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Anthropology of Religion

by: Patrick Langworth

Anthropology of Religion 113 142

Patrick Langworth
GPA 3.77


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Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrick Langworth on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 113 142 at University of Iowa taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/228065/113-142-university-of-iowa in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Iowa.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Network performance EJ Jung 90407 Administrative stuff r lowA OCourse questionnaire 0 today after class OScheduling o Midterm Tuesday Oct 16 530730pm at 14OSH OWhat do you want to know about networks OCan t help with personal computers Reca p Ohome network Opacket switching vs circuit switching OFDM vs TDM Opacket switching vs TDM it Home networks Typical home network components 9 DSL or cable modem 9 routerfirewallNAT 9 Ethernet 9 wireless access 3 point Q lt6 wi reless V Ia 1390 s fi mzm cable P P modern 39 headend firewall I Wireless access Ethernet point ii ircuit Switching FDM and TDM Em FDM 4users II time TDM time mm N umerical example Q How long does it take to send a file of 640000 bits from host A to host B over a circuitswitched network All links are 1536 Mbps Each link uses TDM with 24 slotssec 500 msec to establish endtoend circuit 9 1536 Mbps24 slotssec64kbps 9 640000 bits64000bps 10 secs 905 sec to set up 10 secs to transmit the file 105 secs Packet Switching Statistical Multiplexing 100 ATbs Ethernet statistical multiplexing g D 3c DDDDIIIIDDDD f 15 Mbs B queue of packets waiting for output be 3 Sequence of A amp B packets does not have fixed pattern bandwidth shared on demand statistical multiplexing TDM each host gets same slot in revolving TDM frame PacketSWItchIng storeandforward R R R Otakes LR seconds to Example transmit push out 9 75 Mbits packet of L bits on to R 1 5 Mb link at R bps transmissior sdela 15 9 store and forward entire y sec packet must arrive at router before it can be transmitted on next link 9 delay 3LR assuming zero Propagation delaY more on delay shortly Packet swntchlng versus CerUlt swrtching Packet switching allows more uses to use network 9 1 Mbs link 9 each user 100 kbs when active active 10 of time O circuitthchng 10 users 9 packet switching with 35 users probability gt 10 active at same time is less than 0004 1Mbps link P7 how did we get value 00004 Vista Packet swntchlng versus CerUlt swrtching Is packet switching a slam dunk winner 9 great for bursty data 0 resource sharing 0 simpler no call setup 9 excessive congestion packet delay and loss 0 protocols needed for reliable data transfer congestion control 9Q How to provide circuitlike behavior 0 bandwidth guarantees needed for audiovideo apps 0 still an unsolved problem chapter 7 Q human analogies of reserved resources circuit switching versus on demand allocation packet switching THE quot i mInternet structure network of networks 9 roughly hierarchical O at center tier1 ISPs eg Verizon Sprint ATampT Cable and VWrebssL na onthterna onalcoverage o treat each other as equals prowders interconnect peer privately Tier 1 ISP Internet structure network of networks O Tier 2 ISPs smaller often regional ISPs Connect to one or more tier1 ISPs possibly other tier2 ISPs Tier 2 ISPs also peer privately with each other Tier 2 ISP pays tier 1ISP for connectivity to rest of Internet El tier 2 ISP is cusfamzr of tier 1 provider r in FHE N rrEfE39vSXInternet structure network of networks O Tier 3 ISPs and local ISPs last hop access network closest to end systems connecting them to rest of Internet Uliikgiwlnternet structure network of networks O a packet passes through many networks 1111 Chapter 1 roadmap or lowA 11 What is the Internet 12 Network edge El end systems access networks links 13 Network core El circuit switching packet switching network structure 14 Delay loss and throughput in packetswitched networks 15 Protocol layers service models 16 Networks under attack security 17 History How do loss and delay occur packets queue in router buffers 9 packet arrival rate to link exceeds output link capacity 9 packets queue wait for turn packet being transmitted delay packets queueing delay free available buffers arriving packets dropped loss if no free buffers mm Four sources of packet delay 9 1 nodal processing 92 queueing check bit errors time waiting at output determine output link link for transmission depends on congestion level of router transmission lt propagation gt processing queueing u 39ivi Delay in packetswitched networks or lowA 3 Transmission delay 9 Rink bandwidth bps O Lpacket length bits Otime to send bits into link LR transmission 4 Propagation delay 9d length of physical link Os propagation speed in medium 2X108 msec O propagation delay ds Note 5 and R are vey different quantities lt propaga tion gt processing queueing or lowA tencar 10 caravan boom 9 cars propagate at 100 kmhr Otoll booth takes 12 sec to service car transmission time Ocarbit caravan packet 9Q How long until caravan is lined up before 2nd toll booth 1145922 Caravan analogy s lOOkm gt 100km7 a toll booth OTime to push entire caravan through toll booth onto highway 1210 120 sec OTime for last car to propagate from lst to 2nd toll both 100km100kmhr 1 hr 9A 62 minutes umCaravanjnalogy more emu 55 100km gt 100km7 ill fencar toll toll caravan booth booth quot OYes After 7 min lst car at Cars OW Propagate at 2nd booth and 3 cars still at 1000 kmhr lst booth OToll booth now takes 1 O lst bit of packet can arrive min to service a car at 2nd router before packet 9Q Will cars arrive to 2nd is fully transmitted at lst booth before all cars router serviced at lst booth See Ethernet applet at AWL Web site trial Nodal delay or lowA dnodal dproc d d queue d trans prop O dIDroc processing delay typically a few microsecs or less Odqueue queuing delay depends on congestion Odtrans transmission delay LR significant for lowspeed links Odpmp propagation delay a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs l UNikasnv OFWQueueing delay revisited queau rrlagggalay O Rink bandwidth bps O Lpacket length bits 9 aaverage packet arrival rate traffic intensity LaR O LaR 0 average queueing delay small 9 LaR gt 1 delays become large 9 LaR gt 1 more work arriving than can be serviced average delay infinite l m UNlVEIElTV Realquot Internet delays and routes OWhat do real Internet delay amp loss look like 9 Traceroute program provides delay measurement from source to router along endend Internet path towards destination For all i destination sends three packets that will reach router ion path towards router iwill return packets to sender sender times interval between transmission and reply prob s Real Internet delays and routes traceroute gaiacsumassedu to wwweur ecomfr Three delay measurements from gaiacsumassedLi to cs gwcsumassedu 1 csgwg128119240254 1ms 1ms 2ms 2 border rtfa510gwumassedu 928119 3 45 3 chtvbnsgwumassedu 128119 13 4 jn1 019worvbnsnet 204 5 Jn1so70 00waevbnsnet 6 39 22 7 22 ms 22 ms transoceanic 8 1 6ms I k 9 s102ms104ms m r1frgeaninet 2 010 12 nion2055irenaterfr 1935120613 13 nicecssirenaterfr 1 522098102 14 r3t2nicecssirenaterfrg 95220 ms 6ms 124 ms 15 eurecomvalbonner3t2 tnet193485054 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms 16 19421421125 19421421125 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms 7 2 2 2 N 1g means no response probe lost router not replying 19 fantasiaeurecomfr19355113142 132 ms 128 ms 136 ms twat Packet loss or lowA Oqueue aka buffer preceding link in buffer has finite capacity Opacket arriving to full queue dropped aka lost Olost packet may be retransmitted by previous node by source end system or not at all buffer Wai ng area packet being Transmitted packet arriving to full buffer is os 7 Throughput O throughput rate bitstime unit at which bits transferred between senderreceiver o instantaneous rate at given point in time 0 average rate over onger period of time server sends bits pipe that can carry pipe that can carry fluid into pipe fluid at rate fluid at rate RS bitssec RC bitssec at Throughput more or lowA ORS lt RE What is average endend throughput b0 ffeneck 39nk 7ink on endend path that constrains endend throughput US51me Throughput Internet scenario or 1mm Operconnection end end throughput minRCRsR1O Oin practice RC or R5 is often bottleneck 10 connections fairly share backbone bottleneck link R bitssec 15


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