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Introduction to American Politics

by: Stanley Huel

Introduction to American Politics 030 001

Marketplace > University of Iowa > Political Science > 030 001 > Introduction to American Politics
Stanley Huel
GPA 3.8

Tracy Osborn

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Tracy Osborn
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stanley Huel on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 030 001 at University of Iowa taught by Tracy Osborn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/228017/030-001-university-of-iowa in Political Science at University of Iowa.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Lecture 7 The Supreme Court 10292013 104600 PM The Powers of the Supreme Court The Least Dangerous Branch Alexander Hamilton o Didn t have the power of purse or sword Mysterious of the three branches not much written in the Constitution about judicial branch No age limits or term limits Structure was created in policy not in Constitution quot a layered court system where one court gets original case and other courts review it Third part of Article III defines treason Job of Supreme Court is to review big cases Only way to override judicial review is to pass amendment Marbury v Madison 1803 and judicial review o This case established courts power ofjudicial review o Congress gave Supreme Court decision they shouldn t have o Chief Justice John Marshal Nominating Justices Who does the president choose Merit favors and representation o Supreme Court is top level next level is Circuit Appellate Courts bottom level of Federal court system is District Courts President likes to nominate Supreme Court Justices because justices are forever 0 President likes this because justices can carry President s slim jig 0 Leave someone who has President s interpretation of the Constitution In the past Presidents would put someone as a justice as a them 0 Not very many people wanted to hold this position in the early days 0 Ex Obama and ElanaKagan Presidents look for good f quot for possible candidates 0 Someone with lots of experience good educational background and no skeletons in closet o Nominees tend to get grilled in Senate if they don t have enough merit o Presidents look for good Li iElH candidate 0 Race gender etc Judicial Ideology radiation of the population in a someone who believes only what is written in hat exists l writ believe Constitution is living document and can be updated t modern times 0 Ex Second Amendment and right to bear arms Some Presidents make mistakes on who to choose for justice to fit their ideology 0 Ex Eisenhower with Earl Warren Choosing Cases How courts work plaintiffs defendants appeals grand juries trial juries r 39 39 one who is accusing quoti one who is getting accused comes first and decides if there is enough evidence to go to trial 0 39quotr iiail flu is typical jury made of random people who make the decision in a trial case Asking another level of a court system to review the case ke sure point of law was applied correctly Types of law substantive v procedural criminal v civil and constitutional statutory and administrative law to ma H l ijiij 39ijlcj lr g l o Substantive law tells you what you can and cannot do 0 Procedural law tells police how to apply laws Ex running stop sign v Miranda rights Li39l39m f ni iial Law 0 Criminal law violations against society I Ex cant kill people cant embezzle funds mail fraud Punishment is jail 0 Civil laws regulate interactions between individuals If you break civil law you ve committed a tort Ex violating a contract Punishment is money How they play hand in hand Ex OJ Simpson trial a Innocent of criminal guilty of civil O ll All laws fit under these three categories Constitutional law laws in constitution and interpretation of it Ex 18th amendment Statutory law laws made by state legislators of Congress Ex Smoking in bars Administrative law laws made by bureaucracies Specific Obamacare law Levels of the federal court system and jurisdiction appellate versus original o 94 District Courts 0 Each state has at least one 0 Bottom layer of federal court system 0 This is were original jurisdiction is 39 n who gets case i n rmiciiicm is when court gets case on appeal US Courts of Appeal 0 Appellate court which hears appeals from district courts 0 No juries or trial 0 Judges reviewing specific cases 0 Panel of three judges 0 En banc when all notjust three of the judges hear the case 0 Iowa is in eighth circuit 0 Either enforce or overturn courts decision o 1 Supreme Court 0 Also appellate court Hears cases from circuit courts US would appeal Circuit courts decision Could get appeals from state supreme courts or circuit courts Usually deal with constitutional questions 0 Has 9 justices with John Roberts as Chief Justice Writ of Certiorari and the Rule of Four o Supreme Court has to choose from lots of writ of certs 39 39 asks the Supreme Court to hear appeals O O O O O O O 0 vi vi ll Hear less than 1 of these cases 0 Clerks of Justices choose which certs to hear 0 Justices meet together and decide which cases they want to hear 0 Decision rule they use is rim i8 hear the case then they hear it Advantage for the minority 0 Very political part of this job is choosing cases Other influences to hear cases o Solicitor General main attorney for the US and President friends of the court 0 Briefs that are filed by interest groups Solicitor General aka President or Attorney General Experts 0 Information to the Justices tells who is interested in outcome of case o Case timing 0 Ex Brown v Board right before Civil Rights Movement Roe v Wade during early 70 s and end of women s reform Deciding Cases in the Supreme Court How a case is heard before the Court o Most of the oral arguments are one hour long 0 Half hour for defense half hour for plaintiff o Justices meet periodically behind the scenes to discuss the cases 0 First of October to Last month in June o Decisions are three four five months after The role of the court judicial activism and judicial restraint o Judicial Restraint o Activist court or restrained court 0 l quot tier xix r sit back say this fits constitution or doesn t but not to make new policy quot if four justices want to o ri not 391 url 39 decisions of the past 0 common law system v civil law system Common law base a lot of our decisions on past cases and old English law a Ex Criminal procedure cases o Miranda v Arizona Gideon v Wainwright Constitutional law 0 Civil law big legal code written by the legislature not the courts Based on code not interpretation o Judicial Activism o Activist courts believe they should be law making policy making bodies Writing the decisions majority concurrent and dissenting o Once each Justice decides they take a vote and decides who is in the majority and who is the minority o Right now it is a lot of 54 decisions bc split in ideological mindsets lEil wt 5 expresses how the justice s came to that decision and talk about the precedents they relied on to make that decision 0 Chiefjustice votes in the majority then they get to pick who writes the majority opinion 0 If Chiefjustice is in minority then most seniorjustice in the majority gets to pick who writes the opinion 0 Chief Justice can strategically pick the majority so he can pick or write a weak precedent l l H 2 agrees with the majority but offers different or additional information about how they got to that decision 0 If somebody writes a concurring opinion then it shows there was some disagreement when voting o l ieagerviliing l imni imi from member of minority and offers reasoning why they disagree 0 Ex separate but equal can never be equal 0 Can become important later on like the example 10292013 104600 PM 10292013 104600 PM Lecture 4 Civil Rights 9242013 114400 PM The Extension of Civil Rights De jure versus de facto discrimination o Removal of two types of discrimination o De jure discrimination is discrimination under the law o De facto discrimination is discrimination by habit African American Civil Riqhts Early 35 Compromise o Was first real evidence of problems States outlawed slavery on their own accord However no national answer South had enough pull in congress to not allow slave issues Dred Scott v Sanford 1857 acceptance that black slaves not citizens o Former slave who moved to different free states also lived in non free states c When owner died he freed Dred Scott c He sued saying he should have his freedom o Case ended up in Supreme Court 0 What is his citizenship status He is black so he is not a citizen 0 Court Stated didn t matter if he was living in non free or free state Court told him he is not a person he is a piece of property Emancipation Proclamation o Freed slaves in the confederate states o Not very effective bc they didn t listen to Lincoln 13th Amendment o Outlawed slavery o Right at end of Civil War o Created a big legal limbo o No clear definition of citizenship for slaves o Came right after 13th amendment 0 a Former slave cant own property cant vote 0 Took away any right of former slaves o Congress had to do something 14th and 15th Amendments Civil War Amendments o Intended to give citizen rights to slaves o 14th made black codes unconstitutional o 14thCannot be denied privileges and immunities due process equal protection o 15th Former male slaves explicitly CAN vote o Passed super quick because Radical Republicans were controlling congress and all southern legislatures all L jlm v e li o General name for big group of laws that varied across states zi n mlg 39iil39lg r o Grandfather clause Couldn t vote in a particular place unless your grandfather voted there 0 Poll Tax Blacks were poor so they usually couldn t vote 0 Literacy Test Most African Americans couldn t read The ones who could the tests were impossible to pass 0 Segregation Drinking fountains bathrooms schools laundromats o Intimidation through Ku Klux Klan and slanted Cops o Reinforced by Supreme Court quot35 1 F lr39 ilgli inlrll if 1 0 Got on train and sat in white train car on purpose 0 Got arrested because he didn t move u39iii qlu39ialll o 8 to 1 vote Dissenter said separate but equal will never be equal o Leaves South very segregated and hard for the blacks o No President that was willing to talk about segregation until Kennedy o De Facto segregation was rampant in the north African American Civil Rights Movement o Two part strategy toward civil rights Mr NAACP Brown v Board of Education 1954 and Brown II 1955 unitiirli tl i L i 76 was quot r I H l NAACP founded by WEB DuBois Decided to pick an area where separate but equal was distinguished Picked the blacks and law school a Justices could relate a Missouri Law school case a Texas Law school in the basement Strategy was to slowly disprove Plessy v Ferguson Brown v Board a Elementary School Case a Lawyer for NAACP was Thurgood Marshal n Decided to use psychological evidence a Found black students felt they were not as good and thought they were dumber then the white kids a Supreme Court agreed no longer have segregated elementary schools Brown II n States didn t listen to first Brown a Second case statedHad to desegregate with ALL deliberated speed Protests regarding Brown a 1957 Little Rock Central High school 1975 Boston Busing o Protestboycotts Montgomery Bus Boycott and Rosa Parks demonstrations SelmatoMontgomery March Idea of boycott is to stop using product to show distaste n Blacks organized boycott on the Montgomery Bus Boycott due to Rosa Parks situation a Big affect on Montgomery Bus system bc most customers were black Selma to Montgomery March a Marchers would put small children in front to affect the media Cops getting to the kids first a Purpose to get attention from people viewing on TV They use protest to change the public opinion Civil Rights Act 1964 and Voting Rights Act 1965 O O O O O O O Outlined ways to get rid of discrimination Big piece removed huge chunk of de jure discrimination End to Plessy v Ferguson case Title 7 Created Equal Opportunity Employment Commission Politics were messy to get this to pass Johnson had a big effect on getting this bill to pass a Worked in both houses a Very manipulative n Would badger some of the congress members to get them to agree Voting Rights Act Big surge in minority voters Big surge in minorities in Congress Both acts are evident to this day o Addressing de facto discrimination Affirmative Action 0 Av fim quotliilr if v Policies to address de facto discrimination i r lfi ml kill 3 n filing an Ex College Admissions n Leaving spots for minorities Proponents say this is way to create equal protection 14th Amendment Opponents say this violates equal protection 14th Amendment In both Michigan and Texas cases supreme court stated Affirmative Action is ok but has to be narrowly tailored to the situation Women s Civil Rights Movements o Began with few if any citizenship rights 0 No right to vote Couldn t serve on juries husband was responsible if you did something illegal couldn t own property no right to your children o Early focus on suffrage right to vote 0 Seneca Falls Convention 1848 Seneca Falls is small town in upstate New York Elizabeth Caty Stanton organized women s rights convention Around 300 people showed up Created document that was modeled on the Declaration of Independence a Right to a job right to own property right to their children Women suffrage was not agreed upon a Thought husbands vote was the families vote a Women were to clean for politics Most of the early suffragists were abolitionists Came up after Civil War a Extended rights to slaves why not us a Congress said NO 0 Split in approaches to securing suffrage less violent attempt to win state vote national amendment versus more violent protest toward national amendment Less violent wanted to get right to vote state by state Supreme Court encouraged them to do this Organized at the state level n Give speeches hand out pamphlets convince people Wyoming was first state to let women vote a Wouldn t join union unless they were accepted to let women vote a Plan was to get more people to their state Utah was second a Couldn t join union unless they were giving out women suffrage California didn t want women to vote because of prohibition vote Women were abolitionists tied in to prohibition movement More Violent strategy wanted change NOW n Motto was enough dicking around get this shit passed a Wanted to use protests to get a national amendment o Lobby in congress Use states where women could vote and target the presidential election Got ideas from Britain suffrage movement Alice Paul was leader of more violent strategy planned protests Goal was to gain public interest Examples Had a giant parade on the eve of Wilson s inauguration o Parade was attacked by police and anti suffragists Stood outside of White House and picketed o Held banners with Wilson s exact quotes 0 Started to arrest picketers threw them in jail o Newspaper coverage changed public opinion o 7 years of protest o 19th Amendment 0 O 0 Gave women the right to vote Passed in 1920 Barely passed amendment process bc they were almost off by one state One person of Tennessee Senate changed his mind made the difference to pass the amendment Only thing that changed was right to vote not working right to children Later Women s Civil Rights o Equal Rights Amendment Title VII 0 O O 0 Was only part of bill that included women When sex was included in bill it wasn t enforced right away Didn t get enforced until the 70 s First step to 0 Title IX 0 O 0 Passed in early 70 s Took almost 8 years to go into effect Required women and men to be treated the same in education Example would be women college sports Women couldn t attend certain college bc of quota system and points system Laws can still treat women and men differently Example only men are eligible for the draft Proposal in 70 s ERA Required that all laws treat men and women the same Passed congress but never got fully ratified by states Why didn t it pass a Maybe not all laws should treat men and women the same o Force women to work same bathrooms Where this situation is now 53 gout l iull up u m Group Rights under the Constitution o Suspect classes race and ethnicity 0 Suspect to strict scrutiny where the US must demonstrate a compelling state interest Korematsu v US 1944 Japanese American who was put in a camp during WWII He sued saying cant treat me differently because my race Supreme Court said it was perfectly legal to do this Only stands because national security is Now it is not ok This case helped find the verdict in Brown case Almost none of these laws stand o QuasiSuspect classes sex 0 Laws that treat women in men differently 0 Subject to an intermediated standard of review where the US must demonstrate an important state interest o NonSuspect classes age wealth sexual orientation 0 Subject to a minimum rationality standard of review where the US must prove there is a rational basis for the law Examples Cant vote until 18 Can t drink until 21 Can t get license until 16 age discrimination Rich pay more for taxes wealth discrimination 9242013 114400 PM 9242013 114400 PM Lecture 6 The Presidency 10152013 103200 PM The President s Role o Article II o 35 Natural Citizen of US Lived here for 14 years 0 Electoral College used to keep ordinary people from choosing the president More informed people choose the right president 0 How do you get rid of a bad president Terms and Impeachment a House can impeach the president Senate tries the president Can be impeached for treason bribery and other high crimes and misdemeanors Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton only two presidents to be impeached However none have been convicted n n n O o The president s constitutional powers executive legislative and judicial powers 0 Executive Powers Commander in Chief a CEO of the military o Meets with the generals chiefs of staff Chief Administrator a CEO of Bureaucracy o Watches over the execution of the laws Chief Foreign Policy Officer Negotiates treaties deals with other countries o Don t have to be approved by congress Appoints and receives ambassadors and leaders from other countries a Represents US when make trips abroad 0 Legislative Powers State of the Union Address n Informs congress at the beginning of the year what he wants done Veto Power a Sign a bill veto a bill pocket veto a bill threaten to use the veto n Negotiates directly with congress if not him then legislative liaisons Executive Order a Clarifications of congressional law that holds the full weight of law o Order to close Guantanamo Bay Obama o Order to use Bush s faith based organizations o Order for Truman to integrate the military 0 Judicial Powers Gets to appoint federal judges and justices n Check on the judiciary and Senate has to approve them a Justices are less often then federal judges l rail President calls member of Senate from his own party and asks about a judge nominee from the Senator s state Solicitor General a Kind of like the President s lawyer a Represents the US or President s office in foreign affairs a Link between President and Supreme Courts n Write amicus curie briefs n Communicates with the court system on behalf of the President Pardoning Power a Can pardon people for federal crimes n Check on the judicial system a Presidents use this to bail out their buddies o Ford pardoned Nixon o Difference between traditional and modern presidencies 0 Traditional Presidents Presidents were traditionally backbenchers Interpreted powers of presidency very strictly Ones you don t think about too much Lincoln is exception n Suspended writ of habeas corpus n Income tax a Believed there were mh constitution powers not specifically given but they are implied in the words of constitution FDR was the first modern president 1930 s a Broke the mold during the Depression 0 Modern President Come to office with big policy goals try to push and implement them during their time of office People started to expect BIG things from presidents Example when Eisenhower pushed and implemented the interstate system Johnson s Great Society aka Welfare Reagan s was defense based n Spending had to do with military spending George W Bush s was defense and intelligence modern president is expected to do a lot but his constitutional powers are limited Examples Pulling the plug controversy fixing the economy mil two roles to fill that ultimately contradict each other Head of Statesymbolic head of the US a Represents US in other countries a Visits natural disaster areas Head of Governmentperson who tries to pass policy programs making deals threatens people blames congress campaigns The Executive Branch o The Cabinet 0 0 Needs someone who can run a huge department Looks for expertise in that cabinet Example Tom Vilsack governor of big agricultural state now Secretary of Agriculture Other prominent Cabinet members Secretary of State a In charge of relations with other state aka countries Secretary of Treasury Department of Justice n Led by Attorney General Eric Holder Looks for diversity to show that the President is including many different kinds of people Includes members of other parties a Example Chuck Hagel Secretary of Defense Meet with the President on a regular basis Argue to keep their agencies budgets Argue about keeping the leadership of agencies Often in conflict with the President bc heads of their departments Do what is good for their department not the Presidency o The Executive Office of the President EOP O O 0 Independent agencies that aren t consumed under a big department Similar to cabinet but not Examples include National Security Staff Office of Management and Budget Office of National Drug Control Policy Environmental Protection Agency Designed to help President get the information he needs and speak with congress with knowledge of certain topics 0 These also have to be confirmed by the Senate o The White House Staff President s closest advisors Not confirmed by the Senate Not mentioned in Constitution Examples include 0 O O O Chief of Staff runs the President s life cycle through quickly Press Secretary President s official mouthpiece o The Vice President 0 Job not worth warm pitcher of piss 0 Next in line of President 0 Role is what the President makes of them George W Bush and Dick Cheney u Had good relation Cheney had more power Reagan and George HW Bush a Not a good relation less power Kennedy and Johnson a Not a good relation Johnson was a ticket balancer o The First Ladies 0 Most choose something most people would not disagree with 0 Official hostess 0 Examples include Laura Bush helped with illiteracy Michelle Obama eating healthy 0 Hilary Clinton Rosaline Carter Eleanor Roosevelt took more political stances 0 First lady helps boost the presidents popularity Personality and Politics o Presidential character style and traits 0 Silent Cal Slick Willy C Average Bush Presidential politics power to persuade quot power to get others to go with President s agenda 0 What are some of the variables that determine their persuasion techniques o Going public and Approval Ratings no rljll3 lli reach out to ordinary citizens through the media to convince congress to do something If president has good persuading power they can use this power effectively The president is trying to push Congress not try to get the public on his side Message coming from people is more powerful then President himself to Congress Depends on how popular the President is Rolling sample every day ask five people if they approve of the President takes rolling five hundred every four days Presidential approval cycles a Most popular during first three months after election m 0qu y 1 i a Loss during midterm election a Goes up again but not as high as first election during reelection Two things that can throw the cycle off a Economy anytime economy is good approval good bad approval bad a Odd Events o Examples include 0 Bush during 911 0 H W Bush during start of Gulf War 0 Truman came in with high approval because of sympathy for FDR s death 10152013 103200 PM 10152013 103200 PM Lecture 10 Interest Groups 1210 Interest Groups lir i is an organization of individuals who share a common political goal and unite for the purpose of influencing government decisions 0 Interest groupsissues Political Partiesindividuals o Thousands of interest groups 0 Certain moments in history when interest groups were driven to form due to specific events 0 Many interest groups formed up with Franklin s New Deal after the depression and Johnson s Great Society Ex AARP UAA o FECA was first legislation that changed campaign money lital ii uwgs 7 n quot ir iili39r PAC specifically put together for the purpose of raising and donating money The six major functions of interest groups as intermediaries government iv 7 n r 397 3 J sipcimuii n i help put their issues in the agenda of Congress t or any part of government o irrmiiiiiwai39 provide ideas for how to deal o g girl in Ul ill tmiwli l my 1 watch after a law after it is created to make sure it is being carried out correctly or being carried out at all Forming interest groups o Interest group entrepreneur someone who is willing to put in resources smarts and be determined on a certain issue 0 Ex Candy Lightner and Mothers Against Drunk Driving MADD o Have to get members and have members stay in the group r 1 good that can be enjoyed by everybody Ex group project s collective good is the grade o The person that sits in the corner and does nothing is the free rider 0 mi ingi why should people join you to solve the problem when they can reap the benefits of your action whether they join or not How to overcome the free rider problem with selective incentives o lquot l all li39 39wii tangible rewards that members can use interaction and bonding among group members nts of AARP would have lunches with other old people in AARP o n X G m 3 sh a 13 m m a limiegin ti opportunity to express values and beliefs 0 Ex NRA has lots of members who feel they make a difference in what they believe in Part of something bigger Interest Groups Types of 3 iiiquot r o Have the most money and most influence of the interest groups o Includes Unions and Business associations o Fighting for their slice of economic pie lf m t 39i l39ii lJ p E N tml 39j39 Al p o Tend to push for equal rights for different groups o Or particular issues for groups that are underrepresented in society 0 Ex AARPold people NAACPAfrican Americans PETA Animals t i jitouif o Organize to influence a collective good or service o See what they are organizing for as a benefit for everybody 0 Ex Christian Coalition Environmental Interest Groups NRA Consumers Union o Other governments who lobby for their country c We lobby foreign governments o Want favorable trade practices foreign aid we want them to go along with our will o Also can be more local 0 Ex states lobbying national o Government agencies lobbying national governments o Big cities lobbying national governments Interest Group Politics how interest groups try to persuade the government interest group to government Interest groups want face to face meeting access of time One big strategy to buy face time is donating money Professional lobbyist hired people who will lobby for anything usually have a lot of contacts and good expertise on how to deliver the message l 39 in m 39 iil r il riminimal people who retire from O O O government who form or get recruited for a lobbying firm or media organization Ex Newt Gingrich or Bob Dohl 0 Like to give expert testimony People who talk at certain hearings will usually give their expert testimony and are from interest groups Donate money to buy access not necessarily a vote Interest groups form coalitions with each other to show the amount of people they have behind them Also more power 39Wllquot 391 interest group to citizens to government 0 T r 39 quot g1 start the movement from the bottom 0 O when interest groups fake lobby fake Interest groups send you a letter and all you have to do is sign and send this letter in to your representative n Ex If you don t agree with this call your legislature and tell him how you feel o Issue advocacy ads ads not ran by the candidate Not a paid for by so and so Interest groups have to put there address or information on the corner of them 12102013 113100 PM 12102013 113100 PM Lecture 5 Congress 1082013 103000 PM Representation in Congress Four kinds of representation policy allocative casework and symbolic o Policy congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents 0 Politics is who gets what and why 0 Typically makes people mad because everybody cant get what they want 0 Examples use US money to bail out financial institutions o Allocative pork barrel politicsquot bringing home money or projects to a district or a state Usually only effects a district or a state smaller subset of people Funds to restore or build bridges roads military bases Bringing home the bacon or Earmarks Example Bridge to nowhere in Alaska Earmarks use has actually gone up however very small part of funds Casework help for individual constituents very important job 0 Grandma calls congress to try to get her Social Security Check 0 Other examples include Military Academies Social Security problems passports 0 Congress person can give you a tour and try to get tickets to White House Symbolic when legislatures demonstrates that they share the values of the community 0 Examples Loebsack going to the Iowa football game speaking at a graduation showing up to factory that is doing poorly Descriptive Representation idea that people should look like the people they represent Congress should look like the people of America 0 Women blacks Latinos in congress 20 women in the senate 178 in house 1 black in senate 0 Congress average age is older people 0 O O O o Congress does all five of these representations at ONCE Paradox of Congress we love our individual members of Congress but dislike Congress as a whole o Incumbents usually win reelection 8090 of the time Getting Elected to Congress Structuring congressional elections Reapportionment redistricting and gerrymandering o 435 members of the House 39 taking the 435 seats and re dividing them according to population 0 Gets done every ten years by the census 0 7 states have just one representative Wyoming Montana Delaware Vermont North Dakota Alaska 0 California and Texas has the most California has 53 while Texas has 36 0 Iowa has 4 n population number of members 7 different ty es of people 0 Partisan Gerrymandering state legislatures draws the lines to benefit the party they are in o Racial Gerrymandering drawing the lines to help different races 0 MajorityMinority Districts districts that are made up of a majority of minority voters Number of minorities tripled in Congress it worked really well However more white districts showed up Biproduct of these districts was more Republican members in the House o A lot of new minority members in Congress but led to a Republican take over of the House Paradox of Representation Running for Congress formal and informal requirements o Informal include 0 state or district that fits them as a candidate 0 strategic election opportunities looking for an open seat usually when an incumbent retires or when you know someone is vulnerable o funding situation usually need to be wealthy or have good sponsors to run because it is so expensive 0 national situation sometimes are good or bad for certain parties Coat tales when there is a pretty popular presidential candidate that brings people to the ballot box and because they are there they will check your name too MidTerm loss when presidents party loses seats in congress in the midterm election a Point when presidents popularity is lowest is usually during the midterm n Happened every midterm election since the 19305 a Two times it didn t happen was 1998 and 2002 o 1998 Clinton was being impeached right around mid term election o Clinton s popularity was weirdly high o 2002 Bush was popular because of 911 Congressional Organization The party and leadership structure Speaker of the House majority and minority leaders both houses President Pro Tempore Senate whips both houses House o Speaker is John Boehner in charge of the whole House 0 Runs the proceedings in charge of his party Senate Majority and Minority Party Leaders 0 Head honcho of their party in the House 0 Republicans is Eric Cantor His job is to work with the Speaker of the House Democrats is Nancy Pelosi o Herjob is to build opposition Whips 0 Next in command under the leaders Very majority driven and rules are very strict Vice President is leader of the Senate President Pro Tempore o Supposed to preside for the Vice President 0 Longest serving member of the majority party honorary position 0 Patrick Lahee Majority Leaders and Minority Leaders 0 In charge of the Senate 0 Majority Leader in Senate is Harry Reid 0 Minority Leader is Mitch McConnell Whip Structure underneath the leaders The committee structure standing select joint and conference committees Debate or Mark up Bills 0 When a bill comes into Congress they decide when a bill should be seen Hearings 0 Information gathering Oversight 0 Watch how policies are carried out by the President Standing Committee 0 Permanent Committees Select Committee 0 Temporary committee 0 Y2K Intelligence Joint Committee 0 Made up of both House and Senate members 0 Designed to expedite boring but necessary legislation 0 Taxation Library of Congress o Conference Committee 0 Reconciles different versions of bills The Congressional Process The lawmaking process setting the agenda committee debate floor debate passage and conference o Setting the agenda 0 Think of the agenda as a group of ideas Possible policies Can be suggested by interest groups or constituents Shocking event Ex 911 intelligence defense terrorism 0 President can influence the agenda by state of the union 0 Legislature introduces a bill o Officially a proposed law o Committee Debate 0 Proposed law goes to a committee 0 Sent to select area committees Ie Cropsag committee 0 Almost all bills die in committee o Floor debate 0 Proposed law is sent to all the legislature to vote on 0 Before it goes to the floor in the House they put all kinds of rules on it at the rules committee 0 Rules committee looks at the bill and puts limits on the bills debates Do this to speed up the process and control the outcome of the bill o House rules on bills before senate o Filibuster rule in the Senate where a senator talks to delay progress on a bill 0 Only happen in the Senate 0 Rand Paul and the drones during the appointment of someone O O O 0 Very effective because the only way to shut off is a cloture vote 35s of the Senate has to agree on a cloture vote Makes individual members more powerful House passes a bill then goes to the Senate In order to pass a law the bills have to be identical Conference Committee Made up of House and Senate members that come up with one version of the bill Versions go back to each house to be approved Then goes to President to sign or veto Easier to go through House then the Senate because Senate has more delays President has four choices 0 Can sign it o Veto it refuses to sign it sends it back to Congress with a note saying why Congress can override it by a 23 vote in EACH House 0 Pocket Veto doesn t sign a bill but doesn t veto it puts the bill in his pocket Congress introduces bill that they know will die Send things to the President knowing he will pocket veto it Roll call voting voting on a bill by yay or nay single Log rolling trade votes with people 0 III vote for your bill if you vote for mine 1082013 103000 PM 1082013 103000 PM Lecture 9 Political Parties and Interest GroupS1232013 113300F The Role of Political Parties Parties as an intermediary Madison s faction o Founders hated political parties Madison thought parties were factions and they were bad Group of people with a central interestfactions Madison feared these factions would take over Parties formed as the founders were deciding on what to do for a constitution Federalists and AntiFederalists i is what connects ordinary citizens to what is happening in government 0 Ex Interest groups media political parties gill Ideologies that are consistent internally and different externally 0 People inside the parties believe the same thing and they are different from other parties Candidates would try to pledge to follow the party platform and they would try to implements it in government Voters make choices between the parties they like and they hold the party accountable Responsible parties would control there members in government to make sure they implement the party program Three Main Functions of Parties 3 wa party activists and electioneering o Made up of bunch of party committees o At the top is the National Committee next is State Committee then County Committee sometimes then City Committee They plan nominations 0 At the national level they plan the National Conventions Come up with the party platform elect people to be on committee nominate the president announcing the results of the primaries and caucuses 0 Parties do some recruiting for their candidates 39 getting out the vote l a People elected under the party s label They try to pass the policies their party wants them to enact These policies are known as the lwlli9 r wn39m Parliamentary government is way stronger than American party system quot1 9th 1 Elem party identification and the party base o Party in the voters o Party identification find out on the seven point scale Characteristics of the US Party System Does the US have two distinct political parties o The US only has two major political parties at any given time o The US doesn t have two distinct political parties however o Reason we get this is because of the evolution Evolution of the US parties the five party eras critical elections realignment dealignment 1 1 1 i H A Jimy 0 One party is more in power than the other and people tend to sway towards one party as a whole than the other o Party era one federalists dominated o Then first critical election of 18241828 0 Quincy Adams vs Andrew Jackson 0 Old ways vs New ways 0 Democrats vs FederalistsWigs mi ilquotl1lll il El 7i waliftclhl iin i il il fit o Party era two Democrat d mination o Next critical election of 18581860 0 Mid term presidential eletion o Party era three Republicans o Slavery is big issue 0 Abolitionists Old Wigs New Black votersRepublicans 0 Pro Slavery SouthernersDemocrats o Critical election of 1896 o All about the economy 0 Poor vs the Rich 0 Farmers vs Tycoons o Party era four Republican Critical election 1932 0 Great depression was the big issue 0 This is when African Americans became democrats women more republican Party era five New Deal Democrats Critical election 1964 0 Death of Kennedy Civil Rights Act Party era six 0 White southern men changed from democratic to republican 0 Women changed to democratic people back out of the party system all together Two major parties make rules to deliberately not allow third parties to exist for long on l39i39il E Tli3 after critical election voters switch from one party to the other usually because parties pick up big issues iii 52 il in in him in quotr 1232013 113300 PM 1232013 113300 PM Lecture 8 Elections 1162013 121200 AM The Elements of Campaigning Nominations types of primaries open closed blanket frontloading o First thing candidate has to think about is getting nominated O O O O O O O O O O beginnin system to choose candidates Progressive invention where election before election to choose who the candidates will be in the general election Have very low turnout extreme partisans usually are the ones who turn out Didn t come into use until early 1970 s Traditionally states make their own election laws States have different kinds 39 will only partisans can vote Iowa usually has closed primary system common were places are strong partisan allow people other than partisans to participate Less common in states New Hampshire is open primary n Independents do better in New Hampshire at Eli l i39l39i il all the candidates in one primary Parties hate blanket primaries Washington state and California straw pole and move around the room Come from the idea of an old town meeting A lot of states change from caucus to primary Split into mainly towns or precincts Usually combination of money and signatures to get candidates on the ballot New Hampshire and Iowa are first by tradition After that states choose where they go were states try to schedule their primaries in the so they have more influence on the nomination process States would schedule their primaries so fast that we would know who the nominee was really quick Candidates try to win early primaries and caucuses to get momentum 0 They get more money that way Money is very important to elections because candidates have to pay for staff and traveling expenses 0 Can drop good candidates right away and leave the rich not as good ones 0 Creates campaign fatigue Campaign to get nomination ends quickly big lull until general election in September Attracting party voters and swing voters Party conventions usually where the candidate is announced platforms are laid out and keynote speeches are made End of July and Early August After conventions is where typical kickoff of general election happens Thinking about how to target voters at this time 0 V don t have to convince them who to vote for just convince them to vote Call them drop literature at their door offer them rides to the polls Get Out The Vote quot239 roughly 13 of voters that are undecided Convince them you re the right candidate 0 o Opposntion research doing research on the opposing candidate to try to find the skeletons in their closet 0 Ex Collin Powell didn t want to run because of this o Campaigns save it up so when they need it o Also do oppo research on themselves to know what to expect Valence position and wedge issue issue ownership v has 1 ww l lflquotil39lll where party is scene as most established on an issue 0 Ex Republicanslower taxes Democratssocial security 0 Candidates try to steal issue ownership Ex Bush the republican and No Child Left Behind in education o 5 iii issues that everyone agrees with 0 Ex ending breast cancer Michelle Obama and healthy food program v 7 parties have different ideas about how those issues should be handled controversial 0 Ex Abortion Gays Social Security 39 issues where partisans disagree 0 Candidates worst nightmare hardest thing for them to do 0 Ex Republicans and Gay Rights Democrats and Gun Rights Media negative advertising debates and hard and soft media c Free v Paid Media 0 Reagan Morning in America 0 Clinton It s the economy stupid 0 Debates are also free media Debates on TV since 1960 KennedyNixon debate a In black and white people who watched it said Kennedy won people who listened to it said Nixon won looks played huge role 0 Paid media advertising Goal is to get replay of the add Ex Daisy girl add and Lyndon Johnson Willy Horton add and George HW Bush o Does negative advertising have an effect 0 Some people argue they turn voters off of voting 0 Some people say adds stick in their mind hum distinguishing between themselves and other candidate tend to come out at the end of election 0 Ex Willy Horton add o Some people argue that negative adds inform voters while other people argue negative adds make people less likely to vote negative impact HEW 7 going on talk shows or SNL type shows 0 Ex Clinton going on Arsinio Hall playing his saxophone 0 People can put more constraints on what people can ask 0 Soft talk about candidates positions 0 More control o Hard Media opposite of soft media televised debate Money hard and soft money campaign finance reform FECA AND BRCA issue advocacy ads o Up until around 1972 candidates would get money from whoever and wherever o Started to bother people influence of companies and unions were overriding influence of ordinary people o eiral ElJE UElJllW quotgin 1974 came about to limit the flow of money to candidates 0 Made candidates report how much money they got and where they got it from 0 Put limits on how much money they could get from various sources That was the money they had to spends Established the Federal Election Commission FEC government agency that keeps track of how much money candidates take in and where they got it from 0 Created public funding system for presidential elections o Political Action Committees PAC s had to form up to stay within legal limits of FECA O O 0 Part of election not specific campaign 0 Typically spent on commercials 39ji Commercials cant say vote for or vote against 0 Biggest spenders of soft money is mostly national parties o Multiple laws were created after FECA made the election process very complex o Soft money is spent way more in elections then hard money now o Early 2000 s Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act BCRA goal was to shut off the flow of the soft money 0 Evident now in disclaimers in advertisements has to have web or physical address y a dis 39 o Groups found ways to bubble around the law 0 Ex 501c3 Super PAC s o Citizens United opened up avenues for corporations and unions to start paying into elections again Voting Why Americans don t turn out vote 6 influences on turnout quot laws in US can make it hard to vote y is election day but people are usually working registration laws may nani in iyimli ii o efficacy feel like you really matter people feel that their vote won t make a difference anyway 0 Education has another big impact people feel they are too stupid to vote ii HM fiq 39 a 39lquot l i a Cl ll39 u l ti o Shad o 4E i o More people would talk to one another about elections now people just sit at home and watch tv y practices of voter mobilization are outlawed 3 97 lifllv quot131lq PiE i EECl f o Overtime different generations feel different attachments to political elections Ex WWII and Vietnam era generations had different outlook on government 0 39 m lHQnygmhg 0 Costs of voting are too high and benefits are too low 0 How often are ties broken with one vote Factors in a voting decision o Party Identification o Issues prospective and retrospective voting 0 Prospective voting more active thinkers when making a choice who to vote for o Retrospective look what happened to the candidate in the past Ex You might think about healthcare n Prospective voters would go through each of the candidates and see how they think about the issues Candidates o People look to candidates to be trustworthy honest etc Elections Why have elections The six major functions of elections o 1 Elections select leaders 0 Sometimes may not get the best leaders elections might stray leaders away from running for office o 2 Give us policy direction 0 The people must want my policies since they voted for me 0 Elections give us vague policy direction o 3 Elections help develop citizens 0 Give them a way to participate in their government o 4 Elections inform the public 0 people know more about what is going on when there are elections 0 information can be limited o 5 Elections give outlet for conflict to occur 0 If you don t like what is going on you have a chance to changeit 0 People would go outside of elections to get what they wanted Ex Civil Rights Movement o 6 Legitimation and System Stability 0 We know there will be elections when people disagree they don t get an army to overthrow the government 0 People accept what happens in elections is the legitimate winner Ex 2000 election The Electoral College o Came from Maryland 0 Wanted a system where ordinary people did not have much of a say in who elected the president c There would be a popular election roughly five weeks later electoral college would meet and electors would cast their votes at state capitals in January congress would count electoral college votes not popular election Failed four times 1824 1876 1888 2000 Each state gets a number of votes based off their house members plus senators Highest number of electoral votes is California Texas New York Set of electors that go and vote come from the party that one Then you add up all electoral votes need 270 electoral votes to win If neither get 270 goes to House to pick a winner each state gets one vote i il x 39 39 rialquot ll l lweil mm W l l e doesn t often reflect the popular vote When the elector doesn t vote along their party lines Some states get a lot of coverage in the election while others don t When candidates focus on certain states that is there electoral college strategy 1162013 121200 AM 1162013 121200 AM


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