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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivah Lebsack MD on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASC 300 at University of Kentucky taught by Gregg Rentfrow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/228116/asc-300-university-of-kentucky in Animal Science at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Hams An American Icon We ve all had ham in one way or another Tradition Christmas Ham Easter Ham City Ham Country Ham or Dry cured Ham City Ham Wet cured ham Pumped with a brine Water salt sweetener phosphate nitrite sodium erythorbate spices and seasonings Ways of brining a ham Needle injectors Stitch pumps Artery injection Cover brine Goal to distribute brine evenly throughout the ham Avoid Tiger Stripes uncured spots Tumbling Hams Tumble or Massaging Diffuse brine throughout the ham Increase binding Develops protein exudate to aid binding Increase tenderization Types of Hams Get what you pay for Ham with Natural Juices 185 Protein Very little water added No more than an 8 gain in weight from green weight Ham with Water Added 17 Protein 10 added ingredients No more than an 8 gain Ham and Water Product 17 Protein Water labeled as added Other Types of Ham Canned Hams Boiled Ham Boiled in water Spiral Sliced Ham Semiboneless Ham Usually contains femur bone Bonein Ham Shank and butt halves Boneless Ham Pit Ham Country Ham Dry cured ham e 6 Salt Sweetener Spices Nitrate can make without Box cured 1 week Bag cured 2 d lb 90 100 days to several months ions of t39he iilvorld cured trytype hams are Eroduced dry rigidilnams e called These countries have climates that are optimal for the production of dry cured meats Mild winters and springs hot humid summers gr Virginia North Carolina West Virginia Kentucky Georgia Tennessee Missouri Central and Southern Europe China Kentucky Country Ham Pm quotcars wMv 3P9quot39quot S Country m sjquotquotquot39 L441 m r c s w Eggaman 50m scum Broadbents Br amp B Foods Miller s Country Hams National Numbers Over 35 Country Ham Curers nationally Cure 5 10 of the ham supply Top Ham Producers 1 Smithfield Hams North Carolina 2 Burgers Ozark Country Cured Hams INC Missouri 3 Clifty Farms Tennessee and Kentucky Germany Westphalian Ham and Black Forest Ham 5mwmgv fW m 7 gimp r l V CZ White pigs fed acorns Can be purchased in the US w nk m1 Ham Jinhua Ham 4 1 24 France Bayonne am Wine cured Slightly Sl TlOked and airdried Covered With pork fat and ur Pannage 9 to 10 months old How do make a Country Ham Performed during the Winter months December and January Coolers Salt and sugar will penetrate the ham Other seasoning black amp red pepper typically do not penetrate the ham Curing Important to get enough cure in the hock and around the aitch bone Bone sour is one of the most common problems Allow enough time for the cure to penetrate the ham Most moisture loss After curing hams are sometimes washed before salt equalization Salt Equalization Usually 10 20 F warmer than curing temperature Spring time temperatures 2 to 3 weeks Allow the salt to equilibrate throughout the ham Smoking Hams Smoking occurs after salt equalization Cold Smoke 12 hours to 7 days Cannot let the temperature get above 90 F Kill the enzymes responsible for flavor and aroma Aging aka Summer Sweat Develop flavor and aroma Proteolysis and lipolysis of the protein and fat contribute to the flavor and aroma 50 to 60 Relative Humidity The Law To be labeled a Country Ham Must have lost 18 of its green weight Contain at least 4 salt Problems that occur Mold Growth Common Penicillium Insect damage Larder Beetles Red legged Ham Beetles Cheese Skippers Ham Mites Avoid PSE and DFD hams White specks tyrosine Question 0 Why is a country ham shelf stable Hurdle Technology A way of using several effective preservation technologies to create safe well preserved foods Add Salt Effective bacteriostat and aids in water removal pH Cannot get it low enough to create shelf stability Not vacuum packaged Water Activity Aw Need to reduce the Aw enough to create shelf stability Below 090 Industry Averages Average Aw 088 Range 074 093 Salt content 65 Range 4 97 ph 61