/23/15
await Stress Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio ledure while viewing these slides L Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology De nitions 1 I 0 Stress Negative emotional experiences associated with behavioral biochemical and physiological changes that are related to perceived challenges Sarason Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psycnology Important Points I o Are negative emotional experiences 0 Are associated with if changes 0 Behavioral 0 Biochemical 0 Physiological o Are related to perceived challenges 0 Perception may not be accurate Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Types of Stress o Transitional 0 Moving o Burnt chocolate chip cookies 0 Acute 0 Has sudden onset Death of a spouse Fired from a job Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psycnology Stressors o Are the events that stimulate the behavioral biochemical or physiological changes 0 Come from many sources 0 World Wide Web Others Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Vulnerabilities o How resilient are you c How many coping skills do you have 0 Is the person a positive or negative thinker Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Successful coping 1 o Abilities 0 Seek pertinent information 0 Sharing of concerns 0 Redefine the situation 0 Consider aIternativesconsequences 0 Use of humor to diffuse the situation Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Knowmg more Information lowers stress levels 1 0 Being told about surgery 0 Be prepared for the worst case scenario 0 Social support is critical to well beinghandling stress 0 Need different adaptation strategies for all different stressors Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Models Mannerisrrs Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Factors to take Into Account When Assessing Stress 0 Duration 0 Severity o Predictability 0 Degree of Loss 0 SelfConfidence o Suddenness of Onset Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Major Common Stressor o Bereavement and Grief o Is a stressor 0 What s Normal 0 Life Transitions are stressors o Adolescence Is a stressor physiologically and physically Many hormonal changes Major social changes Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Clinical Reactions to Stress 0 Stress plays a role in most abnormal psychological cases 0 Three conditions where great stressors are most likely to trigger disorders 0 Adjustment Disorders 0 Acute Stress Disorder 0 Dissociative Disorder Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Adjustment Disorders 1 0 Recent life stress followed by a maladaptive reaction 0 Individual who has not adapted well to a stressor that has occurred in the past three months Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Information Needed to Make a Diagnosis 1 I 0 Time of onset and duration of stressor 0 Duration of the symptoms 0 Depressed mood 0 Anxiety 0 Inappropriate antisocial behaviors Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Acute Stress Disorder 0 Changes in emotion thoughts behaviors o Are linked to extremely traumatic stressors 0 Examples 0 Experienced or witness a traumatic event causing fear horror helplessness Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Symptoms o Dissociation o Numbness o Detachment 0 Absence of emotional responsiveness Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Diagnostic Information 1 0 Exposure to some extreme event Dissociative symptoms Persistent reexperinecing of the event Marked avoidance of related stimuli Marked anxiety arousal Clinically significant symptoms that last two to four weeks i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Dissociative Disorders 0 Upsurge of stressors that individuals cannot handle 0 Typically will see dramatic behavior patterns not seen in the other disorders 0 Is a severing of connections between ideas and emotions Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Four Major Types 1 o Dissociative Amnesia o Dissociative Fugue o Dissociative Identify Disorder 0 Depersonalization Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Dissociative Amnesia 0 Memory loss 0 Has no organic indication of cause 0 Precipitated by 0 Physical accident but does not cause brain damage 0 Psychologicalemotional trauma 0 Cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness 0 Several types Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Localized 0 Failure to recall events for a period of time following the traumatic event 0 Have event cannot remember anything for two hours Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Selective 0 Have some recall after the event not recall everything 0 Have a spousal death but do 0 Can recall making funeral arrangements 0 Cannot recall calling spouses parents Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Generalized 0 Cannot recall your entire life 0 Have event cannot recall your past experiences 0 But you do create new memories following the event Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Continuous 1 0 Cannot reca right before the event during the event and new experiences following the event 0 Continue to not create new memories 0 Remember There is no organic damage Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Systematized 1 0 Loss of recall in certain categories 0 Have event 0 Cannot recall foods you like 0 Can recall your friends Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Dissociative Fugue I I o Unexpected travel away from home and workplace 0 Assume a new identity Cannot recall former identity 0 Usually ends when the person wakes up confused scared about being in a strange place 0 ey nnot recall events in the fugue state following the event Is usually of brief duration Usually recover from the fugue event 0 Rarely reoccu rs E Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Example I 0 Assume you are married have kids house dog etc Have event enter fugue state Leave Moscow move to Florida Get married again have kids house dog etc Leave fugue Why am I here Key don t recall anything from the different state 0 Vent vew hard to fool a trained clinician i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Also called Multiple Personality Disorder 0 Can have one or many personalities 0 Each has 0 Own memories and behaviors 0 None of the personalities knows the other 0 Usually begins in childhood 0 Is a way of self protection 0 Create another personality to handle the o Often only comes out in therapy sessions 0 May be a clinical artifact ii Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Depersonalization 1 o Is a feeling detached from one s self 0 Lost sense of reality await Mood Disorders Overview Depression Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lec1ure while viewing these slides Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Many Types 1 o Mania 0 Depression 0 Bipolar 0 Drug induced mood disorders 0 Medically induced mood disorders Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Some General Symptoms o Feelings Range from High to Low 0 Cognitions Range from clear to distorted 0 Physical Appearances can change 0 Social Range from shut down to manic 0 Can affect others Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Background Information 0 10 of all US adults experience depression or bipolar symptoms 0 Problem Most receive no treatment 0 Major Depressive Disorders 0 Second greatest cause of disability affecting quality of life and productivity 0 Suicide is greatest cause of death among individuals having these disorders 0 Treatment improves quality of life 0 Productivit Y o Decreases burden of health facilities Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Why Don t People Get Treatment 0 Worry about stigmatization 0 Label of being mentally ill 0 Failure of health care providers to recognize symptoms 0 Lack of awareness of beneficial treatments Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Comorbidity o 392 of people with major depression have anxiety disorders too 0 Substance abuse makes the mood disorder worse 0 Personality disorders are also common Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Epidemiology 1 0 Rates are similar among races 0 Two times as many women are diagnosed with depression 0 May be a diagnosis issue here as well 0 Not much difference for bipolar disorders 0 Cultural environ mental economic factors play a role in rates 0 Do not influence symptoms or types of behaviors Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Depression 1 I 0 Symptoms are experienced by everyone 0 Usually is situational 0 Usually will pass after a short period of ime o For diagnosis of Depression you need to meet specific criteria 0 Feelings of loss not due to bereavement are not severe to be diagnosed as a mood disorder it can be classified as o Adjustment Disorder with a Depressed Mood Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Vulnerabilities for Depression 0 Heredity 0 Twin studies suggest greater risk if twin has depression 0 Relative with Bipolar you are 3 times more likely to develop a major Dep o The younger the age of onset the increased probability that relatives will experience Dep Ll Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Age of First Episode 0 Women 20 29 0 Men 40 49 0 Depression on slow increase as age decreases Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Sex Differences 1 0 Females two times as likely to develop all types of depression 0 May be a diagnostic issue Women are more likely to seek out treatment 2545 year old married women have high rates of depression 0 Is also correlated with economic status 0 Men tend to be action oriented to stress Women more cognitive in copin o Is related to bnger and more severe depressive episodes 0 May also have hormonal issues as well 3 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Live Events 0 Events we create may be interrelated 0 Combined with genetic components may increase risk for depression Psyc 311 7 Abnormal psycnology Lack of Social Support 0 Social Support Belief that one is cared for by others 0 Others are available to provide he o Is an important protection against depression 0 Others 0 Validate a person39s experiences 0 Are sounding boards for issues 0 Help one to reoognize I39m not the only onequot 21 Types of Depressive Disorders Psyc 3117 Abnormal psycnology o Dysthymic Disorders 0 Major Depressive Disorder 0 Depressive Episodes with Psychotic eatures Psyc 311 7 Abnormal psycnology Dysthymic Disorders o Mild chronic symptoms for many years 0 220 0 Mean 5 years c 3 of general population 0 30 of outpatients are Dysthymic o Seems a way of life 0 Also feel helpless to change one39s life i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psycnology Cognitive Symptoms 0 Low self esteem 0 Guilty feelings 0 Thinking about the past Irritability Excessive anger Most researchers believe it is a biological disorder Often mistaken as a personal disorder due to duration Note If dysthymic persons present symptoms of major depression caed Double Depression 16 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal psycnology Other Symptoms 0 Poor appetite and sleep patterns 0 At least two years of low mood o No major depression 0 No mania 0 Symptoms cause significant distress Psyc 3117 Abnormal psycnology Major Depressive Disorder 0 Person has experienced one or more major depressive episodes without anla o Marked by depressed mood and loss of pleasure or interest in all activities 0 Need four symptoms from the following 0 Must have symptoms for two weeks 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Additional Symptoms 0 Weight Changes 0 Constant sleep problems 0 Agitated o Slowed down behavior 0 Fatigue 0 Cannot think clearly 0 Feel worthless o Frequent thoughts of Death and Suicide 2 Addition com ments 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 At least 392 of the people with depression will have a recurrent episo e o If have had 3 or more episodes chances increase to 80 it will happen again unless have aggressive treatment Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Major Depression with Psychotic Features o 15 of people with major depression have some psychotic feature 0 Are usually delusional 0 Includes guilt It is my fault If only I had 7 Causes of Depression Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Many models 0 Biological 0 Low levels of NT Nor Epinephrine Serotonin o Operant 0 Lack of reinforcement 0 Cognitive o Disruptive thinking patterns Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Conclusion 0 Many issues with depression 0 Influences many individuals their families and friends 0 Influences society through lost wages 39 me and lnco 0 Can be treated effectively await Disorders of Body Preoccupation Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides L Overview 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Generally are body complaints that appear to be related to psychological makeup and stress 0 Have no specific medical diagnosis 0 Note Just because there is no organic basis for the problem does not mean the person is not suffering Ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Many Disorders o Somatoform Disorders 0 Pain Disorders 0 Somatization Disorders 0 Conversion Disorders 0 Hypochondriasis Disorders 0 Body Dysmorphic Disorders BDD o Factitious Disorders 0 Others Somatoform Disorders Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Physicians are asked to treat a physical condition but no physical cause is found Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Pain 0 Acute pain 0 Up to 6 months duration 0 Chronic pain 0 Greater than 6 months duration 0 Can be difficult to assess o Generalized pain very difficult Especially back pain Patient Coping Strategies Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Ignore the pain 0 Distract person from the pain 0 Increase positive selfstatements o Catastrophizing one s pain 0 Hoping for relief 0 Praying for relief Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Other Self Strategies 1 0 Drugs 0 Alcohol Drink wine to help dull the pain I cannot sleep without my 7 glasses of Scotch o Marijuana o Oxycotin Problem Psvc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Is temporary 0 Causes other problems 0 Develop Tolerance Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Other Treatments 0 Medical 0 Surgery 0 Drugs Same issues What happens when you stop 0 Patients do not follow other directions Stretching Rest Non use Exercise Psvc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Helps to decrease inflammation associated with pain 0 Strengthens opposing muscles and ligaments o Takes pressure off pain pressure points 0 Strengthens muscle groups associated with pain 0 Reduces the pain 0 Sometimes does not work to decrease ll Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psychological Treatments o Operant Models 0 Identify the triggers that cause the pain Then reinforce alternative behaviors Extinguish ignore pain associated behaviors o CognitiveBehavioral Models 0 Identify learned responses 0 Educate the person in pain 0 Adjust attitudes toward pain 0 Alter the environment Biofeedback Psvc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Providing feedback about the area in pain can result in pain reduction 0 Use some monitoring device that provides some signal sound 0 When pain is reduced the signal decreases 0 Patient tries to decrease the signal as much as the 0 Result get reductions in pain El Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Environment 1 0 Can provide many triggers about pain 0 Alter the environment can reduce pain 0 Exam le 0 Altering the patient environment in a hospital 0 Developed a room where there were lots of plants waterfall soothing music 0 Result patients reported less pain during their stay 0 Can be done at home as well Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Conclusions 1 0 Many options 0 May need to try several options to fine ones that work 0 Sometimes nothing works 0 If not trauma caused may need to look at other psychological issues Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Somatization Disorders o Marked by multiple somatic complaints that reoccur o Are chronic Briquet s Syndrome Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Symptoms may Include o Headaches fatigue heart pains vomiting bowel roblems menstrual problems sexual problems fainting allergies others 0 Are mostly women 0 Person goes from Physician to Physician 0 May undergo unneeded surgeries 0 Take large quantities of medications 0 Issue Person actually believes they are Sick ii Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Other Symptoms o Are selfcentered 0 May experience anxiety or depression 0 May attempt suicide 0 Generally are preoccupied with their symptoms Conversion Disorders Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Experience the loss of function for some body part 0 May include o Deafnesss o Parlysis o Blindness 0 Difficulty walking 0 Stomach Pain and spasms Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Associated Issues 1 0 Usually has a sudden onset and is associated with a stress r 0 Allow you to escape from life challenges by incapacitation o Is a negative reinforcement paradigm Hypochondriasis Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Individuals believe they have a medical problem lasting for 6 months with no medical reassurance 0 Individuals have an obsessive concern with body organs 0 Fear disease 0 Often exaggerate symptoms 0 Monitor body symptoms closely Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Treatment of Hypochondriasis o Rapport 0 Education about symptoms and diseases 0 Carefully challenge Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Bodily Dysmorphic Disorders BDD o Is an imagined defect or morbid concern about a minor unwanted physical feature 0 Individuals experience marked distress 0 Treatment 0 CognitiveBehavioral o Pinpoint dysfunction perceptions Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Factitious Disorders 1 o It a total fabrication or exaggeration of a disorder 0 Individuals often have a history of uncontrollable lying 0 Individuals seek attention any way they can get it 0 Example 0 Munchausen Syndrome Symptoms Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Simulate disease for getting medical attention 0 May travel far to a new hospital 0 Have incredible tales of medical history 0 May fake symptoms 0 Blood in urine 0 May self inflict real injuries Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Factitious Disorder by Proxy Malingering 0 Here a parent self inflicts injury to their child so they can get attention 0 May occur with pets as well 0 Here seek hospitalization for a reason 0 Monitaw or nonmonitaw compensation 0 Avoid police or prison 0 Disability pensions 0 Others 0 Sometimes is difficult to diagnose Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Conclusions 0 Many disorders 0 Have a multitude of symptoms 0 May begin with a physical cause then move into a psychological disorder 0 Some are hard to treat awe Concepts of Normality and Abnormality Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio leciure while viewing these slides L Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Normal and Abnormal Behavior Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology What is Normal Behavior What is Abnormal Behavior Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Culture 0 Culture Defines What is Normal and Abnormal Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Context also Defines Abnormality 0 Hearing voices in church 0 Hearing voices on the street 0 Both hear voices Which is Normal Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psvchologv Psvc 3117 Abnormal Psychologv Models of Abnormal Behavior Statistical Model 0 Statistical Model 0 Uses the concepts of Means and physioogica or Bioiogica Mode Standard Deviations to explain who is o Socioogica Modeis normal or abnorma o Psychological Models Statistical Model u gtlt L Statistical Model Psvc 311 7 Abnormal Psvchologv x 1 Definition of Abnormal Behavior 0 Persons who are greater than tw standard deviations away from the mean are considered abnormal i Abnormal Behavior Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Example Intelli ence 0 Use Intelligence Test WAIS III 0 WISC III Binet 0 Mean 100 Sd 15 0 Scores gt130 Abnormal 0 Scores lt 70 Abnormal Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Problem 1 I 0 Persons who are actually normal can be also considered abnormal 0 Sports Athletes 0 Physical prowess is significantly better than normal folk 0 By definition they are abnormal Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Example Belief in Aliens 0 Survey Data indicate most Americans and others too believe there are aliens we are not alone 0 People who do not believe Abnormal Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Exa mple Belief in Aliens 0 Most people do not believe we are controlled by aliens o If you believe Abnormal Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Example 3 0 Hear voices others cannot hear see things others cannot see o Are they abnormal o Depends on the context Points to note Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Can be applied to anything 0 Does work for some things 0 Does not work for others Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Physiological Biological or Disease Models of Abnormality 1 o Abnormal behavior is linked to a disease w ic 0 Has symptoms 0 Classify the symptoms Get a diagnosis 0 From diagnosis Get some therapy 0 After therapy is complete You are cure Example 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Symptoms runny nose cough temperature feel achy o Classify sympt Get diagnosis Upper respiratory infect 0 Diagnosis Therapy Aspirin bed rest chicken soup 0 Therapy done Cured ii Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Example 2 0 Symptoms Feeling down blue thoughts of suicide 0 Diagnosis Depression 0 Therapy Drugs tak therapy etc 0 Therapy done Are they cured Answer Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 NO They are in remission Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology How do you become abnormal 0 Biological damage 0 Head Trauma o Strokes o Medications Genetics Environmental influences on the body 0 Lead or Mercury poisoning ii Biological Damage Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Traumatic Brain Injury TBA o Strokes 0 Both cause problems with brain functioning 0 Usually creates specific sets of symptoms 0 Usually damage cannot be reversed 0 Can be helped with certain types of therapy j Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Other Biological Disorders 0 Brain diseases can result in changes as we II o Parkinson s syndrome 0 Alzheimer s Disease 0 Others Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Drugs Medications I 0 Can cause a wide variety of psychological problems 0 Ecstasy destroys serotonin binding sites and presynaptic elements 0 15 bad stuff 0 Methamphetamines can cause paranoia El Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Medications 0 Can also alter brain functioning 0 Side effects of some drugs can reduce affect 0 Result walking zombie syndrome 0 Other drugs can make you paranoid Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Genetic Influences in Abnormality 0 One of the hottest areas of research 0 Contends some gene causes you to become 77 o Alzheimers o Schiophrenic o Alcoholic 0 Some are accurate XYY 0 Support for most are correlational Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Problem 0 60 relationship between monozygotic Wins 0 What about the other 40 0 Result Diathesis Stress Models Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Contends the genes are in there but you need the environment to get it out 0 Problem many people still do not get the disorder 0 Result Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Recessed Genes 1 o Contends the problem results from some recessed gene 0 Thus is always with you 0 You will pass it on 0 Problems 0 Don t know where they are 0 Don t know which one it is o Etc Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Conclusions about genetic influences 1 0 Lots of research is needed 0 Human Genome project is just the start 0 Ethical issues 0 What do you do if a person has the gene 0 Abort the fetus 0 Test tube babies 0 Genetic manipulation in vivo Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Environmental Causes of Abnormality 0 Environment causes you to become abnormal o For some disorders the cause is clear cut 0 Mercuw and Lead poisoning damages brain tissue 0 Toxic waste causing birth defects 0 Alcohol consumption in high quantities causes significant prenatal damage a Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Other Influences More Abstract 0 Highrise buildings causing crime 0 High selfesteem causes good grades 0 7 food or beverage product causes you to be abnormal 0 Full moons cause 7 o All are correlational Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Sociological Models 0 SZAZZ o Contends mental illness is a myth 0 Key to mental disorders is the label 0 Without the label No disorder Mental Illness Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Mental illness is merely a term we give to people whose behavior is different from the norms of the society 0 However the behavior is not criminal heretical or revolutiona c To account for the deviance the person must be mentally ill 0 Mental illness is not a condition it depends on how the individual is seen by others in the society El Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Example Nursing home patient 1 o Labeled as such 0 What are your impressions Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Potential Impressions 1 o Incompetent to care for themselves 0 Must be under the care of others at all times 0 Cannot think for themselves Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Who is in Control 0 Try to leave without getting staff approval and see what happens Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Example 2 ADHD KID o Labeled as such 0 What are your impressions Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Impressions 0 Does not pay attention well 0 Always messing around Cannot sit still Intelligence problems Parents have a variety of characteristics 0 Drug addicts 0 Poor 0 Etc Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Who usually applies the label 0 The teacher 0 Why Cannot control the kid in the classroom Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Solution 0 Get kid on drugs 0 What happens if you don t 0 Can be court issues 0 Custody fight with the state 0 Foster care if you don t 0 Etc Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Past 0 Stopped when done with school 0 Today ADHD forever 0 Need to continue drugs Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Conclusion 0 Label 0 Gives you the disorder 0 You are not hyperactive 0 You are ADHD await Schizophrenia Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Ll psyc 311a Abnormal psychology Overview 0 Is know as a psychotic disorder 0 Altered perceptions and consciousness 0 called hallucinations delusions etc o Probably consists of more than one disorder 0 Is the most devastating disorder 0 Occurs in about 1 of the population 0 20 million people worldwide meet the crteria o 2 million or more Americans 0 Another 23 have Schizotypal Personality Di order 0 No major sex differences in prevalence rates 0 Genera o Is a d39sorder of thought and emotion o Is not a splitpersonalityquot d39sorder ii psyc 311 a Abnormal psychology Costs I 0 Cost of care 70 Billion Dollars annually 0 Disease is expensive 0 For care 0 Hospitalizations o Medications 0 Cost to families 0 Loss of productivity 0 Jog loss 0 Suicidal attempts Social costs psyc 311a Abnormal psychology 0 Many homeless are untreated or stop 0 High portion of patients at instate hospitals 0 1 in 4 schizophrenic patients attempt suicide 0 1 in 10 succeed psyc 311 a Abnormal psychology Characterized by 1 o Disorganized Thoughts 0 Hallucinations o Delusions o Bizarre behaviors ps c 311 a Abnormal psychology Two Different Types of Schizophrenic S m toms 0 Researchers group symptoms into two grou s 0 Positive 0 Negative 0 Helps differentiate the different presenting causes and processes Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Positive Symptoms 1 0 Includes 0 Delusions o Hallucinations o Disorganized speechbizarre behavior 0 More most frequent in first stages or early episodes 0 At least one positive symptom must be present in the activeacute phase for diagnosis to be made Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Delusions I I o Are faulty interpretations of reality that continue after being exposed to clear evidence that is contrary o Occur more often in schizophrenia than any other disorder Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Examples of Bizarre Delusions 0 People controlling your mind 0 Outside sources eg radio etc are inserting thoughts in your min 0 Everyone can hear your thoughts 0 Others control your feelings Referential Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology o Believes certain gestures newspaper titles comments song lyrics book passages etc are for them Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Less com mon o Delusions of grandiose o Delusions of persecution 0 Being an extremely important person 0 May have a religious theme 0 I am God s Messenger Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Hallucinations o Are perceptions that occur in the absence of stimuli o Are projections of internal impulses and exp jriences onto perceptual images of the real or 0 May occur during fevers drug use medical conditions Only in schizophrenics do hallucinations happen h n in a normal state 0 Can be associated with any senses Visual o Tactile 12 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Auditory Hallucinations o Are the most common 0 Voices can make a running commentaw 0 Blame the individual for actions or crimes 0 Can issue orders Can be yew dangerous Tactile and Olfactory Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Tactile 0 Get burning or tingling hallucinations 0 Note No actual burning is taking place 0 Olfactory o Is less common 0 Sense foul odors coming from the body Death Sex Change Decay ll Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Com mentary o What is real to the mind is real to the person 0 Person experiences Extreme fright True terror Feels there is no escape Positive Hallucinations Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Not all are frightening 0 Some offer protection from negative reali y 0 Person does not want to give them up Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Disordered thinking 1 o Considered to be the most important characteristic of schizophrenia 0 Problem 0 Thinking is difficult to assess o DSM IV stresses disordered speech Disordered Speech Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 0 Typically is described as loosening of associations 0 Switch from one topic to another without any relation between the two 0 Example 0 Therapist explain what this means The early bird gets the worm 0 Client There are birds called earliest You can cut worms in half I like spaghetti gl Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Preservative speech 1 o Repetition of words or phrases o Are often inserted into subsequent sentences 0 Example 0 Birds are early can39t eat an early worm like spaghetti and worm early spaghetti 0 Not all schizophrenics speak incoherently 0 Some articulate very well 2 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Disorganized Behavior 1 0 Behavior varies widely o Is usually unpredictable 0 May seem unrelated to surroundings 0 May have angw outbursts 0 Not sure if behavior is related to hallucinations or delusions Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Catatonia o Catatonic excitement Get excessive or random motor activity 0 Catatonic rigidity 0 Complete lack of movement 0 Can be motionless for hours 0 May experience swelling 0 Man pushed in chair Can move h39s arm and itslays put 0 Can be reduce or eliminated with operant reinforcing and extinguishing techniques 3 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Negative Symptoms 0 Have behavior deficits Flat Affect o No eye contact 0 Blankface o Monotone voice 0 Apathetic 0 Quiet voice 0 Slow to answer questions 0 Slowed speech 0 Slowed movements 0 Inability to initiate 0 Reduced voluntary movements 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Are difficult to evaluate 1 0 Symptoms are at the end of the line for normal behavior 0 Without hallucinations or delusions 0 Not sure if you have schizophrenia or depression Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Diagnosis 0 Must be continuously ill for at least 6 mont s 0 Need to have one psychotic phase where you have 0 Delusions o Hallucinations o Disordered thoughts incoherence or other sympton39s 0 See DSM IV for more detail j Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Conclusion 1 0 Severe disorder 0 Most people can be treated effectively 0 Many people stop taking their medications Revolving door syndrome Future work 0 Decreasing drug side effects 0 Examine the genetits associated underlying the disorder await Neurons Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecmre while viewing these slides Presynaptic Element Collateral Axm Hillock Node of Ranvier Teleodendria Myelin Sheath Axon Neurons Psyc 311 a Abnormal Psychology Structures Soma or cell bod o Is where cell metabolism takes place Has places where messages from other neurons can be received called a Post Synaptic Element Contains many other structures related to metabolism 0 Mitochondria o Endoplasmic Reticulum 5 These structures are not important for this Class Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Axons and Related Structures o Axons are structures that send information to other neurons or muscl cells 0 Have many structures e Psyc 311 a Abnormal Psychology Axon Hillock o Is at the base of the axon o Is the place where neurons decide to send a signal called an action potential to another neuron Psyc 311 a Abnormal Psychology Body of the Axon o This structure can branch called a collateral o Branching continues into smaller and smaller branches called Teleodendria Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Presynaptic Element 0 Also called terminal buttons terminal outons and other names 0 We will call it presynaptic element Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Contains Several Structures 1 o Synaptic Vesicles sacks o Sacks contain chemicals called neurotransmitters o Presynaptic Membrane o Autoreceptors o Reuptake channels 0 Receptors from other neurons 0 Calcium Channels Reuptake Channels 7 Synaptic Vesicles Autuec spurs 7 Calcium Charm els Presynaptic Element Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Axons can be one of two types Myelinated o Myelin is a fatty covering over the axon o Helps to increase the speed of the action a potenti o The more myelin there is the faster the speed of the action potential Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Non Myelinated axons 0 Many axons do not have myelin o Are slower than myelinated axons 0 However the fatter the axon is the faster the action potential will go Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Dendrites 0 Some neurons do not contain this structure 0 only have soma39s and axons 0 Generally only receive information 0 Contain a post synaptic element 0 Has a post synaptic membrane 0 Have receptor sites to receive neurotransmitters Psvc 311 r Abnnrmal Psychnln v Dendrites 0 So both Dendrites and Soma39s can receive information Both contain a post synaptic element Psvc311 r Abnnrmal vsvcrminav Synapse and Related Stmcmres Prmvnnpm axon ierxlwml asizynapuz m mu i 5mm gap Synapse PsycSn r Abnnrmal Psychnlnuv How Neurons Work 0 Based on concentration gradients of four ions Sodium Na Potassium K Chloride Cl and Structures inside the axon called Anions A 0 Sodium and Potassium are positively charged and are balanced out by chloride and anions Psvc 311 r Abnnrmal Psychnln v How Neurons Work 0 Normally some sodium laks into the axon 0 But cells don39t like sodium so they have move sodium called sodium potassium pu ps 0 The pumps remove sodium to the outside How N eu ron s Work Psvc311 r Abnnrmal vsvcrminav o The inside of axons have lois of potassium and anions and are negatively charged 0 The outside of axons have lots of sodium and chloride and are positively charged 0 So when an axon is at rst the ouiside of the axon is positively charged and the inside is negatively charged J m Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology When a Stimulus Occurs 1 Whena stimulus enters a rece tor on a dendrite It causes a small electrical charge change In polarity on the receptor In a dendrke 2 Causes a change in the chemical concentration gradients Allows sodium to enter in small amounts and thus makes the neuron more posmve The change from negative to positive travels down the dendrite to the soma and to the axon hillock Ift e c arge ls strong enough It s in an action po en lal o If the charge is not strong enough the signal S A w 0 Reason why it is called all or nothing 2 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology When a Stimulus Occurs H If the signal is strong enough it causes sodium gates in the axon to 0 en When the gates open sodium pours into the inside of the axon Result the axon goes from negative on the inside to positive on the inside 4 This change goes down the axon like a wave N w After the sodium enters the sodium potassium pumps turn on and begin removing sodium l Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology When a Stimulus Occurs 0 So we have two waves going down the axon o The sodium entering the axon o The sodium being pumped out Ultimately the result is a negative undershoot mszmzmz p o T E N T I A L Action Potential D l 2 Process of an Action Potential 1Stimulation Begins 2 K begins to leave by passive channels Na enters by passive channels 0 Get a change in concentration gradients 0 Amount that leaves depends on the strength of the stimulus temporal summation etc o Begins depolarization 3If depolarization is reaches 15mV voltage a nels open 0 Get Na influx 4 Na KATPases start 0 Removs Na and brings in K Three Na per Two K K also leaves through passive channeb K voltage gated channel begins to open about V2 millisecond after Na voltage gated channels Process of an Action Potential cont Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology 5 Na voltage gated inactive channel finally closes 0 Action Potential begins to fall 6 K inactive gate finally closes 0 K is still leaving by passive channels 0 Na is leavm 0 Action potential continus to fall 0 Ge a negative un ers oot from rsting state 7 Ca voltage gated channel begins to open 8 Still do not have enough Kso et Ca influx 9 Finally enough Kso Ca inactive channel be Ins to cose 10Ca channel finally closed 11Process Repeats j Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology When the axon potentIal reaches the presynaptic element 1 It causes calcium Ca to enter the presynaptic eement l 0 Calcium causes the synaptic vesicles to bind with the presynaptic membrane 0 The neurotransmitter is then released into the synaptic cleft o The neurotransmitter crosses the cleft and binds on receptors in the post synaptic element on either the dendrite or soma 2 Causes a small electrical charge and the process repeats itself 1 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology How neurotransmitters NT are removed from receptors 1 0 NT is removed two ways 1 It is degraded by enzymes made by glial cells or within the post synaptic membrane It is reabsorbed into the presynaptic element N Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Blocking Drugs 0 Different drugs can block the degradation or reabsorption o Prozac o Cocaine Un ve alde gv Biology of Substance Abuse Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology stlento the ewe lecture we wean these shdes pm 311 r Abnormal Psvehaiaqv Biology of Substance Abuse and Addic 39on mmmem Psvclll r Abnormal Psychalaq f Biology of Substance Abuse and Addiction pm 311 r Abnormal Psvehaiaqv Medial Forebrain Bundle 0 Includes I memntal Cortical Areas Ventral Tegrnermal Area I NucleLs Accumbens I Others 0 Called the reward center Full ofdopamine neumns Psvc ll r Abnormal Psvehaiaqv Other important areas 0 Hippocampal formation Involved wit memory 0 Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Structures I Involved with balance and fine motor coordination pm 311 r Abnormal Psvehaiaqv Neu ronal Stmcturs 0 Contains three major seis of structures 0 Soma39s Cell body Dost synapmc elements 0 Axon39s I Teleodendria Presynaptic Elements Dendrits Post synaptic elements Neuronal Structures Presynaptic Element Collateral Teleodendria Axm Hillock 39 Node of Ranvier Myelin Sheath Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Axons and Presynaptic Elements 0 Contains structures in a lipid bilayer 0 Ion channels 0 Sodium Potassium Pumps 0 Contains other structures 0 Synaptic Vesicles 0 Channels a K Ca 0 Receptor sites from other axons o Presynaptic Membrane o Autorece ors o Reuptake channels 0 Others Axons Reuptake Channels 7 Synaptic Vesicles Autoreceptors Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Dendrites and Related Structures o Dendrites only receive information o Soma s also receive information too 0 Can have many dendrites on a neuron with multiple branches 0 Contains several structures Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Structures 0 Has a post synaptic element 0 Has a post synaptic membrane 0 Contains receptor sites to receive neurotransmitters 0 Contains channels for ion influx Usually Na 0 Contains other structures Protein Kinases Adentyl Cyclase Receptor Sites Ion Channeb Post Synaptic Element Post Synaptic Post Synaptic Membrane Element Receptor Sites Ion Channeb Post Synaptic Element Post Synaptic Post Synaptic Membrane Element Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Alcohol Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Overview 0 Most damaging drug to your body 0 Influences evewt in 0 Highly correlated with many types of crime 0 Domstic Violence 0 Rape 0 DWI 0 Can have therapeutic effects in moderation 0 40 glass of wine correlated with reductions of heart d39sease and related problems 0 gt one glass causes problems 3 Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology College Students 0 Students drink 4 billion cans of beer arly 0 360000 of 12 million undergraduates will die from alcoholrelated causes while in school 0 Nearly 392 of college students are binge drinkers 0 Average student spends 900 per year on alcohol books 450year o 82 billion dollars are lost annually from alcoholism 16 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Biological Effects 0 Most drugs target the synapse 0 Alcohol impacts all parts of the neuron o Impacts begin at very low BACs lt02 you begin to get visual changes 05 BAC is where you feel good Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Specific Effects o Alters the lipid bilayer of the neuron o Slows down the speed of action potential 0 Alters the GABA binding site on excitatory neurons 0 Result 0 Decreases the speed of the action potential 0 Reduces the number of excitatory neurons firing action potentials 0 Result slows the Nervous System down18 l Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Effects 0 Begin on higher cortical structures 0 Decreased inhibition 0 Then reduces lower cortical structures 0 Shuts down the cerebellum Poor motor control 0 Effects go from newer evolutionary structures to older structures 0 Eventually you depress older brain structures eg medulla o 3 Most people are passed out o 4 Most people die Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Tolerance 0 Drugs increase or decrease the cell functioning 0 Cell compensates by speeding up or slowing down depending on the drug 0 Result need more of the drug to get the same effect 0 Takes time Is not an instantaneous process 0 Reason you can now drink a half case of beer and not feel drunk E Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology 0 Cell has speeded up or slowed down to compensate for the drug 0 Drug stops being taken 0 Most drugs are metabolized by the body within 24 hours 0 Result drug is gone but the body had not returned to the non drug state Get opposite effect ofwhat the drug did i Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology Example o Methamphetamine o Is a s imulan o Neuron compensats by slowing o Metabolize the drug 0 No drug in the system 0 Behavioral effects 0 Lethargy o Depressbn 0 Things don39t seem normal 0 Consequence use methamphetamine to feel ormal 0 Similar results for other drugs 3 Psyc 311 7 Abnormal Psychology Different Categories of Drugs Stimulants Cocaine Methamphetamine Sedative Hypnotics Phenobarbital Inhalants Glue Gasoline Hallucinogens LSD PCP DMT Opiates Heroin Morphine Others Sage Psyc 3117 Abnormal Psychology How Drugs Work o Opiates block receptors 0 Cause you to feel good 0 Inhalants 0 Cause anoxia Shut down oxygen to the brain 0 Depressants o Bind on the GABA receptor Causes chloride to enter the presynaptic elements of excitatow neurons Stt ps the action potential of excitatow ce s E Psvcan r Abnormai Psychaiaqv More Drugs o Stimulanis Cocaine ethamphetamine I Cause two e IE eased fnom 0 Feel excimd euphoric etc Causes a surge of dopamine to be I neumns Hit Psvcan r Abnormai Psychaiaqv Stmcturs pm 311 r Abnormai Psychaiaqv Stmctures pm 311 r Abnormai Psychaiaqv Positron E mission Tomography PE on cocaine l itron Emission Tomograph y PET
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