GEOGRAPHIC RESEARCH GEO 300
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maxie Collins IV on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 300 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/228185/geo-300-university-of-kentucky in Geography at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
GEO 300 Geographic Research Methods Complexity emergence and Earth Systems Science what does it all mean for Geography Nicholas J Cli ord University of Nottingham UK some preliminaries 7 what has been happening in the enVironmental sciences in the last decade 7 what do we mean by the terms complexity emergence and earth systems science signi cance for research methodology and potential impact in Geography 7 what really is the link between concepts philosophy and methods some illustrations from river science recent developments sophisticated conceptual instrumentation sophistication quasicontinuous emergence 01 monitoring complexnty and non linearity speed and compleXIty rediscovery of of data handling and philosophy pOSSIbIIItIes for methodological sophistication sophistication of apprecnation of representat39on research design and purpose of experimentation modelling summary able to be more ambitious for 0 need a more environmental ambitious science vocabulary concepts and methodology to disclose realworld complexity scientific effort to describe and explain world as is not fit it to our requirements The character and significance of emergence and complexity In a Wide variety of scienti c and mathematical elds grouped together loosely under the title complexity theory an intense search is now under way for characteristics and laws associated With emergent phenomena observed across different types of complex systems Although emergent phenomena appear differently in different types of systems they share certain interrelated common properties that identify them as emergent Emergence as a construct history and issues Jeffrey Goldstein emergents are recognized by showing themselves each showing of emergent phenomena will be different to some degree from previous ones a whole before its parts connotes a pre given coherent entity whereas emergence is a dynamical construct arising over time distinct from the concept of a gestalt whole forms or con gurations emergents have features that are not previously observed in the complex system under observation emergents are neither predictable nor deduci ble from lower or micro level components emergents cannot be anticipated in their full richness before they actually show si Iiiyin both a 1 39W and a qualitative metamorphosis emergent phenomena are not pre given wholes but arise as a complex system evolves over time a dynamical construct associated with the appearance of new behaviour in dynamical systems Significance of complexity and emergence for scientific explanation a system seem better understood by focusing on across system organization rather than on the parts or properties of parts alone 7 emergence is thus a way to describe the need to go to the macro level and its unique dynamics laws and properties as well as the micro level the construct of emergence is therefore one foundation on which to build an explanation not its terminus Signi cance for Geography In our explanations we can move between scales and we probably need to Each scale has its own appropriate research methodology and Description Making sense of ca complex system the Lower Mississippi River Need multiscaled data set and one Which spands physical envbironmental human and social interactions conclusions 1 the present challenge to apply new ideas in science to apply new technologies with respect to instrumentation and environmental monitoring to retain a clear role for physical geography adopt multiscaled and multi perspective research methods conclusions 2 cautionarv remarks is all this really new are the questions researchable at multiple levels is a science of everything a science of anything reduces the social to the technical social robustness rather than scientifically reliable Research Trends in Physical Geography Technology Remote sensing GIS automated mapping Data retrieval amp availability Numerical mathematical modeling Quantitative spatial analysis Geochemical biochemical methods Physical methods dating techniques Scale Politics amp Sociology 0 Regional continental global scale in Increasing blurring of traditional disciplines response to environmental change issues by inter amp multidisciplinary work and available technologies Physical geography practiced under earth 0 Integration of process mechanics With system science environmental science geologicalevolutionary time scales climate science watershed science surface 0 Regional synthesis ecoregions Processesa etc Separation of humanphysical geography Societal Needs amp Market Forces Hurricane Katrina 2005 A Preliminary Look at Geomorphic Impacts Global climate amp environmental change SPAM approach to pollution issues Biodiversity Land degradation Food security Natural hazards Wetlands Energy insurance industries Some Human Perspective 0 Galveston Hurricane 1900 6000 bodies recovered 8 12000 estimated dead 0 Hurricane Mitch Central America 1998 18000 killed 0 Typhoon Bangladesh 1970 360000 dead MODIS image 830 2005 Lost in storm MODI image 830 2005 August 27 August 30 Marsh loss 200quot August 9 235 Barrier Islands 0 Chandeleur Island chain truncated by 325 km on north end 0 Curlew Island Gosier Island washed away 0 Barriers respond to sea level rise during storms by drowning in place or landward migration 0 Both responses observed to Katrina Chandeleur Islands LA Beforeafter photographs from the Us Geological Survey July 2001 vs August 31 2005 Storm surge waves submerged island stripped sand eroded large sections of marsh Dauphin Island Alabama July 2001 pre storm Sept 17 2004 after Lili 2002 Ivan 2004 August 31 2005 after Dennis Katrina 2005 0 Changes due to Dennis Katrina greater than changes from Lili amp Ivan Extensive Overwash breach on western end of island River Flooding High ows noted but not extremely rare generally Within range of 1 10 yr oods nmuizu 7 Annie River in non Vincent Ln Mun Flacent and Highest Rammed 519 Jan 23 1993 Jan 28 1530 Jun 11 2001 I Mo Recem I NW5 Flood stag USGS 07300120 Amite River at PortVincent LA Iquot I Equot 39 P a u a m a Elavaunn lhnva unvn 192a rm 2 m quot m mg 2 rule 29 an an nu a sap m Sap uz sap Ba sap a4 Provisional Data Subject to Revision USGS 07381670 GlWW at Bayou Sale Ridge near Franklin LA 33 25 u u I 29 R 3 g 15 E a g 13 E g n 5 USGS 07381670 GIWW at Bayou Sale Ridge near Franklin LA 5 menu a quot3 1g sane u E 5 WEB a ux 28 Eng 29 Rue SE Eng 31 Sep 81 SI 4BB8 A A A A u s Prowsmnal Data Subjectto ReVI a mu 9 I o 139 E zuaa 3 E 4uav nue 2a nut 29 Rue ao nu 31 5217 m sap a2 59p a say H4 uIscnmmE A nznmu nmv seraannu ansEn mi 2 Vans or REE Rn Provisional Data Subject to Revision USGS Gage height feet a D Eng 25 RM 27 ring 23 Eng 29 mg as Rug USGS 02480254 BLUFF CREEK AT VANCLEAVE MS anana a39aUSGS USGS 02489500 Pearl River near Bogalusa LA zuann luuua Provisional Data Subject to Revisit Discharge cubic feet per setan mun me 25 mg 27 nut 23 ring 29 me an ring 31 sep 91 sep a2 Emnunnnn nISENnREE A nEnInu nnnv srmmrmn snsrn ml 52 mm nF REEIYRD Provisional Data Subjectto Revision z usus mum Ilan AMA AA uAAuuA As EUSGS 2AAAA uses 02479310 PASCAGOULA RIVER AT GRAHAM FERRY MS 39g mm 15 E 14 E 12 mun 2 AA A AAAAA AAA AAAA a a r 3 A uses 02479310 PASCAGDULA RIVERAT GRAHAM FERRY Ms M 6 We 13 We 2 We 27 P WW EanuAnuu A 1 7 AISAAAAAE g usns numsm Auur AMA AA uAAAuA As A AEAIAA uAm suAgAunuA AASEA u AA AAA ur mm 2 a 2AAAAA Aug 25 Aug 27 Aug 2a Aug 29 Aug an Aug mum Provisional Data Subjecno Revis gum A A A A A A A A mu E Aug 2 Aug 27 Aug 2A Aug 29 Aug 3A Aug 32 m Au suA A2 AISAAAAAE A IIEnIRn nAm stEAmuA uAsEn nn 3 VERRS ur mum g 5 B 1973 1975 1979 1952 1955 1955 1991 1994 1997 2m 2m Provisional Data Subjecno Revision 7 Amy HERquot stEAmuA INRYED stEAmuA Sustained rise vs spike a function of mainly storrn surge induced rise vs runoff induced New Orleans Flooding not from the Mississippi River USGS 07374510 COE Mississippi River at New Orleans LA in River never got above ood stage nagg hgigm rm Flooding from Lake Pontchartrain 2 induced by storm surge A Aug 25 Aug 29 Aug an Aug 32 sap m sap A2 sap ua sap A4 a nEInnr 7 Annual Heather Service Flnudstage in rm Provisional Data Subject to Revision Gage height feet USGS 07374510 COE Mississippi River at New Orleans LA Flood stage amp W gums Rug 2 8 nug 29 ring so ug 31 Sep 81 Sep 32 EXFLHNHTIDN GHGE HEIGHT i National Heather Service Flnndstage Provisional Data Subject to Revision Gage height feet USGS 0738023335 Lake Pontchartrain I10 Turnaround near Slidell 198 98 88 5 8 58 48 M Wow w ring 23 Rug 29 ug 35 nug 31 Sep 01 Sep 82 Sep as Sep 14 Provisional Data Subjecllo Revision DFO EVent 2005114 Hurricane Katrina New Orleans area Rapid Response inundation MaBmL39s Lendsal lucid inundation mi Augusi anoma Fiooaad lands m um MODIStlnudlnundatinnlimrlAugus131 I August 302005 7 zoos I 20m I Landsatrelerance was Lendsat Cloud free data Augus1302 05 f3 2004 I 200239 g DCWRwers e Llrban Areas 39 39 f39 Hamman 39 391 39 u s 7 1o 20quot v r E r 39 kilometers l Transverse Mervmwr Zane m Nnnhr was 94 Copyright 2005 Dartmouth Flood Observatory Danrnnuth College 7 Hanover NH n37ss USA Elalne K Anderson 7 G R Brakenrldge 39 r VPEhthatnula dovllla Q Lake Pontchartrain New Orleans DEM New Orleans east west quads darker 2 lower lighter 2 higher elevation range 4 to 9 rn Flooded to sea level 0 n1 Flooded to 1 n1 Flooded to 5 n1 approximate Mississippi River ood elevation USGS 300722009150 ISSISSIppI Sound al Grand Pass 12u BaySoundEstuary Water Levels m 3 3 Re ect storm surge 59 due to Wind7 USGS 302110080464600 USCG BILOXI EAST CHANNEL RANGE FRONT LIGHT 3 pressure tides precipitati0n9 9x USGS 301650089215300 MISSISSIPPI SOUND ATWAVELAND MS II n Storm surge on land n quotquot M 13 m 2 m 27 i m h1gher than water 2 3 a m Provisional Data Subjecito Revision level change in bays 39 1 due to shoaling E 239 g 2 Phenomena 139 E W a m aquot 5 1u u m ms nu 13 m 2 nu 27 Provisional Data Subject to Revision 1 B an as Eng 13 ug 23 nu 27 Provisional Data Subjeciio Revision 0 mai ransom imam mm mm M m CopvvigMZDDS DanmomhFIoodObsevvatmv Moms andinundatmniimnAugus iz g I m I m I Mommy 3mg mmzswm Dammcnege Wm 3755 USA 2am I zuuz DONRwevs 7 UvbanAveas shaaeamhenmswwam in kiiumeters 7 39AI 3 m D1g1tal elevat1on model Biloxi f 0 WW 7 5 minute 395 3 39 Sai uma r 3 V quad a 39 51k Piicnavd I 39 39 39 W 39 I 2 TilimansCuvM I 3 J vie i h Mnlnle lt vae m DJWE um i am IFquot quot quotif 39 Ga V if Flooded by 3 m storm surge Flooded by 9 m storm surge Biloxi MS Note gradient of destruction away from shore N 30quot 2342039 W 088 5409039 DSI31I2005 41948 PM Illustrates key role of dunes wetlands and barrier islands in storm wave attenuation Energy dissipation amp wave surge attenuation with distance from shore Barrier Islands Response is exactly as coastal geomorphology conventional wisdom would suggest drowning in place or migration via beach erosion overwash Coastal Wetlands 0 Already in trouble due to cutoff of river sediment supply sea level rise subsidence associated with hydrocarbon amp water withdrawal and dissection via canals 0 Predictions of accelerated losses in major storm appear to be verified Wetland loss probably exacerbated surge amp human impacts inland Storm Surge Surges propagate attenuate and recede relatively rapidly Energy dissipation is critical in determining surge impacts Key protective role for barrier islands wetlands and primary dunes mostly absent on Gulf s developed shorelines Dune values as barriers amp sediment reservoirs emphasized but in very large surges role as roughness element and bedform may be critical Flooding 0 In Katrina surge more important than rivers compare to Floyd New Orleans flooding due to Pontchartrain over ow not Mississippi River Hydrograph indicators of surge vs runoff i USGS eight feet Bag h USGS 02479310 PASCAGOULA RIVER AT GRAHAM FERRY MS 2 Ru 2 nu 27 nug 25 nu 29 nu an nu a1 sap m sap uz Provisional Data Suhjecno Revision Human Impacts on Geomorphology Direct and indirect destruction of wetlands Accelerated subsidence in NC due to withdrawals and imposed loads Removal of primary dunes Redirection of water and sediment due to levees etc Emphasis on coastal submergence sea level rise subsidence Responses to sea level occur chie y during storms Theory models palaeoclimate evidence and emerging empirical evidence suggests increased tropical storm frequency amp intensity with warmer climate Could coastal changes thus be faster and more dramatic than response to sea level alone would suggest Geomorphic Response to Climate Change
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