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by: Marlen Graham


Marketplace > University of Iowa > Liberal Arts > 145 145 > HEALTH CHANGING SOC
Marlen Graham
GPA 3.68


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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marlen Graham on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 145 145 at University of Iowa taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/228098/145-145-university-of-iowa in Liberal Arts at University of Iowa.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
BRIGGS WOODS COUNTY PARK HAMILTON CO IOWA Water Monitoring Project core WMPl W50000 drilled 521 5302001 SW SE NW SW NW sec 17 T88N R25W elevation 1085 ft estimated from topo ma core log by Brian Witzke completed 652001 descriptions supplemented with onsite notes by Bill Bunker Bob McKay Greg Ludvigson NX core 2 inch diameter 100 core recovery unless noted abbreviations used ft 7 feet mm 7 millimeters cm 7 centimeters Xf 7 eXtremely ne grained siltsized and smaller vf 7 very ne grained f 7 ne grained m 7 medium grained c 7 coarse grained XllIl 7 crystalline v 1t 7 very light ltm light to medium dk 7 dark gr 7 gray gm 7 green brn 7 brown yel 7 yellow org 7 orange calc 7 calcitic or calcareous sl 7 slightly arg 7 argillaceous clayey sc 7 scattered cm 7 common S 7 smooth chert dense noncalcareous T 7 tripolitic chert slightly porous calcareous to dolomitic QUATERNARY 062 ft See descriptive log by D Quade MISSISSIPPIAN ST LOUIS PELLA FORMATION S UNDIFFERENTIATED 620685 ft No Sample Driller reports bedrock top at 62 ft weathered shale and broken limestone bottom of Quaternary core at 62 ft contains 2 12 inch chunk of limestone vltbm dense Xf Xlln 685700 ft 11 ft recovered Sandstone vfsand and silt vltbmpale gray calcitecemented hard quartz grains subangular to subrounded top 03 mm preserves thin remnant of limestone at top of sandstone bedding surface dense Xf Note footages on boxes labeled 70875 ft are discordant with core recovery and other labels 7080 ft with 78 ft core recovery 80875 also noted as 878 ft with 95 ft core recovery therefore 70875 ft interval with total 173 ft recovery 99 recovery footages adjusted below to re ect actual thicknesses and recovery 700707 ft Siltstone to vfsandstone lt yel org sl calc sl arg 707759 ft Shale It In greengray to m gr chunky clay shale sl silty sl calc sccm disseminated pyrite mmsized blebs 713 ft with fractured Xf limestone clasts may be caving 759774 ft Sandstone vlt org brn to It gr silty to vfat top vffbelow sl calc to calc part friable at top increasingly calccemented downward irregular contact at base with 1 12 inch relief 774782 ft Limestone vltpale brn gr dense Xf Xlln pyrite fracture ll 1 inch diameter sandstone lling at 776 ft 782794 ft Sandstone vltpale gr some yel org oxidized areas dominantly vf with common coarse silt grains hard calccemented sc pyrite cements in small areas to inch diameter 794801 ft Sandstone vlt gr vf and silt becomes vff in lower part similar to above unit but less calccemented sc dense limestone atpebble intraclasts 12 inches diameter noted between 797800 ft 801819 ft Sandstone lt gr to vlt orggr mottled vf and coarse silt calccemented contains sl angular to rounded clasts atpebble in part of pale brn gr limestone 2 12 inch clast near top of unit sc M to 1 12 inch clasts through rest of unit 812 ft with inch chert clast S dkbmlt gr 812819 ft with mgrltm gmgr arg and shaley void and fracture lls to 1 inch irregular base Note interval 819894 ft probably represents a breccia with come core units described below representing larger clasts within the breccia 819824 ft Dolomite vlt brn gry calc dense sl brecciated in lower half irregular base 824840 ft Sandstone lt gr vfand coarse silt sc fgrains calccemented sc pyrite spots and cements irregular mass of limestone at 827832 dense xf 83384 part brecciated with sc limestone clasts Mi1 inch m grngrarg and shaley lls 8367 with irregular chert clasts to 1 inch lt grdk bmgr S 840852 ft Broken core some core loss label includes 85 ft run Upper half includes sandstone vff limestone clast or bed near top Middle 2 inches is shale ltm gr soft and clayey Lower half is sandstone vff calccemented dense limestone clasts in basal part 22 inch diameter 852858 ft Sandstone vf to silty calccemented grades into very sandy limestone irregular contact near top overlain by thin sandstone vff limestone clasts 859875 also listed as 878 Breccia matrix ofvff calc sandstone clast dominated interval with clasts to 3 inches clasts of calc dolomite vlt bm lower 06 ft with irregular clasts Mi3 inches of xf dolomitic limestone greengray shaley lls 875882 ft Breccia clastdominated Mi2 inches clasts include lt brn calc dolomite to dolomitic limestone mbm to dkgr dolomite matrix sandstone vf calc irregular base 882894 ft upper 05 ft dolomite vlt bm calc abundant stylolites sandy stylolite near middle small dolomitic limestone clats Ms 12 inch at base Remainder is breccia clasts Mi2 inches of limestone and calc dolomite ltdk gr vf sandstone matrix calc top of breccia with irregular interswirled calc dolomite sylolites 894913 ft Dolomite vlt brn calc dense stylolite 897 grades downward to dolomite sl calc to noncalc lt bmgr lower 07 ft with pinpoint porosity and small pores lt1 mm part calcite lled 913915 ft Sandstone vff part calccemented 915917 ft Dolomite vlt bm calc interswirled with vf sandstonesiltstone contains 1 x 2 inch lt gr dolomite clast with minor pinpoint porosity base irregular with ripup clasts of underlying lithology 917925 ft Dolomite lt brngr very sandy vf to silty calc grades into sandstonesiltstone very dolomitic top 1 inches is calc dolomite with dk arg streaks altematilng downward with thin sandy streaks sharp irregular base 925930 ft Dolomite calc grades downward into dolomitic limestone lt bm sandy streaks near top interval includes porous discontinuous fractures to 12 inch long and large 2inch pyritelined vug brecciated near base with sandysilty matrix clasts to 1 inch 930936 ft Dolomite lt bmgr calc vf sandy to silty through increasing sand downward top with pale brn dense limestone clasts 936938 ft Breccia clasts ofvlt brn calc dolomite and porous ltm bmgr dolomite 22 inches siltysandy matrix 938940 ft Sandstone vff calc increasingly arg and silty downward faintly laminated inclined 30 940965 ft Dolomite calc vltlt bmgr part arg top 3 inches with porous fractures below dolomite becomes very silty to sandy vf approaches sandstonesiltstone at 95 arg stylolites at 954 958 962 irregular large clast of white or pale gr xf dense limestone at 956958 1 inch lt gmgr shale at 950 9651004 ft Breccia 2 inch clasts ofpale gr xflimestone part sandy and ltbmbmgr calc dolomite to dolomite nonsandy clasts subangular to rounded matrix of calc dolomite lt brngr part silty to vf sandy sl arg to arg scattered stylolites through interval 972979 is dolomite lt brn calc v silty breccia matrix with no clasts 10041026 ft Dolomite calc v sandy grades downward into sandstonesiltstone lt gmgr calc dolomitic arg irregular small pale brn dolomite clasts sccm through Az llz inch diameter most common 1011014 top 112 inches of unit is calc dolomite pale to It brn and 1t gmbm 10261050 ft Siltstone to vf sandstone ltm grngr some irregular m grngr mottles and swirls arg V arg top 06 ft sl calc or dolomitic 1046105 with angular dolomite clasts ltm brngr laminated Azllz inch 10501085 ft poor recovery broken core 22 ft recovered Sandstone vff minor m to siltstone sl calc or dolomite lt grngr pale gr sandy dolomite clasts to inch near top sc small dolomite clasts in middle with dr grn arg streaks dominantly soft arg siltstone in lower half interval is sl porous and not well indurated 10851115 ft Dolomitic sandstone and v sandy dolomite ltltm grn gr arg irregular small dolomite clasts 1 mm to 1 inch at 1095 1105 11111115 top 1 ft with mgrained sand stringers vff grain size increases downward fm lower 2 ft is more sandy sandstone f m sc c quartz and carbonate grains sharp basal contact AUGUSTA GROUP Warsaw Keokuk formations undifferentiated 11151135 ft Dolomite sl calc to calc ltm brngr valln with some mc calcite pin point porosity lt1 mm pores through most of unit many calcite lled sc fracture and void lls cm upper 1 ft lt grngr arg sandy dolomite lls from unit above lower 07 ft with sccm dk phosphatic grains medium sandsize to 3mm and glauconite 015 ft above base with abundant phosphatic grains includes 12 inch cladodont shark tooth sharp irregular base concentration of glauconite pellets at base some replaced skeletal grains 11351243 ft Shale m grngr primarily noncalc clayey chunky non ssile part sl silty sc slickensides through unit top 4 inches is v arg grngr calc dolomite dk grn shale streaks upper 1 ft sl micaceous and glauconitic in upper 5 ft sc irregular mdk brn mottlings burrows noted 1191243 12011209 is dolomiticcemented arg silty shale irregular base probably represents dolomite nodule margin 1 cm pyrite concretion at 1153 sc pyrite lower 4 ft 12431248 ft Shale m gr contains large clasts to 23 inches ofcalcitecemented sandstonesiltstone vff siderite nodule 1 inch with pyrite coat irregular surface at base with sc rounded black phosphatic grains 12 mm 1248125 ft Dolomite m brngr v arg silty sc pinpoint porosity sc phosphatic and glauconitic grains at top 125126 ft Dolomite m brngr argvarg Xfvf Xlln lightercolored dolomite clasts sc through angular to subrounded 121 inch dark arg laminations in lower part at 45 angle 1 inch calcite void ll at 1254 gradational below 1261268 ft Dolomite mdk brngr vaff Xlln arg lower half is brecciated with angular to rounded clasts 2 inches of calc dolomite calcite fracture lls and dkgr arg to shaley material between clasts 12681307 ft Breccia limestone clasts in matrix ofcalc dolomite limestone dominated pale to It brn and brngr Xf cm calcite fracture lls clasts 2 to 5 inches some inclined 274 277 clast is rotated 40 irregular faint laminations limestone clast at 1284 contains smaller brecciated clasts internally 110 mm diameter matriX of calc dolomite ltm brngr part arg to shaley contains smaller clasts of limestone and calc dolomite 1 mm to 2 inches matrix dominated at 12721276 12771279 12821286 1296130 arg to shaley basal 03 ft gradational below 13071349 ft Limestone pale to vlt brn dense Xf broken and part brecciated top 04 ft and 1325329 prominent stylolite at 13181323 with thick to 1 inch thick calcite ll arg stylolites and arg streaks at 1337 1342 1344 1346 bottom 01 ft with irregular shaley partings 13491356 ft Dolomite m brn gr arg valln dk gr shaley partings at top and 1352 lower 04 ft with large clasts to 4 X 1 inches of dolomitic limestone irregularly laminated and containing small intraclasts gradational below 13561441 ft Dolomite ltmm bmgr sl calc Vfleln dense minor pinpoint and intercrystalline porosity most porosity occluded by calcite spots lls and poikilotopic cements stylolites at 1407 1429 1433 dkgr sc small pores 12 2 mm 14271429 dolomite becomes lt bmgr in lower 1 ft 1441145 ft broken core at top 075 ft recovered Dolomite ltmm brngr Vfleln minor shaley llings basal 03 ft solid core dolomite Vltgr XfVf Xlln sl calc dense calcite fracture lls stylolite at base 1451459 ft Breccia clasts of dolomite ltgr Xf dense clasts 1 IIIIIIllz inches matriX of dolomite Vlt bmgr dense top 03 ft with calc dolomite matrix ltm bm calcite lls gradational below 14591470 ft Dolomite Vlt brn gr dense Xf V sl arg irregular dark mottles and streaks sl brecciated at base small clasts 110 mm gradational below 14701494 ft Breccia matriXdominated calc dolomite lt bm pt sl sandy clasts top 1 ft are small 2 mmllz inch lt bmgr dense includes m bmgr part porous clasts 1475148 top 06 ft with open fractures especially near top 148149 breccia with smaller clasts most 15 mm mbm dolomite clasts sccm in ltm brn calc dolomite matrix fm XllIl calcite sc through 148 with quart chalcedony particles 13 mm 1491494 includes larges clasts to 112 inch sc semitranslucent clasts of chalcedony 14941510 ft Dolomite ltm bmgr calc Vfm includes calcite cements top 05 ft with internal lls oflimestone and calcite 14981502 with sc small clasts lt1 mm3 mm 1505151 sc small clasts 15 mm 15081509 with irregular laminations stylolite at 1505 inch dark shaley parting at base ofunit 15101538 ft Dolomite calc to dolomite limestone Vltbmbmgr XfVleln dense top 06 ft with faint small clasts 110 mm and s1 darker internal sediment lls 15161534 dense sl arg faint irregular laminations in middle part 15271529 with irregular elongate clasts 1mm2 inch 15341538 limestone Vlt bmgr thin shaley parting mgr at base 15381550 ft Dolomite sl calc to V calc dense Xf Vfm calcite cements top 04 ft with calc fracture lls and irregular faint laminae three stylolites below 15501582 ft Dolomite Vltlt bmgr V calc dense Vfm XllIl calcite some pinpoint porosity 1564 stylolites at 1555 1558 156 large calcite fracture ll 1571582 chert nodule ltgr S 1 inch diameter at 1579 silici ed ooliticpelletal or coated grain packstone 15791582 with irregular disrupted laminations angled to 45quot SI arg irregular angular contact at base 15821586 ft Shale mgrngmgr claystone noncalc slickensides 158615905 ft Limestone pale bm dense Xf stylolites irregular laminations basal 112 inch is shale ltmmgmgr silty calc 1590515945 ft Limestone Vltbm dense Xff Xlln ne calcite fractures faint laminations lower part possible oncolitic fabric in middle part 159451599 ft Dolomite lt brngr calc Xff irregular faint laminae sc indeterminate small inclusions 051 mm of pale gr mineral possibly chalcedony common at top and bottom 15991604 ft Dolomite Vlt bmgr Vf faintly laminated part with arg laminae top inch and bottom inch are shale m gmgr sl calc to calc 16041634 ft Dolomite Vlt bmgr XfVleln sl calc becomes more calc downward sl arg to arg more arg 1621627 faint laminae scattered through spaced 110 mm part arg 16151619 large calcite nodules or void lls fc Xlln includes white chalky lling and minor Vltgr chertchalcedony with ne agatelike banding interbedded thin shales noted at 1611 1 inch laminated dkgmgrbmgr noncalc 16191621 mgmgr calc 1628 Winch grn laminated shale grn arg to shaley laminae at 16311632 16341670 ft Dolomite vlt bmlt bmgr Xf with vfm calcite and poikilotopic calcite part sl arg top 14 ft with irregular laminations spaced 13 cm horizontal to lowangle 20quot 1639 shaley parting 16481658 with sc irregular nodular forms more calcitic than matrix 2 to 2 inch 1657 1664 prominent sylolites basal 01 ft includes green shaley streaks sc pyrite 15 mm blebs sc black phosphatic grains lt12 mm sh bonescale noted 16701693 ft Dolomite vlt bmgr Xfvf sl calc sl argarg sc stylolites through sc small phosphatic grains lt1 mm at 16735 lower 08 ft with arg stylolitic streaks becomes more arg and calc downward 1 inch calc shale ltm gmgr at base GILMORE CITY FORMATION Humboldt Member 16931706 ft Limestone pale bmbmgr Xf XllIl to sublithographic V dense vertical and subvertical fractures through unit lled with calcite lls to inch wide 17061716 ft Limestone pale bm Xleln to sublithographic V dense common stylolites through vertical calcite fracture lls in lower half 17161721 ft Chalcedonychert white to pale gr Xfvf matriX encloses clasts to 2 12 inch of ltgr calc dolomite cm pinpoint porosity in clasts dk shaley partings at top and bottom note this interval is probably a stratigraphic leak of lower Augusta Group lithologies into voidfracture spaces created during subaerial weathering of the Gilmore City surface 17211761 ft Limestone pale bm dense vff grainstone peloidal minor coatedgrains stylolites at 1735 1741 1747 1759 1721733 with calcite void lls 12 to 1inch diameter 1731761 entire interval is penetrated by large vertical calcite lled fracture fracture thickens downward part of lower 1 ft includes sediment ll argillaceous material with calcite 17611806 ft Limestone pale to vlt bm dense fgrainstone peloidal stylolites at 1763 1771 dkgr shaley 179 dkgr shaley 1794 1797 1801 1803 subvertical calcite fracture ll to 12 inch wide at 17631766 gradational below 18061850 ft 015 ft core missing at base Limestone palevlt bm fm grainstone peloidal fragmented skeletal grains includes c echinoderm grains common stylolites through interval every 0207 ft 18061826 with calcite spots to 2 mm diameter 18501910 ft Limestone vltbm dense fm peloidalskeletal packstonegrainstone calcite cements faint arg streaks at 1876 1878 1893 18971903 stylolites at 1855 186 1872 1884 arg base laminated lt1 mm to 7 mm spacing at 18521878 and 1884 189 laminae marked by alternations of slightly darker coarsergrained limestone laminae spacing show thickening and thinning patterns reminescent of tidal bundling 19101937 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fm and mc packstonegrainstone peloidalskeletal includes common coarse crinoid and sc fragmented brachiopods in thin horizontal stringers within ner limestone faint arg streaks at 1921 19141917 19371950 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fm peloidalskeletal packstonegrainstone stylolites at 1946 base common faint arg streaks and stylolite streaks 19501956 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fc peloidalskeletal and intraclasticoncolitic packstonegrainstone irregular small intraclasts and oncolites algalcoated through unit 225 mm diameter sl irregular base 2 inch relief 19561964 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fc skeletal to oolitic and coatedgrain packstone grainstone sc v small intraclasts 22 mm 19641972 ft Limestone as above but with oncolites to 112 inch common small intraclasts becomes less oolitic downward large gastropod 1 cm near top gradational above and below 19721977 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fm skeletalpeloidal packstonegrainstone no oncolites 19772002 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fc skeletalpeloidal and oncolitic packstone grainstone minor ooids noted sccm oncolites through unit 225 mm horn corals at 1985 2 inch and 1989 112 inch large gastropod at 1996 prominent stylolite at base 20022032 ft Limestone palevlt bm dense fc oolitic and skeletalpeloidal packstone grainstone top 14 ft is ooliticskeletal lower 16 ft peloidalskeletal with sc ooids and sc small intraclasts lt2 mm stylolites at 2005 2015 202 2029 base entire unit with scattered to common calcite lled birdseye fenestrae fenestrate range from 1 mm calcite spots to irregular 15 mm horizontallyelongated void lls 20322047 ft Limestone palevlt bm dense fvc skeletalpeloidal and intraclastic packstonegrainstone most intraclasts are small 14 mm some sc larger mudstone intraclasts 13 cm in upper 07 ft 2037 small cup coral lt1 cm thin stromatoporoid 3 cm and stylolite 2043 brachiopod Conocardium fragment 15 cm intraclast calcite fracture lls sc through 20472075 ft Limestone vlt bm dense vfm peloidalskeletal grainstone common xlln calcite cements top 03 ft with horizontallyalligned calcite lled birdseye fenestrae 12 mm thick up to 12 cm long upper half of unit with common calcite lled subvertical fractures 20752124 ft Limestone vlt bm dense dominatly fm skeletalpeloidal packstonegrainstone with sc to abundant oncolites and intraclasts 2 mm to 3 cm oncolites decrease in abundance downward 2094 may be muddier matrix wackestonepackstone top 07 ft with abundant intraclasts most 13 mm 2082082 with small cup corals 20832101 with cm large mudstone intraclasts some with oncolitic coatings 20932095 common cup corals to 1 cm diameter 2099 brachiopod 2102104 common cup corals to 15 cm diameter some with oncolite coatings 2103 complex oncoliteintraclast with cup coral 2 inch diameter lower 2 ft with fewer but larger oncolitesintraclasts up to 3 inches 21052106 brachiopod and cup coral 1 cm with oncolitic coatings large vertical calcite fracture ll 211212 21242158 ft broken core 2145215 Limestone vlt bm dense fm peloidalskeletal coated grain and ne intraclastic pa 1 tone 39 39 quot 39 39 220 mm sc cm at 21292134 and 2142 stylolites at 2126 2127 2133 2139 2141 base prominent lower 05 ft with calcite lled birdseye fenestral fabric calcite spotsfenestrae 15 mm 21582225 ft Limestone vltbmbmgr dense fm peloidalskeletal and coatedgrain packstonegrainstone stylolites at 2173 2187 2194 dkarg 220 2202 sl arg streak 2216 2221 sl arg 219 to base with darker sl arg streaks every M to 3 inches 22252320 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fm peloidalskeletal packstonegrainstone 225 2298 and lower 07 ft with coarse laminae Mi1 inch of alternating lighter and darker bands re ecting minor variations in grain size may display tidal bundling in part stylolites every 12 to 5 inches many sl arg part with faint arg streaks Note core box labeled 23252425 recalibrated to 2322417 next core box labeled 24252515 but 10 ft core recovered recalibrated to 24172517 to re ect actual core recovery and tagged depths 23202402 ft Limestone vlt bm dense fm peloidalskeletal packstonegrainstone abundant stylolites every 393 inches sl arg 23662373 coarse laminae 12 1 inch between 23442352 alternations of lighter and darker limestone minor grain size variations basal 02 ft with common horn corals to 112 inch possible oncolite 3 cm at base Marble Valley Member upper contact provisional 24022483 ft Limestone vltbmgr dense vfm peloidalskeletal and coatedgrain to oolitic packstonegrainstone coated grains generally decrease downward top 04 ft nergrained than above with sc calcite lled fenestrae calcite spots 14 mm common stylolites top 09 ft additional stylolites 242 2423 243 prominent 2433 sl arg 2435 2454 sl arg 2461 2466 faint 2473 sc coarser grains at 2428243 include crinoid debris 13 mm gradational below 24832526 ft Limestone vltlt brngr dense f m and f vc peloidalskeletal packstone grainstone part with coated grains ooids and intraclasts top 02 ft much coarser than above with coarse crinoid debris to 3 mm sc intraclasts to 8 mm and fragmentary brachiopods 24952496 with sc brachiopod shells to 1 cm 2515 small intraclasts to 4 mm 2518 brachiopods to 25 cm large crinoid columnals to 6 mm gastropod 2518 2522 with sc coarse crinoid debris basal 04 ft ner grained sylolites at 2489 2494 prominent 250 2504 2506 2507 2512 2515 2516 2517 2524 base 25262573 ft Limestone vlt bmltbmgr dense f c mvc skeletaloolitic grainstone skeletal packstone and peloidalskeletalcoated grain packstonegrainstone crinoid debris sccm through interval top 05 ft is ooliticcoated grainskeletal grainstone sc large crinoid debris to 10 mm at base 25312539 sl darker skeletal packstone may include minor wackestone common coarse crinoid debris 110 mm sc brachiopods interval resembles Burlington Fm lithology 2539255 peloidalskeletalcoated grain packstone grainstone sc ooids sc small intraclasts 112 mm increase grain size lower 04 ft I quotT 39 l 39 C M Jim crinoid debris sheet bryozoan to 15 cm 2552573 matrix of peloidalskeletal packstonegrainstone minor coated grain sc to abundant vc crinoid debris 16 mm coarse crinoidal stringers 2552554 2562562 2563 2567 2572571 prominent stylolites at 2531 2539 256 2565 2569 gradational below 25732625 ft Limestone vlt brngr dense homogeneous f c skeletalpeloidal packstone grainstone minor coated grains maXimum grains size N2 mm sc coarse crinoid debris top 06 ft and lower 03 ft stylolite at base 26252640 ft Limestone as above but much coarser and more crinoidal crinoid grains to 8 mm sc brachiopods and bryozoans prominent stylolite at base 26402794 ft Limestone vlt bmvlt brngr dense f m and f c skeletalpeloidal packstone grainstone maXimum grain size 1 mm may include some coated grains below 273 stylolites noted at 2683 faint 2727 prominent prominent dkgr arg stylolites at 2757 2772 2777 2788 2794 limestone is partly recrystallized in basal part Iowa Falls Member Dolomite facies can occur at any stratigraphic position within the Gilmore City Fm dolomite facies in this core are con ned to the lower part of the formation 27942805 ft Limestone dolomitic vlt brngr becomes increasingly recrystallized and dolomitic downward basal part is dolomite sl calc with sc pinpoint porosity 28052845 ft Dolomite ltltm brngr vfleln sl calc to calc sc pinpoint and intergranular porosity espcially 28252839 irregular ltgr calcitic stringers or patches 110 mm thick common in top 1 ft every 1 inch 12 ft below top less common every 12 to 112 inch abundant in basal 07 ft 50 of interval 28452871 ft Dolomite ltmm brngr vff Xlln sl calc irregular calcitic stringers in top 05 ft Dolomite ltmm brngr vf f Xlln sl calc calcitic stringers upper 05 ft sc calcite spots to 1 cm in lower 1 ft abundant pinpoint porosity intercrystalline intergranular sc larger pores to 1 cm 2855 28552857 is a denser dolomite darker with irregular coarse laminae sharp basal contact marked by stylolite 28712902 ft Dolomite dominantly lt bmgr1t mgr vff Xlln top 05 ft is It gr dolomite Xf with large vugs to 112 inch part lined with calcite crystals 2874 with abundant indeterminate tabular molds 315 mm v porous 28762882 with calcitic stringers abundant pinpoint porosity intercrystalline and intergranular between calc stringers decreasing porosity downward sc pores to 1 cm at base 28822902 ltm gr irregular sl arg laminae in ltm bmgr dolomite dense sl arg 29022922 ft Dolomite ltbmgr ltmbrngr in lower 05 ft vff XllIl common pinpoint porosity intercrystalline intergranular partly open fracture in upper 12 ft 29122914 with vugular porisity 515 mm 2918292 with larger pores 29222931 ft Dolomite ltm bmgr vff XllIl sl calc denser than above irregular darker laminae in upper 03 ft open fracture developed through unit arg stylolite at base 29312948 ft Limestone pale brn downward to vlt bmgr dense embedded dolomite rhombs upper part may be a peloidal mudstone lower 05 ft with dolomitic mottling stylolites at 2935 2938 2944 2946 2947 29482963 ft Dolomite ltltm bmgr top 05 ft dense with irregular darker coarse laminae 2953296 increasing porosity downward pinpoint intergranularintercrystalline porosity 2956296 with sc larger pores to 2 mm basal 03 ft is denser and V calc gradational below 29633005 ft Limestone lt brn dense dolomitic primarily fvc skeletalpeloidal and intraclastic packstone top 05 ft V dolomitic 2969 small intraclasts to 8 mm 297 irregular dk mottles 2974 skeletal small brachiopods 29832998 sc to cm brachiopods to 15 cm in stringers whole shells and single valves bottom 06 ft with cm intraclasts or oncolites 115 mm fragmented skeletal material stylolites noted at 2971 2982 2984 2989 2991 2994 2995 base sharp base Note this unit represents an intertongue of Marble Valley limestone within the Iowa Falls dolomite facies 30053016 ft Dolomite v calc lt brn mdk brn top 1 inch intercrystalline pinpoint porosity top 06 ft fractured or brecciated below with vlt brn dolomite clasts M 2 inch massive calcite crystal llings gradational below 30163024 ft Dolomite v calc to dolomitic limestone vlt brn top 112 inch with stylolite and calcite ll to 15 cm 1 22 inch below top with mgr intraclasts 17 mm sharp base 24 inches below top is dense mudstone with sc intraclasts in lower part basal 04 ft contains common intraclasts 115 mm larger clasts may be oncolites two stylolites 1 112 inch above base 30243036 ft Limestone dolomitic vltbrn dense Xfvf less dolomitic downward top 05 ft with arg stylolite streaks and wispy arg partings sc intraclastsoncolites 110 mm sc intraclasts at base to 2 cm and 30323033 arg streak at 3032 lower 03 ft with faint irregular laminae gradational below 30363040 ft Limestone vltbrn Xfvf dense faint irregular laminae lower 1 inch is fvc grains lt1 to 5 mm intraclastic packstone irregular base with 12 inch relief Note this and overlying unit represent a limestone tongue of Marble Valley Mbr MAYNES CREEK FORMATION Upper Member 30403070 ft Limestone vltpale brn dense Xf to sublithographic abundant ne stylolites every 1A2 to 1 inch 3041042 with small intraclasts some at clasts to 2 cm 30433054 abundant stromatolitic crenulations with up to 12 inch amplitude spaced 1 inch lower 16 ft with faint irregular laminations and ne stylolite swarms ne calcite lled fractures terminate upward at upper contact possible mudcracks gradational below 30703084 ft Limestone vltpale brn Xf to sublithographic abundant ne stylolites and stylolite swarms as above faint irregular laminations top 03 ft with sccm small brachiopods to 1 cm and sccm intraclasts gradational below 30843102 ft Limestone vltbrn sl dolomitic to dolomitic dense Xf with vff XllIl dolomite dominantly an intraclasticoncolitic packstone clasts mostly 18 mm some at clasts to 10 mm largest clasts 12 cm 30933095 largest clasts are oncolitees 30863087 sc brachiopods stylolite 3098 sharp base 31023106 ft Limestone pale brn dense Xf to sublithographic common stylolites faint irregular laminations and stylolitic laminae 31063129 ft Limestone vlt bm dolomitic Xf with coarse calcite and vff dolomite rhombs arg stylolite sward at top top 03 ft intraclastic 115 mm 31093115 is limestone fc peloidalskeletal packstone part with small intraclasts and possible coated grains 3115 brachiopod 31153125 is ner grained bottom 04 ft with small intraclastspeloids becomes V dolomitic in lower 2 inches color change at base 31293190 ft Dolomite vltltm bmgr calc becomes less calc downward saccharoidal f and fm XllIl top 22 ft with intercrystalline and pinpoint porosity generally denser below vfleln sc pinpoint porosity stylolites at 3143 315 31613169 contains mgr bands 121 inch thick with ligher horizontal and subhorizontal burrow mottles 3168 irregular dark surface with 112 inch relief and intraclastic ll probable hardground surface 3168 3172 sc intraclasts dominantly 15 mm some up to 13 cm 3134 burrow mottle 314 part silici ed cup coral 3166 fragmentary silici ed cup coral color change at base 31903237 ft Dolomite sl calc ltbmltmbmgr valln denser than above irregular mgr mottlings and coarse laminae at top 31963198 3203 32063207 3223 3229 3232 stylolites at 3203 with calcite lls 3212 gradational below 32373320 ft Dolomite lt bmltm bmgr and mgr Xfvf dense may be sl arg irregular darker laminae through dk laminae are Xf Xlln lighter laminae vf Xlln dk laminae especially prominent below 3257 with most laminae 15 mm thick thicker mgr intervals or coarse laminae at 32973304 331 33143316 with sc lighter horizonal burrow mottles 38 mm diameter and basal 02 ft subvertical burrow 3289 irregular burrow mottles in laminations at 33173319 calcite void lls at 3237 324 3243 calcite crystallined vugs at 3253 3256 3301 3 inch healed calcite fractures at 3282 3294 dark stylolites at 3295 3305 chert nodules ltgr T at 3289 3307 3309 2 inch nodule with dark specks may be silici ed skeletal packstone 33203339 ft Dolomite ltm brnbmgr sl calc dense vff XllIl with minor poikilotopic calcite lighter colored and more coarsely crystalline than above 1 cm pores part calcite lled at top mgr laminae or intraclast at 3323 3331 chert nodule T ltdkgr preserves hummocky strati cation or rippled beform 3332 lens of dolomite with pinpoint porosity near base is large mgr dolomite clast 2 inch calcite void ll 1 inch and wispy arg streak irregular mdkgr surface at base part bored or burrowed probably a compleX hardground surface 33393385 ft Dolomite sl calc Xff XllIl part with coarser calcite part sl arg alternations of lighter and darker dolomite lithologies denser mgr Xf dolomite and ltmbmgr vff dolomite darker intervals noted at top with irregular surfaces part with burrows 3342 3344 coarse laminae part burrowed 33513353 with horizontal and subvertical burrows 33613362 3364 dark laminae 336837 3372 darker surface with horizontal and vertical burrowss irregular darker laminae in lower 13 ft part with sc burrows calcite fracture lls near base stylolites at 3378 3383 possible small chert nodule at base 33853414 ft Dolomite ltltm bmgr part sl calc Xfvf Xlln pinpoint and intercrystalline porosity developed through basal 03 ft with skeletal molds crinoid debris and small pores and vugs to 1 inch irregular faint darker laminations 34043412 thin cherty laminae at 3396 chert nodule 2 inch ltgr ST at 3403 color and density change at 34143459 ft Dolomite ltmbmgr part sl calc part sl arg with irregular mgr laminations commonly spaced 14 mm thicker bands to 1 inch near top of denser dolomite minor intercrystalline and pinpoint porosity in lighter bmgr lithology especially at 34283435 with sc MHz inch calcite crystallined vugs and 3441 arg streak at 3443 stylolites at 3446 3457 partially open fractures in upper 15 ft chert noted at 343 ST part porous 3 inches thick laminated at base f skeletal above 3435344 irregular silici ed mass 3451 ltgr T 3456 calcite lled fracture 34593483 ft Top 06 ft is broken chert vltgr ST remainder is dolomite ltmbmgrmgr Xfvf Xlln mgr lithology occurs as irregular laminae and thicker band 0609 ft below top partially open fractures 34653473 part calcite lled stylolites at 3472 and base 34833539 ft Dolomite dominantly ltmmgr dense noncalc Xleln sl arg with intervals of dolomite ltmbmgr sl calc valln at top 02 ft 35123517 35223523 35343535 top 02 ft is V calc fm calcite with darker intraclasts or burrows to 1 inch stylolite swarms at 3485 3509 3525 common stylolites 34933496 34933505 interval highly fractured calcite lled fractures in upper part lower 08 ft with irregular calcite void lls and crystal linings to 3 inches open fracture 3503 35133519 with irregular dk mottlings and stylolites partially healed fracture 35243528 calcite void lls 12 1 inch basal 05 ft becomes m XllIl with poikilotopic calcite skeletal debris with at pebble intraclasts near base to 15 inches stylolite at base color and density change e ow Lower Member 35393581 ft note tags mark corebarrel runs at 355 ft and 365 ft but this interval bounds a total of 106 ft of core footages have been recalibrated to re ect actual thicknesses Dolomite ltltmbmgr vff Xlln part with poikilotopic calcite cements irregular mgr laminae 35453549 35523555 much of interval is porous with pinpoint porosity and skeletal molds especially in the lower 11 ft includes crinoid debris and brachiopod molds becomes more calcitic at base with nonmoldic calcitic crinoid columnals top 07 ft with fm spherical pores probably oomolds 3562 prominent stylolite irregular dark hardground surface at base with 1 inch relief 35813608 ft Dolomite ltmgr vff XllIl mc calcite calcv calc part with poikilotopic calcite mostly porous with pinpoint porosity and skeletal molds 35843586 brachiopods and crinoid debris part calcitic lower 04 ft with large mgr dense clasts up to 1 X 2 inches probably hardgroundderived basal 03 ft denser with calcitic crinoid debris dense irregular mgr hardground surface at base much denser below 36083674 ft Dolomite ltmbmgrmgr calcv calc dense Xfvalln ne arg and mgr laminae 3643666 thicker mgr bands 1 inch at 3662 burrows and 3666 stylolites at 3613 3622 363 3647 365 3623631 with irregular calcite fracture lls 363 large calcite void ll 3646 calcitic crinoid debris 367136725 skeletal with calcitic crinoid debris base marked by irregular mgr hardground surface dense sl arg 1 inch relief 36743723 ft Dolomite ltbrngr part sl calccalc dense sl arg minor pinpoint porosity top 03 ft 3687 calcitic crinoid debris stylolites at 3712 3719 arg stylolite swarms at 3705 3709 partly open fracture at 3695 12 inch vug 3699 3703721 common calcite void and fracture lls some minor small pores remain un lled irregular darkened hardground surface at base 2 inch relief 37233733 ft Dolomite irregular alternation ofmbmgr and mgr laminae sl arg arg stylolite at 3725 37333750 ft Dolomite ltm bmgr vff Xlln pinpoint and intercrystalline porosity 3742 open fracture 3727373 calcite fracture ll stylolite prominent chert nodules T noted at 373 37363741 broken pale gr minor S some dkgr laminae 37443746 vltgr calcite fracture and void linings 3747375 vltgr 37503848 ft Dolomite ltltm brngr valln part sl calc dense open fractures top 05 ft and 37943799 stylolites at 3755 3757 3776 378 3783 3797 vuggy porosity at 3772 calcite crystallined vugs 3813812 calcite void lls noted at 3757 112 inch 3777 112 inch 3792 3797 3799 38243828 irregular lls to 3 inches 3767 dark mottling common large chert nodules ST paleltgr noted at 3756 2 inch 3761 3765 412 inch 3799380 2 large nodules 3815382 broken nodule with calcite lls 383 212 inch 38353837 3 inch and 38393842 3 inch 38483867 ft Dolomite ltmmbrngr sl calccalc dense sl arg more arg basal 02 ft calcitic crinoid debris in calc dolomite at 3862 3871 3873 3876 38673964 ft Dolomite ltltmbrngr part sl calccalc valln part sl arg mostly dense but with porous intervals top 03 ft is very porous skeletal molds crinoid debris brachiopods part silici ed with porous ltgr chert sc calcite lls porous zones with common pores and fractures at 3896899 open fracture slickensides 3919392 3924 3929 includes large open fracture 3933 39363941 elongate calcite lls at 393 minor pinpoint porosity at 39723977 stylolites at 3867 387 388 390 3933931 arg stylolite swarm 3947 3948 395 dk arg parting at 3911 common large chert nodules lt gr T at 38833884 38943898 5 inch 3905 2 inch 391 112 inch 3918 small nodules lt12 inch 39233927 5 inch 39363939 cm small nodules 121 2 inch calcite ll 394 2 inch irregular nodule 3944 lt1 inch 3945 lt1 inch 3947 1inch 3951 212 inch 39563958 sc small nodules lt12 inch 39593963 4 inch 39644042 ft Dolomite calc to V calc approaches dolomitic limestone downward ltbmgr mostly dense except as noted vff Xlln part sl arg mgr arg streaks at 39663968 39793984 39973998 4002 arg stylolite swarms at 3969397 4001 sc to abundant skeletal debris through most of interval except 3973982 especially coarse calcitic crinoid debris brachiopod at 4023 small cup coral at 403 40124018 is more dolomitic with pinpoint porosity and skeletal molds large open vertical fracture at 40074018 sc calcite void lls at 39773978 4012 sc chert nodules T silici ed skeletal packstone fabrics with crinoid debris brachiopods noted at 3996 112 inch 4027 112 inch darkened irregular hardground surfaces at 3989 4021 40424072 ft Dolomite ltmbmbrngr calc mostly dense sl arg vfleln common arg streaks and arg stylolites through interval stylolites 4042 4047 4048 4049 dark arg stylolites at 4058 406 4064 4072 minor pinpoint porosity at 405 dolomitized skeletal packstones and packstone stringers with calcitic crinoid debris and sc brachiopods noted at 4042 4046 40554056 40694072 sc calcite void lls 1 cm at 4064064 4067 calcitelined vug 1 inch near base sc chert nodules ST vltgr silici fed skeletal packstone dominantly crinoidal with sc brachiopods noted at 405051 4053540555 with small cup coral and 4069407 dark pyritic hardground surfaces developed on dolomitized skeletal packstones in upper part at 4042 and 4046 40724100 ft Dolomite ltm gr minor yelbm in lower part dense Xfvalln sl arg minor pinpoint porosity 40884092 small calcite void lls 4076 common chert nodules T ltgr at 4077 1 inch 408 2 inch 4084084 several nodules 122 inches 40844086 irregular nodules to 3 inch 40924097 v large nodules part sl porous basal 025 ft is arg with open fracture part pyritelined Chapin Member previously assigned formational status the skeletalrich interval above the Prospect Hill Siltstone is here included as the basal member of the Maynes Creek Fm in northern Iowa analogous relationships are seen between Starrs Cave and Wassonville strata in southeast Iowa 41004173 ft Dolomite ltbrngr vfleln part calc variably dense to SI porous interval is 39 39 39 a 39 39 39 39 39 skeletal 39 to packstone includes some dolomitized to calcitic crinoid debris in top 5 ft sc pinpoint and small skeletalmoldic porosity especially in top 1 ft 4154156 41644173 41034115 is very skeletal dominantly a dolomitized packstone cm small cup corals through crinoidrich stringers in lower 08 ft 41664167 with common brachiopod molds fenestellid bryozoans stylolites and arg stylolite streaks at 4102 4115 4121 4125 4127 4135 4141 4145 41474148 415 4117412 with partly open fractures part calcite lled calcite void lls at 4127 1 inch 4137 41514152 to 12 inch pyritelined vug 12 inch at 4167 pyrite cements developed at 41624163 4167 41714173 large vertical fracture developed 4167 4172 calcite lled in lower part open fracture above with pyrite lining darkened surface at 4137 probable hardground 41734176 ft Dolomite mgr V arg with arg streaks through sc crinoid debris lower 112 inch is shaley and pyritic sc dark phosphatic grains to 3 mm at base sharp sl irregular base PROSPECT HILL SILTSTONE 417642l2 ft Siltstone ltmgr sl calc sl arg subangular to subrounded quartz silt grains sc faint horizontal and subhorizontal burrow mottles unit is porous absorbs water DEVONIAN UNNAMED GROUP OF FAMENNIAN STRATA English River Maple Mill interval 42124274 ft Shale ltgrgmgr silty to V silty primarily a chunky mudstone becomes akey thinlyparted shale at 4254265 noncalc through most sl calc or dolomitic in lower 07 ft harder rock middle part and lower 06 ft with sc faint horizontal and subhorizontal burrow mottles sc pyrite cements 41244216 4225 with small pyrite nodules 15 mm top 212 inches is oolitic ironstone very pyritic mostly pyritecemented possible phosphatic cements may be present ooids axseedshaped concentrically laminated pellets are 1112 mm diameter packed ooid mineralogy likely includes pyrite iron oxides apatite gradational contact at base of unit Aplington Dolomite 42744280 ft Dolomite ltgrgmgr v arg shaley in upper half shaley streaks in lower half irregular horizontal and subhorizontal burrow mottling top 2 inches with pyrite cements and large vertical burrows gradational below 42804299 ft Dolomite ltgrbmgr arg mostly dense minor pinpoint porosity top 05 ft with calcite lls and pyrite cements irregular arg swirls may include skeletal debris 42854295 with irregular arg to shaley swirls and streaks stylolites at 4293 4295 lower 04 ft is varg to shaley ltgr pyrite cements 42994308 ft Dolomite ltbmgr sl calc vff Xlln stylolies every 2 to 3 inches stylolite swarm at base skeletal debris in lower 04 ft includes crinoid debris fragmented brachiopods 43084355 ft Dolomite dense interbedded lithologies include vltbrngr v calc dolomite approaches a dolomitic limestone skeletal wackestone to packstone fabrics and v arg dolomite ltgmgr top 1 ft with crinoid debris fragmented brachiopods top 03 ft packstone fabrics 43l543l8 with sc dk grains to 4 mm includes phosphatic grains and sh teeth 43l84328 shaley ltgmgr brachiopod and crinoid debris in lower 03 ft 43284335 interswirled burrowed skeletal dolomite and gmgr arg dolomite 4335 435 dominantly gmgr arg dolomite sc horizontal burrows pyrite cements lower 04 ft includes skeletal packstones swirled and disrupted by burrows in upper part 4354355 dominantly gmgr arg dolomite with two skeletal packstone lenses sc pyrite cements in upper half crinoid debris brachiopods arg stylolite 43554366 ft Dolomite mbmgrdkgr calc fm XllIl c calcite skeletal includes crinoid debris brachiopods arg streaks through common pyrite cements espeically basal 2 inches stylolite 4364 subvertical burrow at top lled with overlying gmgr lithology gradational below 4366445l ft Dolomite ltmbmgrmgr sl calc to calc some poikilotopic calcite cements dense to SI porous pinpoint porosity skeletalmoldic and pinpoint porosity common 44l445l dolomite dominantly displays skeletal pakcstone fabrics vfm Xlln interbeds with thinner more arg dolomite stylolites at 437 4372 4375 4381 4386 439 4398 4426 arg to shaley 4427 4432 swarm 444 4444 calcite fracture ll 43764379 part very pyritic 43914399 small vug 4405 sl irregular base burrrow penetrates below with packstone ll 44514477 ft Dolomite Vltbm Xf leln common pinpoint and skeletalmoldic porosity small crinoid debris molds lt2 mm becomes more arg and less skeletal downward gradational below 44774520 ft Dolomite ltgrngr V arg approaches a dolomitic shale in lower to middle part silty sccm faint burrow mottles through sc small skeletal molds top 03 ft mgr shaley parting at 4484 minor pyrite cementsblebs at 4482 4503 4513 4517 slickensided mbmgr shale in lower 2 inches 45204550 ft TD total depth of core Dolomite dense part arg 4524527 ltmbrn dense with common calcite lls and fractures part calc sc crrinoid debris irregular swirlsmottles possible burrows 4527454l ltmbrn arg with common stylolites minor pinpoint porosity at base 3inch irregular calcite ll 4537 45414547 ltm mgr cm arg stylolites and arg streaks skeletal packstone fabrics calcite void lls 12 1 inch near top basal 03 ft is V calc approaches limestone cm arg stylolites intraclastic clasts 16 mm


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