INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY
INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY SOC 101
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mittie Jast on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at University of Kentucky taught by William Edwards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/228123/soc-101-university-of-kentucky in Sociology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
21510 Chapter 5 Social Interaction in Everyday Life 0 Social interaction is the process by which we act toward and react to people around us 0 Social Structure 0 Social structure is an organized pattern of behavior that governs people s relationships I It makes life orderly and predictable I In includes statuses roles groups organizations and institutions I An example of a social structure would be the economy 0 Status 0 Status is a social position that a person occupies in a society 0 Status can be ranked but does not always imply a differing amount of prestige I Examples of status include student professor mother son and employee 0 A STATUS SET is a collection of social statuses that an individual occupies at a given time I Status sets change throughout the life course I Statuses are always relational They fit together and are related to the self An ASCRIBED STATUS is a position someone is born into 0 I Examples include male Latino female and Chinese I Ascribed statuses can also include statuses one is forced into such as the status of being an amputee 0 An ACHIEVED STATUS is a position someone has through choice I Examples include employee student or dentist A MASTER STATUS is any ascribed or achieved status that determines a O person s identity Status inconsistency means occupying social positions that create con ict because 0 they are ranked differently I For example a person who is both a student and an instructor like a TA may experience status inconsistency Role A ROLE is the behaVior expected of a person in a particular status 0 I For example a student is expected to read take notes write papers and attend class I Student is the status and read take notes write papers and attend class is the role I Roles are based on mutual obligations o For example a professor must grade the papers written by the student 0 ROLE PERFORMANCE is the actual behaVior of a person who occupies a status I IndiViduals enact roles different I Role performance can be in uenced by the looking glass self 0 A ROLE SET refers to the different roles attached to a single status I Example A student may interact differently with a professor and a fellow student I Example A nurse will interact differently with a doctor another nurse and a patient 0 ROLE CONFLICT refers to the frustration and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses I Someone who is both a supervisor and a friend to the same person may experience role con ict ROLE STRAIN involves incompatible demands among roles within a single 0 status I An example would be an employee having multiple bosses such as in Office Space Role strain or role con ict 0 I A woman stresses because she is a student mother and employee 0 This is role con ict I A student is stressed because he has three tests in one day 0 This is role strain Symbolic Interaction Theory examines how people communicate knowledge ideas beliefs and attitudes and how they interpret situations in everyday life 0 The SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY occurs as people perceive and understand through social interaction I Example Monday is Monday because people have agreed that it is I Example Race is constructed differently in different societies I Example The economy is socially constructed Feminist Theories o EMOTIONAL LABOR is the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display I Women are more likely than men to have jobs where they are required to perform emotional labor 0 Interaction and Gender Roles I Women and men are equally talkative I Women are more likely to do conversation maintenance wor 0 They get the conversation going and bridge topics I Men s speech re ects conversational dominance o Nonverbal Communication 0 How could the following idea be expressed nonverbally I We are together as a couple You could stand closer or put your arm around the other person 0 Online Communication 75 of adult Americans use the Internet 0 0 More emails IMs and text messages are sent everyday than there are people in the world 0 The biggest digital divide is among social classes I However recent research suggests this is no longer true except in countries like Brazil 22210 Chapter 6 Groups Organizations and Social Institutions 0 Social Groups O O O O O O 0 Social groups are two or more people who interact with one another and who share a common identity and a sense of belonging or weness I Examples include family friends and athletic teams A PRIMARY group is a relatively small group of people who engage in intimate facetoface interaction over an extended period of time I Examples include family and close friends A SECONDARY group is usually a large formal impersonal and a temporary collection of people that pursues a specific goal or activity I Examples include classes work groups volunteer organizations and labor unions An IN GROUP shares a sense of identity that excludes outsiders I Dr Edwards presented the example of the glass room smokers were forced to go into at the hospital when smoking was allowed inside All the non smokers would pass by and see the people smoking making the smokers feel like outsiders An OUT GROUP is viewed or treated negatively because they are seen as having values beliefs or other characteristics different from one s own A REFERENCE group is a group of people that shape our behavior values and attitudes I You do not have to be a member of your reference group I Example Nursing students would have a reference group of nurses Group conformity I Most people are in uenced by group pressure Solomon ASCH s research showed that people will agree with obviously false judgments to be part of a group ZIMBARDO s research showed that people will perform assigned roles in a group 0 Zimbardo used a mock prison experiment with guards and prisoners 0 He had to end the experiment early because of the way the participants reacted I The MILGRAM clip illustrated Stanley Milgram s famous research on obedience o Milgram was trying to explain WWII atrocities and whether it took a special sort of person to follow orders to hurt others or if all people were obedient Milgram had participants shock a person to help them learn The learner was actually an actor who faked pain The majority of participants obeyed the researcher and continued to administer shocks I Groupthink refers to a deterioration of mental efficiency reality testing and moral judgment that results from ingroup pressures 0 Dr Edwards gave an example of a social worker who after years of experience decided that he knew what was wrong with his clients before they even told him their problems 0 Social networks are webs of social ties that link an individual to others I These may be tightly knit and have clear boundaries or large and impersonal with uid boundaries Formal Organizations 0 Formal organizations are complex and structured secondary groups deliberately created to achieve speci c goals They include voluntary associations and bureaucracies Voluntary associations are created by people who share a common set of interests I They vary in organizational structure I Examples include book clubs and charity organizations Bureaucracies are formal organizations designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people in the most efficient way possible I The ideal characteristics of a bureaucracy include o a high degree of division of labor and specialization o a hierarchy of authority like a university 0 explicit written rules and regulations 0 impersonality o qualificationbased employment and 0 separation of work and ownership I Shortcomings include o a weak reward system such as low wages and few benefits 0 rigid rules 0 bureaucratic ritualism such as a preoccupation with rules 0 and alienation isolation meaninglessness and powerlessness o McDonaldization of Society I The organizational principles that underlie McDonald s dominate more and more sectors of society I Components of McDonaldization are efficiency calculability predictability and control I This has even in uenced healthcare which has become increasingly consumeroriented 22410 Class was cancelled 22610 The following notes were covered in the discussion section due to class cancellation on 224 Chapter 7 Deviance Crime and the Criminal Justice System 0 Deviance o Deviance is behavior that violates expected rules or norms I It can be positive or negative I Positive deviance overconforms 0 An example would be going exactly the speed limit I Negative deviance falls below social expectation 0 An example would be breaking the law 0 Deviance can be a condition belief or behavior 0 Deviance is accompanied by social stigmas I A stigma is a negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his selfconcept and social identity o Deviance varies across and within societies 0 Deviance can be formal or informal o Perceptions of deviance change over time I What was deviant in the past sometimes is not deviant today 0 Children out of wedlock are less deviant than they used to be 0 A woman working is less deviant o Shorter skirts are less deviant I What was not deviant in the past is sometimes deviant now 0 Smoking is more deviant now than it used to be 0 Racism is much more deviant now than in the past 0 Crime 0 Crime is a violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is speci ed by law 0 There are many sources of crime statistics I Crime statistics can come from official data such as uniform crime reports I They can also come from victim surveys like the National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS o All crime statistics are estimated 0 There are more arrests for property crime and drug abuse violations than for violent crimes 0 Victimless crimes like prostitution are least likely to be reported 0 Victims and Offenders I Most crime victims are men African American younger than 25 poor and live in urban areas I Crime offenders are likely to be under 30 male white and live in poor innercity areas 0 Controlling Deviance and Crime 0 Social control is the techniques and strategies that regulate behavior I There are informal types of social control such as a promotion or raise at a job or not getting hired I There are also formal types of social control such as imprisonment I Social control can be positive or negative 0 Sanctions can be positive or negative 0 Functionalist Perspective on Deviance and Crime 0 Deviance is both dysfunctional and functional I It is dysfunctional because it is expensive It causes fear tension and insecurity It can erode trust in relationships It damages confidence in institutions I It is functional because it establishes norms improves the economy affirms cultural norms and values creates social unity and can trigger social change 0 Durkheim s Concept of Anomie I Anomie is a theory that suggests that people become deviant when they are unsure of how to behave because of absent con icting or confusing social norms O o Periods of rapid social change produce anomie Merton s Concept of Social Strain I See gure 72 on page 124 in textbook I Strain theory suggests that people engage in deviant behavior when they experience a con ict between goals and the means available to obtain the goals Merton gives ve modes of adaptation conformity innovation ritualism retreatism and rebellion o In conformity you accept the goals and the means 0 In innovation you accept the goals but reject the means 0 In ritualism you reject the goals but accept the means 0 In retreatism you reject both the goals and the means 0 In rebellion you establish new goals and new means Con ict Perspectives on Deviance and Crime 0 O O O Whitecollar crime is any illegal activity committed by highstatus people in the course of their occupation Occupational crimes are illegal activities that are committed in the course of their work I An example would be a cashier overcharging people for their purchases and keeping the extra money Corporate crimes or organizational crimes are committed by executives to bene t themselves and their companies Cybercrime is conducted online O O O Organized crime is activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for pro t such as the Ma a Powerful groups control the law and its application Behaviors that injure the economic interests or challenge the political power of the dominant class are punished o Feminist Perspectives on Deviance and Crime 0 Women and girls are often victims I Women have been socialized to be weaker I Men have dominated the government and the legal system 0 Symbolic Interaction Perspectives O 0 Differential association states that people learn deviance through interaction especially with significant others Labeling theory holds that deviance depends on how others react I Primary deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law I Secondary deviance is the rulebreaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reaction of others 0 Criminal Justice System 0 The criminal justice system is the government agencies that are charged with enforcing laws passing judgment on offenders and changing criminal behavior I An example would be the police Crime control model is an approach that holds that crime rates increase when offenders don t fear apprehension or punishment o 70 of Americans support the death penalty while there is no evidence that executions deter crime Rehabilitation is a social control approach that holds that appropriate treatment 0 can change offenders into productive lawabiding citizens I Rehabilitation is particularly successful when they provide employment after release 31 10 Chapter 8 Social Strati cation 0 Social stratification is the hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources such as property prestige power and status 0 In an OPEN STRATIFICATION SYSTEM social classes are relatively uid and based on achieved statuses I A social class is a category ofpeople who have a similar rank based on wealth education power or prestige In a CLOSED STRATIFICATION SYSTEM movement from one social 0 position to another is limited due to ascribed statuses I Slavery and caste systems are examples of closed stratification systems Where you re born is where you stay In chattel slavery people are bought and sold as commodities In domestic slavery employers force people to work for long hours and little if any pay 0 Dimensions of Stratification o Wealth is de ned as money and economic assets that include property and income I Wealth is cumulative It is passed on to the next generation and produces income Income inequality is increasing in the United States as the amount of money the upperupper class increases and the amount of people in the lower class increases 0 Prestige is respect recognition and regard I Prestige is based on wealth family background fame occupation and leadership I Prestigious occupations usually require education pay more involve mental activity and offer authority 0 Power is the ability of individuals to achieve goals control events and maintain in uence over others despite opposition I The power elite is a small group of white men who make the important decisions in US society The old money has the power 0 Social Class in America 0 SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SES is an overall rank of people s positions based on their income education and occupation I Socioeconomic status is often shown through residence or where people live 0 Upper Class I The upperupper class has enormous wealth inherited fortunes and considerable economic and political power I The lowerupper class is the nouveau riche They engage in conspicuous consumption which could be splurge spending or donations 0 Sports gures could be included in this classi cation 0 Middle Class I The uppermiddle class lives on earned income and has professional and managerial occupations I The lowermiddle class has nonmanual semiprofessional occupations rely on two incomes and maintain a comfortable lifestyle I The working class includes skilled and semiskilled laborers They possess high school education 0 Lower Class I The working poor work at least 27 weeks a year but live in poverty 0 This classification could include migrant workers 1 I 39 4 Al I The are J poor r J residentially relatively isolated chronically unemployed and lack skills and education 0 This is a growing class of people 0 Dr Edwards gave the example of the baby boomer s impact In Cincinnati all the people who could move out of the city did move out to the suburbs and they took the jobs with them The people too poor to move out were stuck without jobs 0 Poverty in America 0 Poverty is increasing Over 37 million people in the United States live in poverty 0 ABSOLUTE POVERTY is not having enough money to afford the most basic necessities such as food shelter and warmth o RELATIVE POVERTY is not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living 0 The POVERTY LINE is the minimal level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic subsistence I In 2006 the poverty line was 20444 for a family of four 0 Who are the poor I Children women African Americans American Indians and Latinos are included in the poor I Children and women go together because of single mothers 35 10 Chapter 9 Gender and Sexuality o FemaleMale Similarities and Differences 0 Sex is the biological characteristics with which we are born I This includes chromosomes anatomy and hormones 0 Gender is the learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people of one sex or the other I Gender is based on social and cultural expectations created through the social construction of reality 0 Gender identity is a perception of oneself as either male or female 0 Gender roles are the characteristics attitudes feelings and behaviors that society expects of males and females 0 Gender stereotypes are the expectations about how people will look act think and feel based on their sex 0 Application I Fouryearold Sally says I m a girl and girls don t do that o This would be an example of gender identity and gender roles I Paul falls on the playground and tries not to cry 0 This would be an example of gender roles 0 Contemporary Gender Stratification and Inequality I Sexism is an attitude or behaVior that discriminates against one sex usually female based on the assumed superiority of the other sex I Gender stratification is defined as people s unequal access to wealth power status prestige and other valued resources as a result of their sex 0 Gender and Family Life I While men are doing increasingly more housework women are still likely to do most of the housework 0 Gender and Education I By third grade boys outperform girls in math and science while girls excel at reading I Women tend to be elementary teachers while males are hired as professors 0 Gender and the Work Place I Sex segregation still exists between and within occupations o The gender pay gap is the overall income difference between women and men in the work place This is also called the wage gap I The glass ceiling is an invisible barrier that keeps women from being successful I Advances toward equality o On average male s domestic work has increased Sexual harassment became illegal in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Federal Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 makes it illegal for employers to penalize an employee for pregnancy Women are increasingly becoming mayors governors and members of Congress I Sexual harassment is any unwanted sexual advance request for sexual favors or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with his or her work 0 Sexual harassment is especially common in maledominated occupations 0 Gender and Politics I Women are much less likely to be elected to of ce especially at higher levels I However women are more adaptable to working or talking through problems which make them more adept and politics 0 Sexual Orientation O O O O O O O 0 Sexual orientation is a preference for sexual partners of the same sex of the opposite sex or ofboth sexes Homosexuals are those who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex Heterosexuals are those who are sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex Bisexuals are those who are sexually attracted to members of both sexes Asexuals are those who lack any interest in or desire for sex Transgendered people are those who are transsexuals intersexuals or transvestites Heterosexism is the belief that heterosexuality is superior to and more natural than homosexuality or bisexuality Homophobia is the fear or hatred of homosexuality 0 Con ict theory sees gender inequality as built into social structure 0 Men s domination of women is the result of gender power differences 0 Feminist theories emphasize women s subordination O O 3810 Liberal feminism maintains that gender equality can be achieved through equal ciVil rights and equal opportunities Radical feminism contends that patriarchy is the reason for women s oppression Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity o Racial and Ethnic Diversity in America 0 0 One in five Americans is either foreignbom or a lst generation US resident There are 150 distinct ethnic or racial groups in the US o The proportion of the population that is white is declining o The Signi cance of Race and Ethnicity 0 Race is a group of people who share physical characteristics such as skin color and facial features that are passed on through reproduction I Race is a social construct 0 Ethnicity I An ethnic group is a set of people who identify with a common national origin or cultural heritage that includes language geographic roots food customs traditions andor religion 0 Examples include Italian American German American and Jewish 0 A racialethnic group is a group of people who have both distinctive physical and cultural characteristics I Examples include Asian American and Hispanic I The US Census asks for both race and ethnicity 0 Our Immigration Mosaic 0 In 1990 almost 85 of immigrants to the Us came from Europe 0 Today immigrants come primarily from ASIA and LATIN AMERICA 0 Is immigration harmful or beneficial I Critics allege that lowskilled workers reduce the standard of liVing and overload schools and welfare systems I Because immigrants are younger poorer and less well educated than the native population they use more government services and pay less in taxes Proponents argue that immigrants provide services at low wages and in jobs most Americans don t want Without new workers the US will not be able to support the aging population 0 Dominant and Minority Groups 0 O O O A DOMINANT group is any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power the greatest privileges and the highest social status I The dominant group is not always the majority in size An APARTHEID is a formal system of racial segregation A MINORITY group is a group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of their physical cultural or other characteristics such as gender sexual orientation religion ethnicity or skin color I A minority group does not necessarily refer to a numerical minority I Examples include the gay community and African Americans GENOCIDE is the systematic effort to kill all members of a particular ethnic religious political racial or national group I Examples include the colonists treatment of American Indians and the Holocaust 0 INTERNATIONAL COLONIALISM is the unequal treatment and subordinate status of groups within a nation I Examples include African Americans and Hispanics I Another example could be the disenfranchisement of eXconvicts in locations with high populations of African Americans 0 SEGREGATION is the physical and social separation of dominant and minority groups I De facto segregation is informal I De jure segregation is formal o ASSIMILATION is the process of conforming to the culture of the dominant group by adopting its language and values and intermarrying with that group 0 PLURALISM which is also known as multiculturalism is where minority groups retain their culture but have equal social standing in a society 0 Functionalist Perspective 0 Functionalism argues that newcomers must assimilate by adopting the dominant group s ways I Racialethnic inequality provides a large pool of cheap labor I Racialethnic inequality maintains or increases many dominant group members current status power and profits 0 Con ict Perspective 0 Con ict theory emphasizes the ongoing strife between dominant and minority groups I Dominant groups protect their power and privileges I Economic inequality perpetuates racial hierarchies I Economic strati cation pits minorities against each other and against low income whites 31010 0 Sociological Explanations of RacialEthnic Inequality o Feminist Theories GENDERED RACISM is the combined and cumulative effects of inequality due to racism and seXism o Minority women face discrimination based on race gender and social class The CONTACT HYPOTHESIS is the idea that the more people get to know members of a minority group personally the less likely they are to be prejudiced against that group 0 Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionists emphasize learned attitudes norms and values Labeling and selective perception can increase prejudice and discrimination Images shape our perceptions Example from pop culture In most cop shows minority groups are usually the quotcriminalsquot being arrested 0 Major Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States 0 European Americans They were the first colonists About 68 of the US population has a European background I Early immigrants WASPs White AngloSaxon Protestants looked don on later immigrants from other areas of Europe I As a group European Americans are the most successful 0 Latinos I Half of all new immigrants are Latino I Latinos are a diverse group I The median household income of Latinos is about 72 that of whites I Many become successful 0 Asian Americans I Asian Americans make up 5 of the US population I They have the highest median income in the US I They usually have a higher level of education I They are labeled as the quotmodel minority probably due to their stereotype as hardworking highachieving people 0 African Americans I They are the second largest minority group I African Americans are the only group brought to the US involuntarily I The group experiences high rates ofpoverty I Their median income is the lowest of all the racialethnic groups I However their success rates are increasing which is probably due to affirmative action 0 American Indians O I This group makes up 15 of the US population I There are more than 560 recognized tribes I They experienced centuries of subjugation exploitation and political exclusion I American Indians experience high rates of poverty I However they have seen some economic progress in recent years Middle Eastern Americans I They are a heterogeneous population I Most are Muslim I They tend to be better educated and wealthier than other Americans I Prejudice and discrimination increased after 911 0 Interracial and Interethnic Relationships 0 MISCEGENATION is marriage or sexual relations between a man and woman of different races Approval of racialethnic intermarriages has increased Racialethnic groups that are the most assimilated are the most likely to intermarry People are increasingly likely to identify themselves as multiracial
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