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by: Mittie Jast


Mittie Jast
GPA 3.71


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Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mittie Jast on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Holcomb-Kreiner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/228122/soc-101-university-of-kentucky in Sociology at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
SOC 101 Lecture 1 1212010 35200 PM The Sociologist s Word o Sociology is the study of 0 Social phenomenon 0 Social interaction and social structure 0 Human social life in all its variations o Sociologists 0 Look for social patterns 0 Emphasis on groups not individuals 0 Acknowledges individual variations agency of free will o Young Discipline o Humans have always asked sociological questions 0 Most early sociologists were trained historians philosophers or economists Auguste Comte 17981857 c Considered the founder of modern sociology o Encouraged the scientific method to be applied to social phenomena o Trained as a philosopher and still tended to act that way Emile Durkheim 18581917 c An independent discipline o First academic appointment as a sociologist university of Bordeaux 1887 o Edited the first journal of sociological research o Lasting legacy o Conducted rigorous empirical scientific research 0 Wrote extensively about proper scientific method Rules of the Sociological Method 1895 0 Research on suicide still holds relevance 0 Theoretical contributions are cornerstones of sociology Beyond Common Sense o Tend to not be systematic in our investigation of the social world Authority what we are taughttold Experience Intuitioninsight 0 Reason o Generally works well enough on an individual level Most of the time unaware O O O o Alfred Schutz the world taken for granted o Natural attitude o Sociology challenges this notion of the world taken for granted Sociologists do not stand outside of the social world and do not occupy an elite position within society Sociologists use science to conduct research and theory as a lens to guide and interpret the findings This allows them to achieve objectivity and yet understanding the subjectivity of human social life Science is o A system of discovering knowledge o An old French word derived from the latin scientia knowledge o A process of inquiry 0 Can be thought of as a dialogue because it is subject to revision and rejection as well as acceptance 0 Intended to reduce the errors of everyday perception Theory is o A well substantiated explanation of social phenomena or any natural phenomena o An organizing body of knowledge accepted as valid due to repeated testing and research supporting it as fact o A lens from which one can view the world 0 Reveals different aspects of human life 0 A sociological perspective will help us to see society s and culture s influences on the individual 0 Numerous complimentary theories that deal with certain aspects of social phenomena 0 Easiest way to begin entering the sociologists world Sociological theories o Symbolic interaction microlevel theory small scale o Functionalist theory aka functional analysis macrolevel theory large scale structural o Conflict theory macrolevel theory large scale structural Symbolic interaction o Focuses on how people use symbols to communicate o Asks how people create meaning in their lives o Analyzes the evolution of symbols and meaning o Argues that meaning arises from interaction with others and with objects 0 Social construction Herbert Mead o Developed a comprehensive analysis of how the self and identity develops o mind self society Functionalist theory o Treats society as a whole unit o Functions keeps a society in equilibrium o Dysfunctions harm a society o Durkheim points out that conflict can be functional o Asks what are the consequences of social institutions andor social forces o Durkheim is considered the founder of the functionalist theory Robert K Merton o One of the best known modern functionalist o Manifest and latent functions o Indebted intellectually to Durkheim o Manifest function official reason for existence explicit stated goals o Latent functions unintended happenings side effects intentional but not stated sometimes latent functions are intended Conflict Theory o Believes society is comprised of competing interests o Many form coalitions o May simply oppress to exert power o Focuses on where the power lies in a society or group o Power conflict theory Karl Marx o Originated conflict theory o Focus on economic conflict o Bourgeoisie workers vs proletarians owners Max Weber o Expanded conflict theory o Drew sociologists attention to the complexity of societal and historical change Use theory to guide our research o Describe o Analyze and explain o Predict o The above 3 research objectives are what all agree on o Improving society and bettering human conditions 0 Not agreed upon 0 Many successfully combine scientific inquiry with an aim towards social progress 0 A minority reject this as incompatible with scientific inquiry Influenced by the social milleux into which sociology was born Enlightenment o Science in place of tradition o Emphasis on observation and empirical results o Human rights Industrial revolution o Massive social upheaval and demographic shift o gave rise to progressive movement o emphasis on praxis o most of the early American sociologists were ministers or children of ministers Even the discipline of sociology o Is a product of social forces 0 Didn t arise spontaneously o No discipline or organization or social structure or arises spontaneously o Sociology is not immune from its own research gaze 1212010 35200 PM 1212010 35200 PM


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