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by: Retta Mayert


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Biology > BIO 208 > PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIO
Retta Mayert
GPA 3.54

Ruth Beattie

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Ruth Beattie
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Retta Mayert on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 208 at University of Kentucky taught by Ruth Beattie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/228196/bio-208-university-of-kentucky in Biology at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
Lecture 1 082411 Module 1 Introduction and History Chapter 1 Why study microbiology Study of disease 0 Cause 0 Development 0 Control Pathogens o How they enter the human body 0 How they hurt us 0 How we fight them immune response 0 How the microbes fight back Are all microorganisms detrimental to our well being NO Biology the study of life Microbiology the study of microscopic life How is life defined Class Response 0 Metabolic process 0 Response to stimuli o Reproduction 0 Cells 0 Gas exchange 0 Growth Lecture 2 0826 11 Properties of Life 0 Highly ordered 0 Reproduction 0 Growth and development 0 Metabolic activity 0 Response to stimuli o Inheritable traits What about a virus 0 Has a protein coat surrounding genetic material 0 Unable to replicate on its own needs host body A Brief History of Microbiology 0 Hooke 1665 observed first cells dead cells 0 Van Leeuwenhoek 16741723 first person to observe bacteria 0 Drew extremely accurate drawings of bacteria Spontaneous Generation vs Biogenesis o Spontaneous generation idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter 0 Biogenesis concept that living cells can arise only from preexisting cells The Players 0 1668 Redi Maggots o 1745 Needhani and Spallanzani o 1858 Virchow o 1861 Pasteur Disproved spontaneous generation with swannecked flask Germ Theory of Disease Koch 1876 o Microorganisms cause disease 0 Before people thought disease was punishment Koch s Postulates 0 Always present in an individual that has the disease 0 Isolate and grew organism o Inoculate 9 disease inoculate healthy organism o Reisolate Exceptions to Koch s Postulates o Obligate intracellular parasites ie virus has to live inside another cell 0 Same symptoms different pathogens 0 Immunity Improved Health Care 0 1840 Semmelewis Child Birth Fever 0 New mothers death rate was higher in rich ward than in poor ward 0 Physicians attended rich midwives attended poor 0 Physicians attended to others also and carried disease 0 Once handwashing was implemented death rate fell 0 1867 Lister Aseptic Surgery 0 Excluding and preventing microorganisms from entering solution 0 Phenol helped to make aseptic Other Milestones o Jenner first vaccine 0 Pasteur immunization o Pasteur pasteurization o Pasteur fermentation o Fleming etal penicillin Lecture 3 082911 How are living organisms classified Classification 0 Cell structure 0 Prokaryotic I Evolved earlier first cells I No nucleus has genetic material 0 Eukaryotic I Have nucleus membrane enclosing genetic material of cell 0 Singlecelled vs Multicelled 0 Energy Source vs Carbon Source 0 Light energy phototrophs 0 Chemical energy chemotrophs 0 Inorganic carbon C02 autotrophs 0 Organic carbon glucose heterotrophs 0 Means of Absorbing Energy 0 Cell Wall Composition Bacteria Five Kingdoms o Menera o All prokaryotic organisms bacteria 0 Protista o Singlecelled eukaryotic organisms I Plantlike phototrophs I Chemicallike heterotrophs o Fungae o Multicellular chemo heterotrophs o Absorb nutrition 0 Plantae o Multicellular phototrophs o Animalia o Multicellular eukaryotic chemo heterotrophs o Ingest nutrition Three Domains 0 Prokaryotes 2 Domains quotOldquot Menera Kingdom 0 Achaeaextremophiles o Bacteria o Eukaryotes o Protista o Fungae o Plantae o Animalia o Nomenclature 0 Use Genus and Species Names 0 Uppercase first letter of first word 0 Use italics or underline 0 Example Staphylococcus aureus Lo Module 2 Chemistry Chapter 2 Functional Groups 0 Methyl nonpolar RiCHs o Hydroxyl alcohol polar ROH o Carboxyl polar acidic ph lt 7 it P 0H 0 Carbonyl o Aldehyde l RCH o Ketone 0 ll R R o Phosphate polar can ionize and become acid 0 u R O P OH OH 0 Amino polar basic H N Sulfhydryl Thiol polar ionizes important in proteins R S H Know structure and chemical properties Review of Bond Types 0 onic metalnonmetal o Covalent sharing of electrons Hydrogen H bonded to N o Foranothermolecule weakattraction Hydrophobic nonpolartweakattraction A Covalent gt lonic gt Hydrogen gt Hydrophobic Lecture 4 083111 Like attracts like 1 Covalent z lonic a Hydrogen 4 Hydrophobic Biomolecules Groups of Biomolecules Carbohydrates telns tipids Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Building blocks for genetic material of cell Precursors of amino acids Structural integrity s orage Major energy source General forumula C H2 0 Linear Structure OFGIUCOSE 12 s 5 hydroxyls o ar Very soluble Monosaccnarides Le glucose Joined by dehydration synthesis removal of water molecule and formation of bond Hydrolysis is the reverse process breaking of a bond and addition of a water molecule Fimbriae and Pilion some but not all bacterial cells Fimbriaestructures of attachmentsshort hairlike structures look similar to cilia but are only for attachment not motility o E coligram negative bacteriahas mbriaehas sticky capsule 0 Some strains can produce pili to donate DNA celltocell Pilusjoins 2 bacterial cells to allow the transfer of DNA sex pili looks like a hairlike structure but is actually a hollow tube to transfer the DNA 0 New genetic material can become part of chromosome or could eXist in cell as a plasmid Flagella motility 3 sections causes movement by wave like motion unjulating puts a lot of strain on the attachment to the cell body 0 Filamentpart you actually see 0 Hook 0 Basal bodyconsists of a series of disks imbedded in the cell wall and membrane39 can spin to relieve pressure when agella is in motion 0 Eukaryotic agella are much longer than prokaryotic agella have a different chemical structure and are generally visible under a microscope with staining AXial Filaments modi ed agella sometimes called endo agella o Spirochetes o Treponomemapalladiumsyphilis o Organism that causes lime disease get a bulls eye type rash at bite months later infection occurs similar to onset of arthritis 0 Consists of bundles of brils that are wrapped around the bacterial cell intimately attached wraps around it looks similar to licorice allows cell to move in a corkscrew manner Cell Wall Gram Gram No LPS content Low content o PG peptidoglycan o Lipopolysaccharide Peptidoglycan 2 different carbohydrates NAG and NAM in long chain molecule consisting in these alternating units 0 Gram forms a lattice shape using techoic acid I Penicillin attacks the lattice points of Gram walls causing collapse Wg changes in osmotic pressure penicillin thus doesn t effect gram Mummmamai o vulylaccnill 1 Llpm A 7 l J Duler men an wan l Pemmnguyc Broad antibiotics that don t pick Gram or Gram Wipe out all healthy bacteria in intestine causing diarrhea Drug Sensitivity Gram Negative Gram Positive Penicillinlow Penicillinhigh Streptomycin Streptomycinlow All Cells Have a Cell Membrane Nuclear Areasingle long circular molecule of DNA prokaryotes long linear molecules for eukaryotes o Plasmidfragments of DNA the cell has acquired from other cells or transformation 0 Replicates independently 0 Can use this to have bacteria create insulin for us by creating plasmid of DNA that codes for insulin production 0 Ribosomes o 2 subunits protein and RNA 0 Function is the same but ssphedher unit I Prokaryotes 70s 30s 50s D we can make drugs that attack this portion that don t bother eukaryotic cells I Eukaryotes 80s 40s 60s Site of antimicrobial action Staining o Positivestain cells background remains clear and unstained o Negativestain background cell remains unstained o Procedures 0 Simplestain using single cell amp all cells are stained the same color size shape arrangement regardless of cell type 0 Differentialuse combination of 2 stains some cells in 1St stain some in 2nd stain Structural for staining flagella or spores Glucose and sucrose share the property of being soluble in nonpolar solvents but not water o 1 True 2 False CORRECT ANSWER DIFFERENTIAL STAINING Gram Stainbased on chemical differences in cell wall structure o Gram positive o Gram negative 1 application of crystal violet primary stain 2 application of iodine mordant 3 alcohol wash decolorizer of gram leaves it in gram 4 application of safranin secondary or counterstain o Purple Gram o PinkRed Gram o Use young cells 2448 hrs old Gram cells can be decolorized because the cell wall starts to break down o Decolorizing step is critical Acid Fast Stain o For Mycobacterium tubercuosisMycobacterium lepraeNocardia o Binds only to bacteria that have waxy walls o Primary Stain Carbol Fuchsingtheatgtrinsegtapply decolorizer acid alcoholgtCounterstainMethylene Blue STRUCTURAL STAINS EndosporesBacillus Clostridium both Gram Rods Primary is Nolacite sp green use heat to drive stain into the sporegtwash away excess staingtcounterstain cell using safranin Capsulehas outer protective slime layercombination of a positive and negative staining procedures so you stain both the cell and the background in order to see if the slime layer is present If it is present a clear halo appears around the cell Flagellabacterial flagella are extremely small o If they have them or not is species dependent UNIT 3 CELL STRUCTURE Cell Theoryall living organisms are composed of cells and all cells arise from preexisting cells through cell division Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic o What s the sameWhat s different o Differences used as targets for drugs Eukaryotic Cell Structure read up in text if hazy Prokaryotic Cellsfirst cells don t have nucleus but do have DNA no large organelles eg ER Golgi Apparatus Have the ability to cause disease Structure o What makes a bacterial cell pathogenic o Virulence degree of pathogenicity of an organism o GlycocalyxCapsuleSlime Layer 0 Can vary between double strength jello to half strength jelloslimy Can be used as attachment to host cell substrate bc of sticky layer Streptococcus mutanshas very sticky capsule sticks to teeth causes cavities Prevents phagocytosispathogenicity Streptococcus pneumonia 2 strains of pneumonia one that does and doesn t have capsuleif you get infected by one without the capsule doesn t matter bec WBC can phagocytize invading cell 0 Serves as nutrient layermade up of carbohydrates Preventsslows dehydration O O


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