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Elementary Psychology

by: Donny Block

Elementary Psychology 031 001

Marketplace > University of Iowa > Psychlogy > 031 001 > Elementary Psychology
Donny Block
GPA 3.53

Robert Thunhorst

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About this Document

Robert Thunhorst
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donny Block on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 031 001 at University of Iowa taught by Robert Thunhorst in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/228097/031-001-university-of-iowa in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
112 Achievement Goal Theory 0 Focuses on how success is defined by the individual and within the environment 0 3 goal orientations individual 0 Mastery desire to learn new knowledge or skills 0 Egoapproach competitive orientation focuses on being judged favorably relative to other people 0 Egoavoidance avoid negative judgements by oneself or others 0 What do the orientations predict o Mastery exams are a positive challenge enjoy course unrelated to performance 0 Egoapproach o Egoavoidance perceive exams as anxiety provoking low interest and enjoyment of course slightly poorer grades 0 Motivational climate environment 0 Egoinvolving climate I Performers are compared with one another I Urged to compete I Best performers get most attention 0 Masteryinvolvingclimate I Effort enjoyment of activity and personal improvement are emphasized and rewarded 0 Effects of motivational climates o Ego I Leads to belief that ability leads to success I Satisfaction is gained by outperforming others rather than through skill improvement 0 Mastery I Faster higher intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of the setting I Enhance perceptions of learning and mastery I Performance anxiety is low I Result in better skill development 0 Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation o In doing something for its own sake 0 Ex doing something for an external reward 0 Which orientation is best 0 Combination of mastery and egoapproach o Intrinsic mastery o Extrinsic egoapproach o Egoavoidance bad 0 Effects of rewards on motivation 115 Type of task Type of reward OOO Expectation o Contingent on performance Achievement motivation in the real world 0 Cognitively stimulating environment fosters intrinsic motivation Rewarding successes increases motivation to succeed Ignoring achievement and punishing failure increases fear of failure OOO Encouraging mastery of skill develops mastery orientation Sherrington on reflexes o Innate they lack spontaneity o Stimulus bound 0 Stereotyped Instinct behavior characteristic of a species that is possessed by all members of species 0 Instincts are innate Darwin 0 Primary motivations to survive o If animals have instincts why not people William McDougall primary human instincts o Instinct I Repulsion I Parental o Emotion I Disgust I Tenderness Freud two basic instincts 0 Life eros nurturing behavior 0 Death thantos aggression behavior We do things without knowing why 0 Bad impulses repression9 sublimation Drive reduction theory exhunger Bodily deflect calories9 J 39 39 Homeostasis how body keeps your internal variables regulated Istate9 39 39 quot n I goal food Primary drives innate vs secondary drives learned Incentive learned properties of the goal Intrinsic motivation o Konrad Lorenz I Imprinting on geese 0 Increasing tendency to perform a behavior as a function of the time since it was last performed 119 Stress 0 Stress process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges 0 Types of stressors I Distant traumatic experiences that occurred in the past but continue to affect person emotionally I Chronic usually do not have an end in sight I Acute stressor that does have an end in sight and can range in severity 0 Stress response the pattern of physiological cognitive and behavioral reactions to demands that exceed a person s resources 0 Under stress sympathetic nervous system produces a number of effects fightflight I Increase heart rate and blood pressure I Increase catecholamine secretion by adrenals I Increase respiration I Blood is diverted to muscle tissues I Decrease digestion I Eyes dilate o Hans Selye general adaption syndrome I Phase 1 alarm reaction mobilize resources I Phase 2 resistance cope with stressor I Phase 3 exhaustion 0 Stress and immune system I Acute stress mixed results dependent on length and severity of stressor 0 Brief stressors more susceptible to viral but not bacterial infections I Chronic stress clear negative impact on immunity I Distant stress no current impact on immunity 0 Hassles homework and uplifts understanding material I Hassles are better predictors of psychological and physical health than major life events I Contrary to expectations uplifts did not seem to have much of a buffer effect 1110 and 1112 See notes 1116 Intelligence Wechsler defined intelligence as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with hisher environment Intelligence based on ability 0 Fluid intelligence ability to learn and problem solve o Crystallized intelligence the sum of what you know Measuring intelligence 0 Aptitude test I Test designed to predict person s future performance I Aptitude is the capacity to learn 0 Achievement test I Test designed to assess what a person has learned 0 Intelligence tests often have subscales Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Subtests o Verbal comprehension I Vocab information similarities o Perceptual organization I Picture completion block design matrix reasoning 0 Working memory I Arithmetic digit span letternumber seguencing 0 Processing speed I Digit symbolcoding object assembly Interpreting IQ scores 0 Mean 100 SD 15 0 Scores follow normal distribution I 64 of population between 85 and 115 o Intellectualdisability I Lowest 1 of population I Test scores combined with difficulty adapting Things that can influence IQ testing 0 Prior testing 0 Medication 0 Educational history 0 Significant medical events Howard Gardner s theory of multiple intelligences


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