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Date Created: 01/15/15
BSC 216 LAB Exam 1 Chapter 16 Anatomy of the Heart 1 The Heart Wall consists of 3 tissue layers a Epicardium visceral pericardium i Outermost layer of the heart ii Serous membrane covering the heart iii Consists of a layer of epithelial tissue and loose connective tissue b Myocardium i Middle layer actual muscle of the heart 1 Muscle spirals around the heart which produces wringling motion ii Fibrous skeleton of the heart framework of collagenous and elastic fibers 2 The Heart Wall a Endocardium i Innermost layer of the heart endothelium ii Covers the valve surfaces and is continuous with endothelium of blood vessels 3 The Chambers a 4 chambers i Right Left Atria 1 Two superior chambers 2 Receive blood returning to heart ii RightLeft Ventricle 1 Two inferior chambers 2 Pump blood into arteries 4 The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits a Major divisions of circulatory system i Pulmonary circuit right side of heart carries deoxygenated blood to lungs for gas exchange and back to heart ii Systemic circuit left side of heart supplies oxygenated blood to all tissues of the body and returns it to the heart ated blood to all tissues 0 the body and ft heart Dearygenated Hood E Zrtja jizfobidy Le Atrium returns r39cm you bcdv E genated blood In pet to you lungs Oxygenated tlcod retuns From your lungs Right Atrium Jeoooenated Dixd 39eturs ron v01 bJCy Left Ventricle Right Ventricle 5 Heart Valves a Bicuspid Mitral separates left atrium from left ventricle b Tricuspid separates right atrium from right ventricle C Pulmonary Semilunar separates right ventricle from pulmonary artery d Aortic Semilunar valve separates left ventricle from aorta 6 Sheep Heart 39 ight Atrium 39 Trlcuspld Valve Bicuspid Valve Chordae tendinae Right Ventricle Papillary muscle Left Ventricle 1 quott a I I l I 39 I Nudeus Slrialions 8 Cardiac Conduction System a System responsible for transmitting electrical impulses and causes contraction of myocytes Overview SA node llree Excltatlon spreads through Rieht atrium atrlal myocardlum Slnoatrlal node pacemaker L9quot AV node ree atrlum Purkln flownmum quotbequot 1 Excltatlon epreade down AV node bundle Bundle Atrloventrlcular branches Purklnle fibers distribute bundle excltatlon through ventricular myocardlum Purkinje bers ranglake I 7515 than ulll runs1M I KIA It39ll maulAll 0 MAMAno0 A Alfll Chapter 18 Cardiovascular Physiology 1 Electrical and Contractile Activity of the Heart a Cycle of events in heart special names i Systole atrial or ventricular contraction ii Diastole atrial or ventricular relaxation 2 Heart Auscultation a Area of the thorax where valvular sounds can be detected b Heart sounds 2 distinct sounds during cardiac cycle lub s1 dups2 c 31 is associated with closure of mitral and tricuspid valves at beginning of ventricular systole d 32 occurs as the aortic and pulmonary valves close and correspond with the end of systole e Abnormal heart sounds are called murmurs and are indicative of leaky valves Pulmonic area V Tricuspid area Mitral area f 3939n39 39n D II Yh l fr nun 3 Heart Variables a Heart Rate number of beats per minute i Tachycardia gt 100 beats per minute ii Bradycardia lt 60 beats per minute b Heart Rhythm pattern and regularity c Additional Heart Sounds possible sign of pathology i 33 just after 32 ii S4 just before 31 d Heart murmurs leaking valves i Clicking or swishing sound between heart sounds ii Most murmurs are harmless 4 Heart Auscultation Earpieces Diaphragm 1 Hn39lrr hm cm rnrm Bell 5 Blood Pressure a b Pressure exerted by the blood on walls of vessels Determined by 3 factors i Cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute ii Peripheral resistance amount of resistance in blood vessels iii Blood volume amount of blood in vessels at any given time Pressure Readings i Systolic pressure at ventricular contraction top ii Diastolic Pressure at ventricular relaxation bottom iii Normal Blood Pressure 12080 mmHg Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure i Sphygmomanometer blood pressure cuff ii Stethoscope Two parts of measuring Blood Pressure i Hearing Sound of Korotkoff 1 Resumption of blood ow into the forearm a First indication of turbulent sounds systolic b No continuation of turbulent sounds diastolic ii Visual Pressure Gauge 1 Record the number the needle is pointing to when the sounds appear Needle starts to bounce at the systole point 3 Needle stops to bounce and falls steadily at diastole point EV 6 Vascular Examination Temporal Carotid Brnchlal Ulnar Femoral Radial i Popmeal Posteclor tibia Dorsalis pedis Chapter 17 Blood Vessel Anatomy 1 Circulatory System a 3 major circuits i Coronary Circuit delivers oxygenated blood to the heart ii Pulmonary Circuit delivers deoxygenated blood to the lungs iii Systemic Circuit delivers oxygenated blood to most organs and tissues in the body 1 Always from heart arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins back to heart 2 Study veins and arteries in lab book 176 3 Histology of Blood Vessels a 3 distinct tissue layers i Tunica interna innermost layer 1 Endothelium on top of thin layer of connective tissue ii Tunica media middle layer 1 Smooth muscle and elastic fibers iii Tunica externa adventitia outermost layer 1 Abundant with collagen fibers reinforcement b Valves in veins prevent back ow due to gravity c Thick tunica media in arteries i Smooth muscle control of arterial size 4 Anatomy of Blood Vessels a Arteries carry blood away from the heart b Veins carry blood back to heart c Capillaries connect smallest arteries to veins WMIWWaRWam sbmawuy Or39 7 quotr d 39 Capillaries Artery Tunica internal Tunica media Tunica extema Vein A I U d 5 Arterial Pathology Tunica media plaque 6 Microscopy Chapter 19 Blood 1 Components and General Properties of Blood a Adults have 46L of blood b A liquid connective tissue consisting of cells and extracellular matrix i Plasma matrix of blood 1 Clear light yellow uid ii Formed elements blood cells and cell fragments 1 Red blood cells white blood cells and platelets C Seven kinds of formed elements i Erythrocytes red blood cells RBC oxygen carriers ii Platelets blood clotting cell fragments from special cell in bone marrow iii Leukocytes white blood cells WBC 1 5 leukocyte types diVided into two categories 2 Granulocytes w granules a Neutrophils bacterial clean up b Eosinophil s fight parasites c Basophil s histamine functions 3 Agranulocytes wo granules a Lymphocytes immune response b Monocytes cellular debris clean up l39 i R l M v I y 5 I l V 39 1quot r k r 1 1 w i p 4 x Platelets Eosinophil Formed Elements Eosinophil Neutrophils Basophil gt9 quotc Lymphocyte a 02n7 39OAQ 0 n 3 95 Monocyte M quot3 r v 39V 2 ABC and RH Blood Groups a Blood type is totally dependent on cell surface proteins antigens on RBC i Blood type A has A antigens ii Blood type B has B antigens iii Blood type AB has both A and B antigens iv Blood Type O has neither antigen 1 Most common universal donor Type O 2 Rarest universal recipient Type AB b If antibodies from recipient blood plasma are incompatible with donors antigens a transfusion reaction can occur BAD i AntiA antibody will react with A antigen ii AntiB antibody will react with B antigen iii AntiA or AntiB antibody will react with AB blood iv Neither antibody will react with type 0 because there are no antigens on RBC s 3 Blood Donation a Donation of incompatible blood types leads to hemolysis or a transfusion reaction b Rh individuals do not produce antibodies and can donate to only Rh blood types but can receive from both Rh and Rh c Always assume that Rh individuals have been exposed and have Rh antibodies d Always remember that the antibodies in the recipients immune system can react with antigens on the donor s RBC if not compatible Donor Recipient 0 0 A Il B AH NH 0 V 0 vquot v39r A vquot A vquot V v ll v Vquot 8 vquot V quot Vquot AB V Ivquot v AB vquot vl vquot vquot vquot Vquot Chapter 20 Lymphatic s and Immunity 1 Lymphatic System Anatomy a Immune and Homeostatic Function 3 functions i Transports excess interstitial uid back to the heart 1 15 mLmin is lost during circulation 2 Right lymphatic and thoracic duct ii Activating Immune System 1 quotPolicesquot the body from foreign invaders 2 Activation of T and B lymphocytes 3 Lymph nodes spleen thymus tonsils MALT iii Absorbing Dietary Fats 1 Fats are too large to be absorbed directly into capillaries 2 Enter lymphatic through lacteal villi of small intestine iv Figure 202 Patahne Wis Cemcanynvhnodes Rugmnmohamciuct Aqu T 5 Whoooes Thomoccmct Spleen Ccsiemachy Mnemo assocunod v WKMM quot MALTHmmI mossu Ingunal Wnodos Red0aemar10w Lymofancvessets if 1 ll 3 2 Lymphatic Organ Histology a Major Lymphoid Tissue i Spleen 1 Red pulp destruction of RBC s 2 White pulp filter blood for immunity look for central artery 3 Sinusoids ii Lymph Nodes 1 Cortex Perimeter that contains follicles 2 Capsule covering 3 FolliclesGerminal Centers maturing of B lymphocytes 4 Medulla contains mainly Tcells Trabeculae invaginations of the capsule 01 iii Peyer s patches 1 Part of mucosalassociated lymphoid tissue MALT 2 Ileum lymphatic nodules in the small intestine whm pup with Iplunlo nodqu Red pulp White pulp A Pee Smooth uscle Intestinal Lining Peyer39s Pa ches Lm Lymphatic Modules Cortex Medulla 3 The Immune Response a Nonspecific Response Innate Immunity i Surface Barriers skin and mucous membranes ii Granulocytes and macrophages Ingest and or destroy foreign invaders 1 Pus dead neutrophils iii Antimicrobial proteins 1 Complement system will attack and lyse the cells of foreign invaders a Enhance phagocytosis in ammation b Specific Immunity Adaptive Immune Response i Humoral Immunity Secretion of antibodies Ab 1 5 different classes of Ab 2 Mediated by Blymphocytes 3 Plasma cells 4 Memory cells ii CellMediated Immunity cells killing cells Mediated by Tlymphocytes 2 Helper Tcells or Cytotoxic Tcells 3 Secretion of specific cytokines activates type of Tcell 4 Virallyinfected cells or intracellular microbes t Antigen oindng Lign chain HthG region u39anwte v J 39813915 I y Complement Dindmg 39 916 Constant ICI 39egons Mawy diam lgG Antibody 4 Immune Myths a Flu vaccine gives you the u b Antibiotics can treat the common cold or other viral illnesses only bacterial infections c Vitamins supplements decrease illness length or occurrence d Vaccines are toxiccause autism e All vaccines are 100 effective for life 5 Pathology Rabies Case Study a Caused by RNA virus Rhabdovirus b Transmitted through bite typically into muscle tissue i Enters nervous tissue 9 brain spinal cord 9 salivary glands ii Long incubation period with no symptoms c 100 mortality rate in untreated patients i Over stimulates the brain affects behavior and causes the cells to die Models in the Lab that will be used on exam vein quotquotquot F 1351355535quot 3133357151 9 tonsils AAA I l f f A r 2 t 5 lyval I nagHf 3 v Ti w i n k 13 391 1 I A k h 4 n a cav a anon n W wCUs
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