Leviathan Notes Part 1
Leviathan Notes Part 1 POSC 1030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quinn Riley on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSC 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brandon Turner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Thomas Hobbes 15881679 The English British context Leviathan published in 1651 Hobbes was a Protoliberal proto meaning beginning early liberal meaning liberalism the political ideology of individual rights and limited government 0 An absolutist absolutism sovereignty cannot be limited The fact of rights is as fundamental as anything else 0 The concept of quotrightsquot did not exist prior to 1600 0 Rights are claims against another individualthe government History 0 Not a particularly notable life 0 Secretary for Francis Bacon met Descartes o Lived a very long time a very tumultuous time 0 Britain amounts victorious in defeating the Spanish Armada a Catholic invading force Born quotunder the cloak of fearquot 0 Experienced the Gun Powder Plot a singularly abhorrent event One person with one very quotlarge beefquot could undermine an entire 0 government Intention of blowing up parliament Fox was a Catholic jihadist 0 Civil War 0 New ideas that resettled the intellectual and political times 0 Luther and the protestant reformation 0 Catholic church dominated the system in Europe 0 No moral language for an alternative to the churches teachings o The church hierarchy dominates the moral imagination of the west 0 Luther eviscerated it completely via two ideas Priesthood of all believers Notion ofjusti cation by faith alone Transubstantiation the wafer is literally the body of Christ 0 Consubstantiation the wafer isn t actually the body of Christ it is associated with it it is about it 0 Works business is nuts to Luther the world is perfectly transitory It doesn t matter what you do God isn t fooled by halfassed hail O Mary s The only way to justify yourself is through faith Faith is mediated by god the church is mediated by the priest If you are justi ed by faith you don t need the hierarchical set up of priests If the role of the priest is to mediate between you and god then we are all priests because we are all only responsible for ourselves Perfect moral equality o Descartes and Radial Doubt Begins by claiming all inherent knowledge of the world in invalid All preconceived systems are invalid Good method of learning is philosophy and science wipe away everything we know and begin with absolute knowledge start over Radical doubt I can be sure of one thing this thinking thing is thinking these thoughts 0 I can prove my own existence by virtue of the fact that I m thinking these thoughts right now Hobbes begins with the dictum of reading thyself 0 Starts from the very basis of human cognition and builds a scienti c theory on that Francis Bacon pioneered what we now regard as the scienti c method 0 0 It tells you a series of steps come up with a hypothesis how you can accurately test this hypothesis It s a way that you can know things via technique How do you know you ve engaged in the scienti c method exactly and correctly it can be repeated Communicability it doesn t matter who is conducting the experiment so long as it can be done again Hobbes says quotread yourself and try to see how it is that you operate in the worldquot Look inward and you will see that everyone else does the same thing By the time Hobbes is writing the new continent has already been discovered 0 There is a new culture of people we have never seen before Technologies 0 Printing press made it so that massproduction could be used 0 In uenced use of treatise format clear concise analytic 0 quotAnyone can pick this up and know for sure that I am rightquot 0 Larger reading public 0 The amount of people who were literate was able to grow 0 Gun powder An average person could overthrow a government a divinely appointed monarch The 16th and 17th centuries were the ages of assassination Made killing almost universal o 1683 Reign of Charles the 2 all these protestant people sought to kill James and Charles Hid in the Rye House going to ambush the king and his brother and shoot them 0 They were betrayed o Gunpowder was a new form of equalization Obsessed with equality and destruction Events 0 Lack of religious and political authority 0 One particularly bad monarch Charles the 1st did not get along with Parliament Charles said that Parliament was more trouble than they were worth Parliament controlled regular taxation if the king didn t need money he wouldn t call Charles hated them so he sent them home and didn t call on them for 11 years To come up with money he levied some questionable taxes 0 Ship money a tax having to do with ships an emergency tax Passed a whole series of rules so the king couldn t do this also removed church from the House of Lords Made themselves antagonistic to the kings 0 Lead to civil wars lasting nine years 0 In the end the royalists those believing sovereignty lays with the king 0 Lex rex the king is an actor who is above the law he is not bound by law 0 Commonwealth men loyal to Parliament the house of commons Parliament was the seat of sovereignty in England 0 One or the other must be rights 0 1649 cut off Charles head regicide king killing Between 1649 and 1653 there was no king only parliament Lost some wars 0 Oliver Cromwell invited to rule as chief executive officer 1660 it all went to hell Called Charles s son the restoration Hobbes said that the problem was of pluralism competing multiple values A proliferation of values no one knew which was correct Empirical values Boyle s law pressure Before Boyle where did people derive their theories Before the scienti c revolution where did we get answers 0 O O 0 If you wanted to prove the geocentric universe one would look to the empirical authority of scripture It seems harmless but its actually harmful because it overturns previous beliefs This is a crisis of authority Hobbes designed cover himself For a particular reason Translation into German for any people to read Leviathan is written in English Sword symbol of worldly authority other hand is the bishops scepter a symbol of religious authority o Leviathan has them both but towers over all of England for London and everywhere else 0 Country vs court urban areasthe seats of unrest He is wearing people through the consent of the government the king derives his authority The royaists held that the king was either appointed by god or the English people as a whole gave their authority to a king divinely at a previous point in time o The image of the Leviathan is drawn explicitly from the bible 0 Job On the question of authority Hobbes is saying we will create a Leviathan that combines the powers of the secular and religious world
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