PRIN OF BIOLOGY I
PRIN OF BIOLOGY I BIO 150
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Retta Mayert on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 150 at University of Kentucky taught by Ruth Beattie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/228195/bio-150-university-of-kentucky in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
BIO 150 Lecture 2 1212010 53900 AM Species diversity the number and relative abundance of a species in a biological community Evolution all the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today Charles Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection o By 1800 s scientists knew that only simple fossils were found in older rock and complex fossils were found only in younger rock o They wanted to explain how animal forms appeared and why some types of animals disappeared completely o Charles Darwin was a ship s naturalist from 18311836 He studied the unusual combination of animal species which inhabited the isolated Galapagos islands c He observed that each island had its own species of animal which differed noticeably from related animals only a few miles away c He became convinced that the differences arose through natural processes o The problem was to explain how such differences in species might have occurred A work by Thomas Malthus provided him with a clue o Malthus predicted that the human population would increase faster than the food supply and a scarcity of food would cause a struggle for existence Darwin made 2 observations o Organisms produced more offspring than necessary to replace them o Population size remained fairly stable He concluded that population size remains fairly stable because of the struggle for existence He also observed the many variations which exist among the members of any species He concluded that organisms with variations best suited to the particular environment survived most often and were able to reproduce most successfully Final and major conclusion new species gradually result from the accumulation of inherited favorable variations This combination of natural processes by which simpler species gradually developed into new and often more complex species of called evolution 2 main points o species of today were not necessarily created in their present forms but evolved from ancestral species o proposed a mechanism for evolution natural selection Natural selection the differential successive reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment Evolution occurs when natural selection cause changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool 1212010 53900 AM 1212010 53900 AM BIO 150 Lecture 1 11509 1182010 122200 AM Biology The study of Life o Define life see if organism possesses specific properties 0 Reproduction Metabolism Response to changes Highly ordered Development Inheritable traits o Something that is alive must have all 6 traits listed above o A virus is nonliving organisms genetic material o outer layer protein coat 0 O O O 0 Levels of biological order o Molecular focus of this course Cellular focus of this course Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Population Ecosystem Biosphere Division into groups for classification Cell type prokaryote no nucleus or eukaryote nucleus Comparison of DNA among organisms Singlecelled or multicelled Energy and carbon source 0 Energy Phototrophs run processes from sunlight energy Chemotrophs run processes from organic molecules 0 Carbon Autotrophs run processes fromutilize inorganic carbon C02 Heterotrophs utilize organic carbon 0 Humans are chemoheterotrophs 0 Plants are photoautotrophs o How food is eaten absorbed or ingested 3 domains Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya o Protista o Fungae o Plantae o Anamalia Archaea ancient bacteria first to evolve extremophiles halobacterium grows best in 20 salt environment almost saturated salt solution Bacteria modern day bacteria evolved later most singlecelled all prokaryotic Protistaeukaryotic most singlecelled except seaweeds and a few others plantlike protistsphotoautotrophs Anamalia like protists chemoheterotrophs protozoans Fungae multicelled except for a few example yeasts chemo heterotrophs absorb food release digestive enzymes and then absorb Plantae all multicelled all chemoheterotrophs ingest food Classification within a Kingdom Kingdom9 Phyla9Class9 Order 9 family 9 genus 9 species To identify Genus species capitalize first letter in genus species all lowercase o If typed use italics Homo sapens o If written underline Homo sapiens Species group of organisms with similar anatomical characteristics and having the ability to interbreed in nature Reproductive barriers prevent different species from successfully interbreeding 1182010 122200 AM 1182010 122200 AM BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 01152010 11 Unity and Diversity of Life on Earth 111 Properties of Life 0 Key to life is organization 0 What makes something alive 0 Living things can be organized into a hierarchical structure Subatomic particles 9 atoms9 molecules9 organelle9 cell9 tissues9organs organ systems9 muticeuar organism9 populationcommunity9ecosystem9biosphere 0 Order reproduction growth and development energy use response to the environment homeostasis all living things must include ALL 6 of these 0 Living things adapt evolutionarily BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 01152010 12 Early Perspectives in Science 121 An Introduction to Biology Biology synthesizes many other sciences 122 The Nature of Science The Story of Darwin Scientific Method 0 Observe Hypothesize Experiment Gather data Conclude Charles Darwin born 1809 son of Robert Darwin doctor Grandson of Erasmus Darwindoctor and poet His early writings presaged ideas of natural selection Forefather of scientific thought John Henslowinstructor and mentor to Darwin Was offered a job as a naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle Instead Darwin took the job a five year voyage Fitzroy Ship s captain Fitzroy was trying to prove evolution wrong BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 1 01152010 23 Early Scientific Thought 2000200 BC early science 2001200 AD age of theology no science 13 centuryThomas Aquinas Albertus Magnus 16 century Francis Bacon Test everything rigorously 17 century Galileo Galilei earth revolves around the sun proposal Isaac Newton time of the true dawn of science John Ray1600 s Identified fossils as remains of living things 24 The Emerging Science of Geology Fossilsremains of living things John Rayfirst to classifyidentify fossils George Cuvier 18 century geologist Studied sediment stratification rock layers Catastrophism boundaries of each layer of strata correspond to a catastrophe that destroyed the species of the time James Hutton1795proposed theory of gradualismearth s geological features are the result of slow continuous change BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 01152010 0 Charles LyeII Uniformitarianism geological processes have been uniform throughout the earth s history there have been very few catastrophes the earth is much older than thought to be BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 01152010 32 Darwin The Voyage Continues While onboard Darwin read Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell Charles climbed a cliff and found shells like the ones on the beach suggests a higher water level at sometime Question of biogeography idea that life and geography are related captured Darwin s attention Darwin found fossils of clams in the Andes Mountains 33 Darwin More Observations Fossil discoveries inspired idea of common ancestry Niche organisms role in the environment Adaptation a trait in an organism that helps it survive Biogeography the study of life forms and the geographical locations where they are found Chapter 1 Evolution 01152010 141 Darwin The Theory of Natural Selection Darwin began synthesizing his observations into what became known as the theory of evolution This theory was influenced by fossils resemblance artificial selection Thomas Malthus wrote an essay in 1798 Essay on Principles of Population said man will overpopulate unless there is disease war or famine Darwin s Theory species change number of species increases come from a common ancestor survival is by natural selection Adaptation trait in an organism that helps it survive Natural selection rejection of unfavorable variation and preservation of favorable variation 142 The Theory of Natural Selection 0 Darwin embraced the idea of artificial selection 0 Theory 0 1 overpopulation more born than can survive O 2 variations diff traits among individuals BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 01152010 0 3 competitioncompete for food mates shelter etc 0 4 survival of the fittest those with traits best suited to environment will be most likely to survive O 5 reproduction individuals will pass on their traits
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