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STPoetry Translation

by: Mr. Roy Denesik

STPoetry Translation ENGL 504

Mr. Roy Denesik
GPA 3.89


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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Roy Denesik on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 504 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/227975/engl-504-university-of-idaho in Foreign Language at University of Idaho.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
The Familiar Face of Genocide Internalized Oppression among American Indians LISA M POUPART Virtually nonexistent in traditional American Indian communities today American Indian women and children experience family violence at rates similar to those of the dominant culture Thi a t 1 7 7 as an expression of internalized oppression and as an extension of EuroeAmerican violence against American Indian nations L American In Iiim When he was a small boy he tried to summon the spirits with a ute That his father threw out the window while promptly beating his face in On the bus to the big school the white kids called him timber nigger and the only good indian is a dead one unless he plays ball So he learned to run and tackle to cheer the onlookers Til his father stabbed a hole in the pigskin while promptly breaking the foot that he kicked with He started to drink his Blue Ribbon smashed his head through Windshields Hypatia Vol 18 no 2 Spring 2003 by Lisa Mi Poupart Lisa M Poupart 87 numbing the pain of an existence too aching to bear And somewhere between two and nineteen he turned hollow and dried up inside his spirit ew off to the West His body a shell left behind to carry out revenge for ve hundred years of genocide that he ate from an empty government hand out can When he put the ri e to his wife s head and raped his two babies he never even felt it because he was already dead American Indians have suffered from systematic genocide within Western soci ety in the forms of government sanctioned physical onslaughts and confronta tions murder land theft forced removal and relocation economic deprivation incarceration environmental racism devastation of tribal sovereignty and as a result of continued I Acts of 1 tted against Indian people are founded on and legitimated by Western constructions of abject Otherness Over ve hundred years of social political and economic domination Western society enforced its cultural codes of Otherness upon American Indians to gain our complicity in the power structure Through formal Western education conversion to Christianity and assimilation into Euro American culture and the capitalist economy tribal people learned to speak the language and to interpret and reproduce the meanings of our oppres sors our own meanings languages and cultures were simultaneously devastated American Indian participation in the construction and reproduction of Western language and meaning ensured our complicity in patriarchal power and aided uro American exploitation of our lands resources and a or Like colonized groups throughout the world American Indian people learned and internalized the discursive practices of the Westithe very codes that created re ected and reproduced our oppression As American Indians participate in create and reproduce Western cultural forms we internalize Western meanings of difference and abject Otherness viewing ourselves within and through the constructs that de ned us as racially and culturally subhuman de cient and vile As Western constructions of abject difference are both forced upon and accepted by American Indians we de ne ourselves through these 88 Hypatia constructions and subsequently participate in the reproduction of these codes For as we assume the dominant subject position we often take upon ourselves de nitions of the objecti ed abject Other as portions of our own identities and act them out in at one dimensional caricatures that mirror the dominant culture s representations Moreover as we buy into these codes we not only apply them to our individual selves but also to those within our own marginal ized groupsiour loved ones and community members Virtually nonexistent in traditional tribal communities prior to European invasion contemporary American Indian communities struggle with devas tating social ills including alcoholism family violence incest sexual assault fetal alcohol syndrome homicide and suicide at startling rates similar to and sometimes exceeding those of white society In their groundbreaking works authors Maria YellowHorse BraveHeart and Lemyra DeBruyn I995 I996a I996b understand the widespread social ills plaguing American Indians as manifestations of internalized oppression The authors assert that experiences of racism and internalized oppression contribute to current social ills among Indians as a result of Western imperialism assimilation and Indian identi ca tion with the dominate culture s codes BraveHeart and DeBruyn I996b In describing causal factors leading to social problems they state We contend that the high rates of depression suicide homicide domestic violence and child abuse among American Indians can also be attributed to the processes of internalized oppression and identi cation with the aggressor 1996 Through ve hundred years of assimilation and acculturation American Indians have internalized Western discursive practices and so we often view ourselves in ways mirroring the dominant subject position However Indian people also live in a sort of cultural double consciousness as portions of our traditional subjective identities persist in the preserved beliefs of our ancestors practiced today Through the telling of our experiences and stories in a contin ued oral tradition and through the preservation of traditional ways many Indian people resist the dominant culture s subject position knowing that we like our Grandmothers and Grandfathers have not deserved a history of violence and genocide Moreover our oral traditions preservedmany stories recounting the subjugation of our ancestors and these stories were passed along through generations creating an alternative interpretation or knowledge of the harms in icted by white society American Indians knowledge of our historical and continued oppression is experienced as a profound anguish As Shirley Hill Witt explains Among Native Americans the memory of genocide and tribal extinction is a raw unhealing wound I974 35 This pain is described by Duran and Duran as a soul woun I995 Z7 The authors contend the genocidal efforts of Western imperialism have inflicted a wound to the soul of Native American people that is felt in agonizing proportions to this day Duran and Duran I995 Z7 Lisa M Poupart 89 Our experiences of colonization and disempowerment under patriarchal capi talism are silenced by white society The perpetration of cultural genocide is whitewashed by the dominant culture in the master narrative of discovery and manifest destiny Like the knowledges and stories of Others under patriarchal oppression American Indian people s pain is not recognized nor validated by the domi nant culture Instead white society uses negative constructions of Indians as subhuman and lacking a full range of human qualities and emotions in order to justify our disempowerment BraveHeart and DeBruyn elaborate upon this contention asserting that American Indians have been socially constructed as incapable of experiencing emotional responses to pain and suffering They contend The historical view of American Indians as being stoic and savage contributed to a belief on the part of the dominant society that Indian people were incapable of having feelings This belief system intimates that Indians had no capacity to mourn and subsequently no need or right to grieve BraveHeart and Debruyn I996b 11 Drawing upon the literature on Nazi concentration camp survivors BraveHeart and DeBruyn assert that American Indians today experience a phenomenon the authors label Historical Unresolved Grief Syn rome resulting from the historical trauma 1 experienced under cultural and economic imperialism The authors contend that social problems such as alcohol abuse experienced by Indian people are symptomatic of the past and present traumas we experience and also symptomatic of the dominant culture s denial of the harms in icted upon tribal people and from the invalidation of Indian pain BraveHeart I995 BraveHeart and DeBruyn I996a I996b The intense historical unresolved grief and pain that exists is accompanied by an extreme rage at the dominant culture for abuses past and present And like Indian grief and pain this rage is also invalidated by the dominant culture and denied avenues for expression American Indians who assert rage externally toward our white oppressorsias in the American Indian Movement s occupa tions of Alcatraz and the Washington Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Wounded Knee stand offiare chastised censored imprisoned and murdered Like Others who internalize the dominant subject position American Indians sometimes express pain grief and rage internally toward ourselves and externally within our families and communities Turned upon ourselves American Indian people express rage pain and grief in depression anxiety BraveHeart and DeBruyn I996b drug abuse alcohol abuse and suicide These contentions are supported by BraveHeart and DeBruyn who understand alco holism among Indians as a self destructive act motivated by depression and grief resulting from internalized aggression and internalized oppression 1996b 5 In addition American Indians sometimes express internal oppression out wardly upon our families and other Indian people in physical assaults homi 9O Hypatia cide and in violence against women and children In a discussion of domestic violence in American Indian families Duran and Duran explain The root of anger is at the oppressor but any attempts at catharting anger to its root result in swift retaliation by the oppressor safer to cathart anger on a family member 1995 Z9 The demonstration of internalized oppression among American Indians and Others does not occur deterministically nor in strict dichotomous directions inwardoutward Rather inward and outward directed internal oppression shouldbe understood as only two existing expressions within a nonlinear con tinuum of multiple expressions Individual expressions of internal oppression are affected by individual material situations and experiences Thus potentially as many expressions of internal oppression exist as experiences of oppression It is likely that the harm these expressions pose to self or Others is related to the extent that one is marginalized and oppressed by the dominant culture The uidity of expressions is an important factor in understanding the presence of internal oppression particularly among Indian people where traditionally one was spiritually and culturally connected to the tribal community and no explicit individualcommunity distinction was drawn Here outwardly expressed internal oppression and the subsequent harm of family or community is also an assault upon the self as one destroys their own social network of support con nectedness and love Likewise the inward expression of internalized oppression upon the self also harms the community to the extent that one is unable to provide support connection and love to family and tribal membersZ When we as marginalized Others internalize and portray our inferiority in these ways we become a sort of self ful lling prophecy as we provide the dominant culture with evidence to support our continued objecti cation disem powerment and exploitation When marginalized Others internalize the domi nant subject position we become our own oppressors as we carry our abjection within We view our selves and our groups as essentially responsible for our political economic social and cultural disempowerment The dominant culture no longer needs to overtly force threaten or coerce our disempowerment for now we enforce it within ourselves and within our communities of Others AMERICAN INDIAN FAMILY VIOLENCE As INTERNALIZED OPPRESSION Domestic and sexual violence against women and children is linked to other forms of domination within society including racism and classism Although largely absent from discussion some feminists call attention to the signi cance of race and class constructs in the use of violence against women and children Collins 1990 Davis 1990 Ferraro 1990 Wilson 1994 Diaz 1995 Okamura Heras and Wong Kerberg 1995 Like women and children who are constructed and objectifed as inferior Others individuals marginalized based upon abject Lisa M Poupart 91 differences race class sexual orientation etc also experience violence under patriarchal domination Others who are several times the subject of the dominant culture s representationsipoor children and women of color for exampleiexperience greater disempowerment and violence at all levels of society to the extent that they are devalued within patriarchy Prior to Euro American contact traditional American Indian societies valued all members of their communities as gifts from the spirit world Differ ences between social groups including gender differences between men and women were viewed as symmetrical or mirroring one another in metaphysical balance Elders women and children were valued and honored in their crucial roles in traditional families and communities According to the oral traditions within our tribal communities it is understood that prior to mass Euro Ameri can invasion and in uence violence was virtually nonexistent in traditional Indian families and communities The traditional spiritual world views that organized daily tribal life prohibited harm by individuals against other beings To harm another being was akin to committing the same violation against the spirit world On rare occasions when violence did occur it was dealt with by all members of the tribal community and emphasis was placed on restoring harmony within the families of all that were affecte Today American Indian women and children are among the most eco nomically socially and politically disenfranchised groups in the United States Since contact American Indian women and children have been victimized by Euro American imperialist governments religions economies and educational systems American Indian women and children experience violence within the dominant culture and its institutions and also within our own families and tribal communities Through the processes of colonization American Indian people have inter nalized white patriarchy and Western constructions of abject Otherness upon which patriarchal power is justi ed and maintained As our traditional cultures were devastated we internalized Western power structures at many levels and assumed Western dichotomous gender differences that privilege men and objec tify women and children We have internalized constructions of women and children as powerless commodities Within our tribal communities today Indian women and children are subordinated and oppressed by our own peop e As American Indian people internalize Western patriarchal power hier archies violence as an exercise of power over those more marginalized has become familiar within Indian homes and communities and can be un er stood as an expression of internal oppression These expressions of internalized oppression became more acceptable in Indian families and communities as we internalized and participated in Western power constructs Largely eroded within many Nations traditional American Indian econo mies spiritual practices and family and community structures no longer guard 9Z Hypatia tribal members from marginalization and violent exercises of authority As Western culture language religion and economic structures were imposed upon tribal people many traditional extended andmatriarchal families eroded and were replaced by male dominated familial structures Leacock 1987 Anderson 1991 Feinman 1992 Within these Western patriarchal family structures many American Indians recreate the power structures of the dominant culture That is Indian men often have privilege and authority over Indian women and Indian fathers and mothers have privilege and authority over children whereby each may exert violence as a socially acceptable operation of Western patriarchal power Like other politically economically and socially disempowered individuals in the dominant culture then American Indian men may assert male authority vio lently in their homes and communities against women and children and Indian women may assert parental authority violently against children The occurrence of violence within American Indian families today can further be understood as an experience normalized within Indian communities as Indian people have experienced mass victimization within Euro American society A primary example of the mass victimization of Indian people is found within the Euro American educational system In boarding schools in the United States and residential schools in Canada physical and sexual abuse was a common experience for many children attending the schools LaPoint 1987 CrowDog 1990 Northrup 1993 Emerick 1996 Boarding school teachers staff priests and administrators primarily whites often physically and sexu ally abused students Emerick 1996 sometimes justifying their violations of children as disciplinary measures LaPointe 1987 In several boarding schools in the United States and Canada it is estimated that 60 to 70 percent of all students attending the boarding schools were beaten or raped Emerick 1996 Not only were Indian children abused directly by staff and administrators but children were also forced to administer assaults upon one another LaPointe 1987 Northrup 1993 For many violence became a way of life as entire child hoods were spent in the boarding schools In several tribal communities it is estimated that all adults living within the communities today were either abused or witnessed the abuse of others as children attending the schools Emerick 1996 Author Charlene LaPointe 1987 a survivor of boarding school atroci ties asserts that as generations of American Indian people were abused as chil dren and forced to administer abuse upon other children in boarding schools this common experience of violence has normalized child abuse and family violence within Indian families and communities today Removal of children from their communities and placement in often harmful environments coupled with the erosion of traditional extended family systems has confounded child rearing responsibilities and abilities for Indian parents today Child removal policies and the boarding school era impacted many Lisa M Poupart 93 Nations as Indian children became completely absent from their communi ties Sometimes with only the exception of small babies and toddlers many Indian communities were virtually childless for long periods of time As genera tions of Indian children grew up in boarding schools and other offereservation placements Indian parents and I nmmnnirie 4 pl d from h H responsibilities In recent decades after many offereservation boarding schools closed and many Indian parents suddenly found themselves responsible for the daily task of raising children Often raised in neglectful or abusive placements themselves these unparented parents are now expected to raise their own children without appropriate past experience or guidance Fischler I985 The problem of child rearing is even more dif cult as Indian parents seek to raise children in nuclear families for not only are these nuclear parents sometimes without necessary parenting skills but as Nancy Gale 1987 contends many are also without the traditional networks of emotional and economic support provided by extended families nce uncommon or virtually nonexistent the physical and sexual abuse of women and children in Indian families is now a familiar occurrence as it is in the dominant culture While silence of these harms exists both in the dominant culture and in American Indian communities Indian communities suppress the harms committed upon us by one another often to a much greater extent Within Indian families and communities there is a mass silence envel oping domestic violence and sexual abuse committed by our loved ones and community members This silence is distinguished from the pervasive silence in the dominant culture by the reality that silence among Indian people also occurs within double consciousness as we simultaneously reject and recreate white male patriarchal power Like members of the dominant culture Indian people are silenced as we buy into dominant cultural constructions that justify and normalize patriarchal violence However American Indian people are also simultaneously aware of our genocidal history with Euro Americans With the knowledge of our past and present disempowerment Indian people explain violence within our families and communities by attributing such actions to our historical and present day suffering Aware of our victimization by Euro Americans Indian people often attribute abuse by family members and friends to something the offender learned from the white man or as something he does out of helplessness rage and despair We are aware of the dominant culture s scienti c truth justi cations for family violence We accept theories about intergenerational violence violence as learned behavior social disor ganization and anomie without ever challenging patriarchal power In other words we identify with our familial and community offenders and attribute their abusive actions as caused by the historical genocide experienced by all American Indians or even as caused by their own childhood victimization However as we rightfully blame the dominant culture for their harms we have 94 Hypatia not held accountable the individual offenders within our families and commu nities We have not challenged the white male patriarchal power that creates and recreates our victimization and disempowerment at all levels Instead we allow family and community violence to continue We remain silent to the totality of harms that our own commit against those most marginalizediour women and our children We have allowed these harms to continue in a way that contributes to our disempowerment and to our oppressors empowerment It is after all what they want us to do to each other The silence within American Indian families and communities also exists in Others families and communities as well African American women writ ers including Michele Wallace 1979 Patricia Hill Collins 1990 Angela Davis 1990 bell hooks 1994 and Melba Wilson 1994 discuss Black male violence against women and children as the exertion of patriarchal power in the homeipower that has been denied Black men at all other levels of society Each of these writers discloses the pervasiveness of silence surrounding sexism and male physical and sexual violence in their homes and communities Each understands that African American male violence against women and children is silenced as it is justi ed and rationalized by the historical and continued disempowerment of Black men under patriarchy These women writers of color also discuss the extent to which silence surrounding physical and sexual abuse in their families and communities occurs in order to prevent ful llment of the dominant culture s negative constructions Like Others seeking to insulate their families and communities American Indians also seek to protect our perpetrators of violence Traditionally within many Nations the tribal community as a whole was valued over individual members of the tribe Individual actions that bene ted the entire Nation were highly revered while acts of individual self gain were not encouraged Among the traditional Lakota Braveheart explains that the survival of the tiospayc extended family and the Oyate Nation is paramount and the individual is expected to sacri ce for the good of the Oyate 1995 5 Today silence sur rounding violence perpetrated by fami y and community members may also be understood as a way in which individual victims seek to protect their tribal communities from the scrutiny of the dominant culture mong American Indian people centuries of genocidal child removal poli cies remain fresh in our minds We remember our children were taken away from us by white society to facilitate assimilation and because we are viewed as essentially inferior lazy alcoholic and inherently unable to care for our chil dren We silence violence by family and community members to shield ourselves from white patriarchal responses and state intervention We fear the dominant culture s responses if we contribute to their images of our essentially alcoholic and dysfunctional families of our worthless and violent men of our neglectful and abhorred women In double consciousness we reject the dominant culture s Lisa M Poupart 95 stereotypes about us as false andor we participate in them fearing they are not false and in either case we know the images subordinate and oppress us Thus we silence ourselves and Other victims in our families and communities to prevent the dominant culture from using their Truth to further harm us In addition to the vast internal silences within our families and communi ties there are numerous structural and institutional constraints that make it even more dif cult for Indian women and children to break silence Within our tribal communities there are few if any appropriate avenues for American Indian women or children to break silence Tribal people are largely forced to rely on EuroaAmerican institutions for help as traditional tribal methods used to restore harmony within their communities have eroded or been prohibited by the imposition of Western legal systems Those living on reservations are required to notify federal or state of cials depending on jurisdiction when serious cases of domestic and sexual abuse are reported After a report is made system of cials have discretionary authority over whether to investigate and process a case Often cases of domestic and sexual abuse are ignored by of cials If a case is taken up by of cials it is processed in the Anglo judicial systemian institution that historically serves as an instrument of cultural genocide Justi ably distrustful of Anglo system of cials tribal people are often reluctant to contact outsiders for assistance Equally as problematic however are other minor cases of familial abuse handled by modern tribal courts in the communities where victim and offender reside In the past the handling of cases in tribal courts was often not a viable option for victims offamilial violence as the tribal court sometimes minimized or silenced these occurrences within their own communities Further efforts to silence cases of abuse brought to tribal courts were maximized as tribal communities are generally small and members interrelated whereby individual justice system workers are likely to personally now or be related to the offender and may seek his vindication It is critical for American Indian people to understand our familiar social problems family and community violence sexual abuse alcoholism etc not as essential qualities and not as actions caused by nor justi ed by the gravity of our oppression We must understand family and community violence as an operation of power within the white male patriarchal structure a structure that we were forced to accept and now have internalized We must struggle to understand violence as aform of genocide that we internalize as we assume the dominant subject position We must struggle to understand violence as a form of genocide that we recreate within our families and communities as we are now oppressors unto ourselves We must understand our silences as contribute ing to the oppression of our women and children as they are disempowered by the totality of race class gender and ageability constructs at all levels of societyiwithin the political and economic institutions of the dominant culture and within our own homes and communities 96 Hypatia CONCLUSION Like all Others who must resist patriarchy American Indian people must also address speci c issues within our own families and communities We as Indian people must openly acknowledge and grieve our history and the many losses we have endured We must come to express the pains we carry within us We must understand the violations in icted upon us by Euro America as acts of capitalist domination and exploitation This means we must resist the belief that we are excluded from the dominant culture s social economic and political processes because we are inferior American Indian people must also understand violence in our homes and communities as acts of patriarchal domination that we perpetrate against those the dominant culture falsely de nes as inferioriwomen and children Indian people must end the silence of family and interpersonal violence and understand it within the framework of the totality of the oppression we endure However we must not allow the knowledge of our oppression to justify or silence these harms We must no longer shield individual perpetrators in our families and communities with silence We must refuse all operations of Western power even as they exist within our communities and homes in the violation and exploita tion our own women and children Together we must unite and reclaim the traditions of the Grandmothers and Grandfathers and incorporate these ways to heal ourselves our communities and our individual perpetrators of violence Culturally and individually we must recognize our past and present traumas and grieve our losses on a new path of healing American Indians as all Others must also demand that all drug and alcohol treatment programs and therapies for survivors and perpetrators of physical and sexual violence empower Others through raising awareness of Western patri archal structures of domination and exploitation Author Iris Young proposes a realistic alternative to mainstream Western treatment programs calling for treatment programs that empower Others through consciousness raising talk She explains the process Through the give and take of discussion partici pants construct an understanding of their personal lives as socially conditioned constrained in ways similar to that of others by institutional structures power relations cultural assumptions or economic forces The consciousness raising group theorizes this social account together moving back and forth between individual life stories and social analysis to con rm and discon rm both The members of the group propose interpretations of one another s life stories as well as propose accounts of the social structures and constraints conditioning those lives and these proposals are tested through discussion 1994 50 As Young explains further consciousness raising talk is empowering for Others because it develops in people the ability to be re exive and critical about the situated social basis of individual action enabling people to move from Lisa M Poupart 97 an acceptance of institutional forms as natural and given to seeing them as human constructs that are changeable 3 1994 50 Treatment programs that are empowering such as the approach described by Young by de nition then would address the cultural and individual historical and present traumas and victimizations experienced by Indian people Thus Indian people as all Others must refuse to participate in a mental health industry that bene ts from treating our social ills substance abuse depression physical and sexual abuse as individual pathologies or familial dysfunctions that are detached from Western cultural and historical forces Such treatment programs instead ensure our complicity in patriarchal power and further promote our disempowerment by denying and invalidating the structural nature of our oppression merican Indians and all Others must not allow members of the dominant culture to create us and speak for us through their news reports lms writings research teachings art works or sciences We must resist these productions and create our own images and subjectivities by breaking silence and expressing our truths and experiences under patriarchy in every way possible Our expressions can assist members of the dominant groups in recognizing that their power and privilege exists at the exclusion of Others Our truths can also assist these individuals inrecognizing that patriarchal structures and dichotomies of abject Otherness restrict their full range of truths and human potentials as well ose members of the dominant groups who want to challenge patriarchy must critically examine the nature of their own privilege They must reject con structions of Otherness and refuse to participate in the appropriation and reap propriation of abject differences Moreover members of the dominant groups must be willing to listen to the expressions of Others They must be willing to question the frameworkithe universal Truthsithrough which they hear Others When Others truths and expressions do not t into these frameworks members of the dominant groups must not reject silence us as wrong or false instead they must examine the exclusiveness of their framework CLORox TREATMENT Standing above my father three and a half feet tall carried home from a bar floor after playing softball lmmobile in bed face bruised and purple Alcohol seeps from his pores 98 Hypatia A crazy glued virgin mary statue on the night stand next to his head her back turned away Drunk and incoherent Begs my mother for forgiveness Swollen lips Slurred speech weeping weeping Rosie Honey we had to ght those white guys said things about Indians Eyes rolling back into his head Standing above my father three and a half feet tall She reminds me in shame and disgust This is what it means to be an Indiani Drunk And Baby you re an Indian While all she can think is I m the one who has to clean his goddamned ball uniform Bleach out the red blood brown dirt invisible tears Like she wished she could bleach out his dark skin as white as her own Lisa M Poupart 99 NOTES 1 BraveHeart describes historical trauma as the collective and compounding emotional and psychic wounding over timequot which is multi generational and is not limited to one39s individual life spanquot 1995 6 Z W en Others accept the dominant subject position we view ourselves in ways that re ect that position and participate in the appropriation and reappropriation of difference further contributing to our own disempowerment An understanding of internalized oppression is not intended to provide a justi cation for or a comprehen sive explanation of the existence of social problems among marginalized Others Nor does such an understanding suggest that all marginalized individuals experience and express our oppression deterministicallv in the limited ways I have described here It is important to underscore the notion that all marginalized individuals who experience and express oppression do so in a multitude ofwavs that are far beyond the scope of this discussion In addition an understanding of internalized oppression is not intended to de ect responsibility from marginalized individuals who commit acts of harm against themselves and Others Rather a discussion of internalized oppression is intended to provide a framework for understanding the extent to which American Indian people and Other marginalized individuals are complicitous in our oppression as we accept the dominant subject position REFERENCES Anderson Karen 1991 Chain her by one foot The subjugation ofwomen in seventeenth century New France New York Routledge BraveHeart Maria YellowHorse 1995 The return to the sacred path Healing from historical unresolved grief among the Lakota and Dakota PhD diss Smith College BraveHeart Maria YellowHorse and Lemvra DeBruvn 1996a So she may walk in balance Integrating the impact of historical trauma in the treatment of native american women In Racism in the lives of women Testimony theory and guides to antiracist practice ed Jeanne Adleman and Gloria Enguidanos New York Haworth Press BraveHeart Maria YellowHorse and Lemvra DeBruvn 1996b The American Indian holocaust Healing historical unresolved grief Unpublished paper Provided by authors to Lisa Poupart seven years ago when BraveHeart was involved in the Takini Network at Rosebud South Dakota and DeBruvn worked for Indian Health Services in Albuquerque N Collins Patricia Hill 1990 Black feminist thought Knowledge consciousness and the politics of empowerment New York Rout e e Crow Dog Marv with Richard Erdoes 1990 Lakota woman New York Grove Wein feld Davis Angela 1990 Women culture and politics New York Vintage Books 100 Hypatia Diaz Lillian Comas 1995 Puerto Ricans and sexual child abuse In Sexual abuse in nine North American cultures Treatment and prevention ed Lisa Aronson Fontes Thousand Oaks Calif Sage Publications Duran Eduardo and Bonnie Duran 1995 Native American postcolonialpsychobgy New York State University of New York Press Emerick Robert 1996 Sexual and physical violence in American Indian and Canadian Native families and communites A presentation at Scottsdale Community College 10 December Feinman Clarice 1992 Women battering on the Navajo reservation International Review of Victimology 2 137746 Ferraro Kathleen 1990 Review essay Culture feminism and male violence Social Justice 17 3 70783 Fischler Ronald S 1985 Child abuse in American Indian communites Child Abuse and Neglect 9 957106 Gale Nancy 1987 Childhood sexual abuse in Native American communites Linkages Newsletter Washington DC Cited inohn R Schafer and Blaine D McIlwaine 1992 Investigating child sexual abuse in the American Indian community Ameri can Indian Quarterly 16 2 157767 hooks bell 1994 Outlaw culture Resisting representations New York Routledge LaPointe Charlene 1987 Boarding schools teach violence Plainswoman 1O 4 374 Leacock Eleanor Burke 1987 Myths of mak dominance Collected articles on women cross culturally New York Monthly Review Press Northrup Jim 1993 Ditched Walking the rez road Minnesota Voyageur Press Okamura Amy Patricia Heras and LindaWong39Kerberg 1995 Asian Paci c Island and Filipino American and sexual child abuse In Sexual abuse in nine North American families ed Lisa Aronson Fontes Thousand Oaks Calif Sage Publications Wallace Michele 1979 Black macho and the myth of the super woman New York Dial ress Wilson Melba 1994 Crossing the boundary Black women survive incest Seattle Seal Press Witt Shirley Hill 1974 Native women today Sexism and the Indian woman Civil Rights Digest 6 3 29735 Young Iris Marion 1994 Punishment treatment empowerment Three approaches to policy for pregnant addicts Feminist Studies 20 1 33757


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