PRIN OF BIOLOGY I
PRIN OF BIOLOGY I BIO 150
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Retta Mayert on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 150 at University of Kentucky taught by Ruth Beattie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/228195/bio-150-university-of-kentucky in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 1152010 54700 PM 11 Unity and Diversity of Life on Earth 111 Properties of Life o Key to life is organization o What makes something alive 0 Living things can be organized into a hierarchical structure Subatomic particles 9 atoms molecules organellee celle tissueseorgan59organ systems9 muticeuar organisme populationcommunityeecosystemebiosphere 0 Order reproduction growth and development energy use response to the environment homeostasis all living things must include ALL 6 of these o Living things adapt evolutionarily BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 1152010 54700 PM 12 Early Perspectives in Science 121 An Introduction to Biology o Biology synthesizes many other sciences 122 The Nature of Science The Story of Darwin o Scientific Method 0 Observe o Hypothesize 0 Experiment 0 Gather data 0 Conclude o Charles Darwin born 1809 son of Robert Darwin doctor Grandson of Erasmus Darwindoctor and poet His early writings presaged ideas of natural selection Forefather of scientific thought o John Henslowinstructor and mentor to Darwin Was offered a job as a naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle Instead Darwin took the job a five year voyage o Fitzroy Ship s captain Fitzroy was trying to prove evolution wrong 123 Early Scientific Thought o 2000200 BC early science o 2001200 AD age of theology no science o 13th centuryThomas Aquinas Albertus Magnus o 16th century Francis Bacon Test everything rigorously o 17th century Galileo Galilei earth revolves around the sun proposal Isaac Newton time of the true dawn of science o John Ray1600 s Identified fossils as remains of living things 124 The Emerging Science of Geology o Fossilsremains of living things o John Rayfirst to classifyidentify fossils o George Cuvier 18th century geologist Studied sediment stratification rock layers Catastrophism boundaries of each layer of strata correspond to a catastrophe that destroyed the species of the time o James Hutton1795proposed theory of gradualismearth s geological features are the result of slow continuous change o Charles LyeII Uniformitarianism geological processes have been uniform throughout the earth s history there have been very few catastrophes the earth is much older than thought to be BIO 150CHAP 1Evolution 1152010 54700 PM 132 Darwin The Voyage Continues While onboard Darwin read Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell Charles climbed a cliff and found shells like the ones on the beach suggests a higher water level at sometime Question of biogeography idea that life and geography are related captured Darwin s attention Darwin found fossils of clams in the Andes Mountains 133 Darwin More Observations Fossil discoveries inspired idea of common ancestry Niche organisms role in the environment Adaptation a trait in an organism that helps it survive Biogeography the study of life forms and the geographical locations where they are found Chapter 1 Evolution 1152010 54700 PM 141 Darwin The Theory of Natural Selection Darwin began synthesizing his observations into what became known as the theory of evolution This theory was influenced by fossils resemblance artificial selection Thomas Malthus wrote an essay in 1798 Essay on Principles of Population said man will overpopulate unless there is disease war or famine Darwin s Theory species change number of species increases come from a common ancestor survival is by natural selection Adaptation trait in an organism that helps it survive Natural selection rejection of unfavorable variation and preservation of favorable variation 142 The Theory of Natural Selection Darwin embraced the idea of artificial selection Theory 0 1 overpopulation more born than can survive 2 variations diff traits among individuals 3 competitioncompete for food mates shelter etc 4 survival of the fittest those with traits best suited to environment will be most likely to survive o 5 reproduction individuals will pass on their traits O O O
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