INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY BIO 325
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Retta Mayert on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 325 at University of Kentucky taught by P. Crowley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/228202/bio-325-university-of-kentucky in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
human ORGANISMS 5yr FRESH WATER 2600 90 A k 16yr ZOOyr ltltlyr V EH SOIL ATMOSPHERE g 125000 A 4yr ltlt1 g S A k fertilizer 03yr l 4yr l4yr I V MINEABLE MARINE SINK ROCK lt MAINLY SEDS 19000 840000000 ORGANISMS 10 yr FRESH WATER A k E E 8 8 ltltlyr m N M H fixation 39 A l40yr 39 SOIL precip n ATMOSPHERE 1 163 huge reservoir 39 ification A s 130 F A yr 5 a g S 2 a 5 5 Sr b B a m E 39g V V quotU OCEANS burial lOyr runoff 36yr PHOSPHORUS CYCLE High turnover between organisms and soil Significant inputs to fresh water from humans amp soil Negligible atmospheric pool Oceans are a sink with most P in deep sediments 1 1012 g P NITROGEN CYCLE High turnover between organisms and soil Considerable hum an input to atmosphere Large atmospheric pool Substantial soilatmosphere and oceanatmosphere exchanges mainly fixation denitrification and precipitation 11012 r detritus ORGANISMS ltlt1yr FRESH WATER 560 ltlt1 m gt runoff 0 4yr 3 6 g 5 ltlt1Yr quotU h i r SOIL ATMOSPHERE VOLCANOES 1500 720 quot fuel A burning 105yr lO7yr v FOSSIL FUELS OCEANS CARBON CYCLE l t 3 8 000 arge am Gun I Substantial atmospheric pool I Substantial organism atmosphere and oceanatm osphere exchanges burlal 039 1 yr mainly via respiration and primary production Most carbon held in carbonate rocks Human inputs via burning of fossil fuels increasing atmospheric levels 1 1015 g c v CARBONATE ROCKS vast amount N2 nitrogen gas FIXATION by bacteria and blue green algae costs energy DENITRIFICATION by anaerobic bacteria uses nitrate as electron acceptor NH4 gt N 02 gt N03 ammonium nitrite nitrate NITRIFICATION by aerobic bacteria chemosynthetic 7 yields energy highly accessible to plants highly mobile in soil accessible to many plants relatively immobile in soil Key Obligatory Mutualisms of the Biosphere Cate gory Eukaryotes Corals zooxanthellae Plants amp mycorrhizae Gut ora and animals Pollination by animals Characteristics Importance Intracellular mutualism incorporating mitochondria and chloroplastsi accounts for four of the ve kingdoms Photosynthetic contributions of zooxanthellae are key to high coral productivity and tropical dominance Mycorrhizae crucial for plant access to immobile nutrients water and especially nitrogen All herbivores require help ll protozoans and bacteria in their guts to obtain enough energy from their food Most terrestrial plants depend entirely on animals to accomplish sexual reproduction When Will Facultative Mutualism Persist EVOLUTIONARY PREDICTION Facultative mutualism will persist when mutualistic individuals have higher tness w than nonmutualistic individuals when wm gt wnm But in providing bene ts to other species mutualists may not always be successful in receiving bene ts in return Let wms be the tness of successful mutualists Let wmu be the tness of unsuccessful mutualists Let p be the proportion of mutualists that are successful lp are unsuccessful Then wm pwms lpwmu an average of wms and wmu weighted by the proportions p and l p of each So the prediction is that FM persists when pwms lpwmu gt wnm So should plants make extra oral nectaries to bribe ants to defend them Let H be the proportion of undefended plant tissue that would be damaged by herbivores Let D be the proportion of this damage avoided by nonant defense lD proportion allowed Let A be the proportion of this damage prevented by ants lA proportion allowed Let I A be the proportion of the plant s resources invested in ant defense the bribe Let ID be the proportion of the plant s resources invested in other defenses Now express tness w PROPORTIONAL GAIN l 7 PROPORTION DAMAGED 7PROPORTION INVESTED Then substituting the above proportions into this relationship for each type of tness wms l 7 HlAlD 7 IAID Wmu 1 7 T IAID and Wm 1 HlDl 113 Now substituting these into pwms lpwmu gt wquotm and simplifying yields pHlDA gt I A So investing in extra oral nectaries and thus engaging in facultative mutualism with ants is more likely to make sense by satisfying the inequality when p H and A are big and when D and I A are small7that is when nectaries attract ant defenders more often when plants are more susceptible to herbivore damage when ant defense is potentially more e ective when less defense is provided from other sources and when the cost of extrafloral nectaries is relatively low