World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development: Week 8
World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development: Week 8 CDAE 002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.
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World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development Week 8 Colonialism (cont.) Peasant Protest, Rebellion, & Resistance What is a peasant? A member of the class constituted by small farmers, tenants, etc.; the main labor force of that social class. - Land tenure o The relationship, legally or customarily, among people with respect to the land § Defines the use, control, and transfer of land o Part of social, technical, economic, institutional, legal, and political structures § Can be formal or informal § Can be private, or communal, or open access, or owned by the state - Peasant societies o General production systems § Rent funds (land lord- feudal system) § Replacement funds (for next years crop) § Ceremonial funds (social cohesion- pot luck) § Production for self o Production depends on amount and quality of land - Peasant Resistance o Goals of most is not to overthrow a system, rather just to survive o Weapons used (“Weapons of the Weak”) § Peasant folklore • Robin Hood o Stole from the rich, gave to the poor § Avoid confrontation • Gossip • Would not show up to work • Threatened to work for the enemy (Dwight Schrute working for Staples) - Resisting Colonial Rule o Ex) Kenya § Many ethnic groups in Kenya, largest being the Kikuyu § When Britain colonized, they tried taking everything • Took more and more power away o Kikuyu changed from landowning peasants to squatters o Britain taxed their earnings § Implemented Kipande • Document that the Kikuyu were forced to wear identifying who they were o White people were able to write whatever they wanted on the document, so if they wrote something bad, that Kikuyu would not be hired § FULL CONTROL § Reserves became overpopulated • Overplanted • Soil erosion • Hunger! • Forced Kikuyu to move to cities § Mission Schools • British forcing their culture on the youth of the Kikuyu § So, they began to RESIST • Individual o Failed to show up to work, killed settlers livestock • Collective • KAO: Kikuyu Oath Kenyan African Union o Pledged allegiance o Now more formal resistance § Rebellion Began- The MauMau Rebellion “Land and Freedom Movement” • British were scared, the indigenous people were normally so gentle • SPIN o Stories in British papers never acknowledging their wrongs • British rounded up MauMau suspects, wanted to get rid of the oath o Brought to detention camps § HORRIBLE § Independence: December 12, 1963 • After Europe saw a case of 11 deaths by beating in a camp o Reparations § “Compensation for past wrongs” § Cash § Grants, credits § Acknowledgement (apologies) § Trade agreements § Institutional change Development Paradigms Capitalist Approach Individuals freely acting out of rational self interest Maximize pleasure (consuming goods), minimize pain (lower amount of work required to make goods) - All about the free market o Prices reflect scarcity § Scarcity…human wants are insatiable, but resources are very limited o Prices must be right to ensure efficient production o Restricts government role Keynesian Approach - Believes that the free market is: o Prone to instability-Great Depression o Exploitive o Can’t price accurately-externalities not taken into account o Leads to monopolies - Has a need for an Enlightened government - President Roosevelt o Under him, the government promoted wealth, growth, power (exactly what they wanted) - Bretton Woods 1944 o World Bank § International bank for reconstruction and development § Provides loans to developing countries o International Monetary Fund (IMF) § Short term economic needs for countries o General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) § Free trade of commodities across countries o World Trade Organization § Makes sure trade policy is fair Development and Modernization Approach 40s, 50s, 60s This leads to capitalism and liberal democracy - Large scale infrastructure development projects o Hydroelectric damns Dependency Theory 70s, 80s 3 World underdevelopment is a direct result of 1 world development (those roots lie in colonialism) - Periphery Countries: countries less developed than Core Countries o Requires periphery countries to be dependent on the core countries for markets for their own raw materials § As a result, the country as a whole remains poor since little production investment is undertaken - Believed there needed to be a conflict between owners and workers o Always leading to a radical change Then there was the 1971 Debt Crisis Neoliberal Theory Liberal in the sense of no controls “Neo” new “Magic of the markets” - Does not want the government to have a lot of control - Main Elements o Cut public expenditure for social services o Deregulation o Privatization o Individual responsibility rather than the public good Introduction to International Community Development What is it? - Equal opportunity - Can be within a country or outside of the country - Integrated approach What is the purpose? - Support the community in a way they can improve quality of life, initiate sustainable development, improve Human Development Index - Major goals? o Millennium development goals § Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger § Achieve Universal primary education § Promote gender equality and empower women § Reduce child mortality § Improve maternal health § Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, other diseases § Global Partnership for development - Approaches to International Development o Top down approach § Starts with the big picture, macro approach § Budget based planning § Suitable for forming policies § Ignorance of community needs and resources § May create dependency § Peoples’ voices are not heard o Bottom up approach § Piecing together pieces of a system to give rise to more complex systems § Peoples’ empowerment § More innovative ideas § Community Ownership § May lead to sustainability § Mobilization, leads to local resources