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by: Bryana Kemmer


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Physiology > PGY 412G > PRIN OF HUMAN PGY LECT
Bryana Kemmer
GPA 3.55

Kyong Park-Sarge

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About this Document

Kyong Park-Sarge
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bryana Kemmer on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PGY 412G at University of Kentucky taught by Kyong Park-Sarge in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/228183/pgy-412g-university-of-kentucky in Physiology at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
CNS mmnav September 24 200 mow mie H1 me Central nervous system Perlphera nervous sysIem Brain Samaria sensory Allerem division Visceral sensory Special sensory 5523 Somatic mm E erenl diwsmn Auranamic mom sympameuc Parasymualhelu u em CSF Cerebrospinal fluid 39Cushlans m n n y the spinal cord central canal before being reabsorbed Into the bland CNSANATOMY Page 1 urine KIIL39 mum mum iiilli the llrnil FOUR SUEDIVISIDNS OF THE BRAIN PLUS mermm i 1 Cerebrum cortex mepmim e 2 Diencephalanmphthalamus 3 ar lnstEm 4 Cerebellum 5 CErEbralVEntrlclEs FOUR LDEES Temporal Lobe Occipilal Lobe Parieta Lobe Frontal Lobe Snlnul m Camus callusum Lalaral Venlvlcle Third venmcle Hypulhalamus Pnullary gland K Thalamus Am Easel nLlc 39 gt 7 cell layers are involved in the integration of a erenland e erentsignals In the cone h Sulcus 39quot 39 1 coreus collusum c camlls EDIIUSWH connecls hlmlsplleresl v5 Lateral Ventricle white matter Graymatter Gyrus Sulcus Each lateral ventricle has three horns o the anterior or frontal horn extends into the frontal lobe o the posterior or occipital horn into the occipital lobe o the inferior or temporal horn into the temporal lo e are curve shaped cavities in the brain 0 Protects the Brain From Trauma 0 Provides Pathway for the circulation ofCerebrospinal Fluid I ye iaieu 39 39 39 ame Ul brain or spinal cord Does NOT contain Neural cell bodies iiajui 39 39 39 neiitrnnhil dendrites and both unmyelinated axons and myelinated axons glial cellsr oligodendroqtes and capillaries Greymaller contains neural cell bodies Agyrus is a fold or quotbumpquot in the brain Seperales sections oflhe brain CNSANATOMY Page 2 LIMBIC SYSTEM Lear 39 g t39 appetite 39 39 d 39 integration Thalamus Thethalamus is a largedua lobed mass ofgrey matter cells located atthe top ofthe brainstem t relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex Fornix an arching fibrous band of nerve fibers that connect the hippocampusto the hypothalamus Hippocampus sends memories outto the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for longterm storage and retrieves them when necessary learning and memory hungerand39 Many irnpur Mm 39 3 body receives sensory information from theolfactory bulb and is involved in the identification of odors Olfactory Cortex affected In Alzheimer s Thalamus We relay to cm Hypolhalamus homeostatic regulation of internal environment WWW quotIearning amp memory Spinal cord MENINGES Membranesthatcoverand protectthe brain and spinal cord skin of Icalp perior saglllal alnua Subdural Arachnoid vllluu Subarachnold Blood space vanat Fall carabrl In longitudinal nature on y Between dura mater and Pia Mater CSF flowsunderthis membranein the subarrachnoid space with delicate fibers like a web meeting up to the pia mater The innermost layer of the meninges The thin meshlike pia mater closely envelops the entire surface ofthe brain running down into the fissures ofthe cortex Itjoins with the ependyma which lines the ventricles to form choroid plexuses that produce cerebrospinal fluid Arach noid mater Pia Mater CNSANATOMY Page 3 inurermn r laverthick and not flexible Itis responsible for keeping in the CSF CNSANATOMY Page 4 VOCABULARY Sundaypaober 18 2009 822 PM or situated near Controlsalllnvoluntary processes ofthe body RANCHES TW SVMPATHETIC Ilgmuv V V NEeffectorAch ln between orEplln adrenal PARASVMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM FUCTIONS 39 J 39 thebody I 39 behavior V39 functlonsul 39 39 I Secrete hormonesthatactat dlstanttargets Axonal Transport of MembraneBound Vesicles Along Microtubules gt Kinesinanterograde V Dyneinretrograde S ecrelory vesicle Kinesin protein Mic rotubule Cell body 39 Micrclubule Axon terminal Dyneln protein Vesicle KEY PONTS Page 5 NEURON nucleusw 2 Axon Nodes of Ranvler Termina OLIGODENROCYTES OUGODENDROCVTE 39EwbranchesntHECNS chr1 mmbmng Themyehnaeneumns M I 6 mm CNS yr man nxons N066 a 39 Ham w l I sunu ul ol bcouundrvaKe M mm MULTIPOLAR NEURONS SW A A nEuans uunumu 7mg agnamcbranchgscanaxsuemgrggmm thanarvecaHbudy mmu u nEuansand mtemaurnns mm u 7 Wm x Dmn hmrm 7 KEY POINTS Page 6 UNIPOLAR amp BIPOLAR NEURONS 763 EPENDYMAL CELLS ASTROCYTES Astmcyte m associatvon wtth a blood vessel Seam of Ben ra mm M mmus Spmaus methecs The ceHs are cubmdan umnar pses L estruses m up empty spaces MICROGLIA mmmgha scavengers Reactive Posttraumatic transformation mmune defense mme centra nervous system cm 5 KEY POINTS Page 7 Bloodbrain Barrier semipermeable Pathology of Acute Contusion Spinal Cord Injury membrane i i a Blood Brain Barrierbreakdown imuremebram n BloodPlasmaexudationGlutamate n Excitotoxicity ofmebod n LipidPeroxidatioMFreeRadicals Maintains a constant environment tortne brain Lunaquot i am uassai NEl39ROPROTECTlVE Wm pa er sngnzcms PROREGENERAIHT Q smmzcms Easemenlmemhrane4 Endomahalcan 1 3ng inhibit to gt pn pants Ihe injun39 1 Al I e V mm 91 Newquot cascade after trauma HM ml pawn cg ion channel l39e39gl39o 1h39degl39ade m blockers 8 receptor ECM m We quot gomt 2 Trausglauialiou of issue LYMWY39A quotWWquot 2 Deliver gromn factors to neurons 0139 ueiu39ogliai nnnnmiaquot I angina g V smbilize the ileum 3 D 1 m f I i I V w 33mm envn onmein amp enhance gm at 015 gm M W host cells 10 express aian Micmgha 3 Sinaids to minimize pro1egenera ve 1301 The bloodrbrain barrier BBB in annnznow response amp growth factors Expen Renews manna Meaninaaaim Cambridge university pies KEY POINTS Page 8 mmmnmx zaae 252w imam ammmw w Unlik AltER Caveman apatitanu ism spam Mzmhranz pummel cations 9 anions Sodium Na equilibrium potential 60mV no net ion ux Chloride Cl equ39l39 70mV no net ion ux Potassium K equilibrium potential 90mV no net ion flux rium potential GOlDMANHOGKIN KATZ EQUA110N NERNST EQUATION Einn m lo we Nzrnstfquatiandzsmhzstm Equilibrium Datumal lElfaraw Sandman anztmavn mm 7quot WWWquot GaldmanrHadgkmrKauNuatiancalmlatzsmzmhramDatumaHle farmultlvluans Emmmm Maimenance of resung membrane potemlal MaoKlDumpestablishscanczntratmngradinntgmuatmgasmallntgamwatumal lftthohannzlsamlzakythznthzmsidzismammgativzthantmautsid ad stat mg 2 Atem v 32mm ianfluxzsandvumvhalan Pia m a Inlracellullrlluld rnem rune Exlracellularlluid Fasslve movement The NaKATPase requires ATP Mammalsismemimmupmumnanpmquot 3 Ni exit and 2 K emerme cell in same tilithisvumv uszsuvta 00 mm AYP mama mm Elli GPAP VOLTAGE Page 9 39nmwepovmmi DEPoiAmZAHoN p intnnarmarn man thanzxtznar a Negative CHARGEWM cm mm ON cm ACHONPOYENHAL LBS mgam wilhintm eandnulxideafsnzwz armusciz mmth m in my in zizmicai Datumai thataccurshztwunth overshoot refers to the development of a rge reversal A can is Repolarlzatlon Is polanzed E m vement back 2 toward the us humor 5quot resting potentiali is more 5 0 negative 6 a C than is 3 E E exterior I 395 E e e 9 9 a 0 E w e u D a Resting p 5 70 I Depolarization Hyperpolarization is less negatlve L I occurs when ion Time even more negative movement reduces the charge inside the cell charge imbalance u n u n I mmmm Charmu cw Hum lnacnvano Na gale a Open and Sodum i lnacuvnxn very rapidly a Closed Open inacnvalad Chan and Palasaium quot claw slnwly w Closw mum upulmu mun Honolanzauon GPAP VOLTAGE Page 10 CONTINUOUSCONDUCI39ION Unmyellnated axon Continuous canductlon Reiraclorv Denna Action pntennal Threshold a v Engl r r r W my Deuolarlzed reg SALTATORY CON DUCTION ma Aim m te We MIME uva WWW quotm mm mm m m mm mm mm mum 5mm mmquot 5mm mm slze of a mrezsuhlhmshnld mm ammonium vanr nnillnlh slimulinrzshnwn h Higher inlensvty Lowe intensity Membrane potential 1mV Memhun manual mVI INHIBITORY Graded potentials can he action pmemial EXCITATORY or action polemial Sumums slvavlglh ACHONPOYENHAL mumquot sdmnwvaamana taSQWMMSMQMSW GPAP VOLTAGE Page 11 v A Action Polenhal 1 g i Memhlan E Chzng s E u o 39 l l I t t 39 ft 1 Ion Channel Permeabilliy gt mm 0 m wu W Mg g call may Can body Emmnl mmon arise in or soma from the generation of sensary receptors GPAP VOLTAGE Page 12 To TRIGGER AN ACI39ION POTENITAl ATHRESHOlD POTEN11Al MUST HE REACHED mmmna polan Acllun poqemm Rigelninthquot Mm hypcmolmimllon Thrulhnld Feznun sung sme 7 Wu Wan uw mum 3 sun 0 Na39 mbrans pomnlial me sodium slow opmmg 01 naggated K39 chumIs allows K39 omv movmg manlbrna gamutI cumquot m me m u39l39 um ma 393 g 9 mn u 39 mm Th vo GPAP VOLTAGE Page 13 Synapses in meetingits reflexes mum 51 em mun WW Thesynapseisthe paintnfnnmmunicatinn hetweentwn neuruns that nperate sequentially mmm rum Intheaxnnterminal thesynapticvesicles l s cantaining neurntransminersemptyimnthe synamieele which prevents dire2 prnpagatinn nfnurrent Theneurmransminers thenhindtnreceptnrs WW nnthe pastsynapticcelltypicallyadendrite W raurpnnury neurons ry neuron one pnma canununrmem one cummunrnaresrmur summary neuron sscunuary neurons r NeurotransmmerRelease 1 n 39 39 2 Hramva aftthszpmamzsthzaxantuwma mntam nzuratransmmuAchacztychahmhrEdwath o rnasunezeermwrrruaemenepresmemmmne Asenesarpnmrngreemanswru hquotmythv2srcmarandwasmamzmhranz farfusmn wummmnm 7 mm andthz WESVnaptrcmuwhranaszSNARES Yhufpmussrsthl Dnmmgstag thatrsthwarz C32 hannds 3am afth cemnez urtushmdsta a Drakmantht S mamrcvzsrdz sz s mavtmagmm untr thlwuszwrthtm p asmamuwhran Wrthth assrstancz mums andmzaszthur maze marzvzsrdzs m 17m runner 1U rummagiva mzmbranz muvtarmmhmatmn mzmbranz ausmganzxntataw Dastwnavtrcmsvansz GPAP VOLTAGE Page 14 Synepue vesicle 5 Recycling InnIc39Irquot nA EndnLytnus Plasma Membrane Cholinergic receptors are any receptors um use NE or Ache IG utamate quot nsrmtterm CNS xmmom GABA Wm wow ewcme Ema iw NH B TORV urons SVNAPTIC STRENGTH CONTRIBUTORS ENESS or SVNAPSE I CONTRIBUTING FACTORS DRUGS THAT REDUCE u v B ncrease neurouansmmterreeasemto me synapse C Preentneurouansmwtterre ease no the synapse GPAP VOLTAGE Page 15 D Inhibit sy nthesis ofthe neurotransmitter E Reduce reuptake of neurotransmitterfrornthe synapse F Reducedegradation ofthe neurotransmitterin the syna G 39 39 u i pse idilmguili L 39 the i chVLui I Reduce biochemicai responseinsidethe dendrite J BOTOX and Tetanus destroy SNARE proteins I NEU ROMODULATORS hormones Mimi rm my iim Known and Presumed Neurotransmitters or Neuromodulators Acetylcholine BiogenicAmines AminoAcids Neuropeptides OTHER i Catechoiarnines Excitatoryarnino acids Endogenousopioids Gases o Dopami 39 ne DA 0 LUTAMATE xymcu o NitricOxide o NorepinephrineWE inhibitoryaminoacids Tachykinins o EpinephrineEpi o QABA Serotonin5HT Histamine Purines o Adenosine o Giycine 0 ATP GPAP VOLTAGE Page 16 SundaVDzmher 15 mg 25 pm Majov Nerve Pathways of Splnal Card I BLUE AFFERENT PATHWAY Nerve eeH axonsw39nthe spina 0rd aseendrng pathwaysthatzarry sensory Informau39m fromthe bummeme spina 0rd andthe brain The axonsthatformthfspathway a waysterrm39nate on nemeeeusrn mutur thesensoryregron ofthe eerebra onex ofme brain cortex DRANGE EFFERENT PATHWAY we nerve eHsthatzontm movementh39e Tnthe momnegron ofme descanuing InmmH pathwag ascending w u uathwag PAIN OR NONPAIN PATHWAYS pn p PATHWAYS Page 17 Spina Cord undaY ttahzr 152uu9 1 saw The spinal cord cumprmummmn DfsEngnta neurnnsand bertramsthat Enab EtHE brawn cuntm vu untaryandwnvn untarybnd ypmmssesbe nwtheneck SPINALCORD Functions CONDUCT ON a sensoryinpubrain b molorcommandseffeclors inpu lout ut at various levels of spinal cord L0 OTIONrcentral pattern generators REFLEXEsiinvolvesbrainspinalcordperiphera 5quotquot SPINAL CORD Page 18 Dorsal root Dorsal horn interneurons sensory Dorsal root ganglion Somatic sensory neuron Visceral sensory neuron Visceral motor neuron Somatic motor neuron Spinal nerve Ventral root motor Ventral horn motor neurons A cylinder ofnervous tissue enclosed byverlebral column rrom foramen magnum to lumbarvertebrae B oeruicalihoraciclumbarsacralreons a cervicalandlumbarenlargement medullary cone c lumbar andsacral nerve roots caudaequina c epidural space a blood vessels and adipose tissue a duramaterarachnoid malersubaraclmoidspacepiamaler E dural and arachnoid malers extend to 2 a lumbar punctures F pia mater continuesto posterior cocch 3 foramina SPTNAL CORD Page 19 Mnnuav0unber 19 2mm 1 33min VisualTransductioh occurs on the retina and is based on the images focused there by the cornea and lens Gllary mllsrle Mimi Illieolis Mimi Lei s Aqueous hum Zolllllal linels a mom a mom m mmm ligliiponoiraiion pasiilio ganglion bipolar and oilior cells occurs priorio transduction bythe rods and oonosio send inlorniaiionlroni inoroiinal ganglion cell axonsviathe opiionorvoioilio visualoonoxviaino opiio e Visualfields are represented in contralateral cortex and are criss crossed and half cross SENSORY ORGANS Page 20


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