INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION
INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION BIO 303
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Retta Mayert on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 303 at University of Kentucky taught by James Krupa in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/228205/bio-303-university-of-kentucky in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Exam 2 prep sheet This exam will cover chapters 5 6 and 13 sadly chapter 15 will be skipped The ve recitations covering grove snails and the sea shells will be on the exam as well as recitation covering sexual selection readings From the sea shell recitations know how to read the data output that you got from PHYLIP Know how to pull data from GENBANK Be able to generate and interpret phylogenetic trees on the exam Raw Material Chapters 5 Give special attention to Table 53 on page 137 as this this provides details on the many ways mutations in uence gene expression What is a pseudogene Keep in mind this is the same as a fossil gene What is vertical gene transfer vs horizontal gene transfer What groups of organisms exhibit each What biological and evolutionary differences occur when mutations occur in somatic cells and germ line cells Know your genotypes from your phenotypes from your polyphenic traits from your genetic polymorphisms Know how to recognize the major types of mutation What types of new variation can come from each Know the examples from class and from the book Why is polyploidy of evolutionary signi cance and what type of mutation causes polyploidy Know the terms in purple print along the margin of the chapters Drift and Selection Chapter 6 Know the conditions fundamental conclusions and assumptions of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium theorem Know what happens when each of the assumptions is violated Understand when homozygotes are favored by selection and when heterozygotes are favored What does xation mean and when does it occur Understand ALL the empirical examples in the book What is heterozygote superiority What is negative frequencydependent selection How does it work What are examples from the book and can you recognize other examples when data are provided What impact do mutations alone have on selection Are mutations usually deleterious bene cial or neutral What is the relationship between population size and mutation impact What is genetic drift What are the important nuances of genetic drift with respect to evolution What are the differences between Selection and Genetic drift Not only be able to de ne sampling error but understand its interaction with genetic drift population srze What is founder effect What is its relationship with sampling error genetic drift population size and conservation issues What are the problems and bene ts of inbreeding What can happen as a result of inbreeding Under what conditions does inbreeding have a minimal impact What is inbreeding depression Be able to de ne it Be able to calculate it Know how to interpret value in figures In the book section 67 the collapse of a dynasty is particularly interesting as problems associated with inbreeding Be familiar with that example What is coef cient of inbreeding F What is an extinction vortex Can you explain the example in the book and generate your own hypothetical example What is genetic load When dealing with conservation issues what are the relationships between habitat fragmentation population size gene ow inbreeding homozygosity fitness reproductive success inbreeding depression and extinction With respect to in class discussion of conservation of Missouri collared lizards and Illinois prairie chickens what were some of the actions taken prevent extinctions Also what were the genetic problems faced by both populations What is an extinction vortex Can you explain the example in the book and generate your own hypothetical example What is genetic load When dealing with conservation issues what are the relationships between habitat fragmentation population size gene ow inbreeding homozygosity fitness reproductive success inbreeding depression and extinction Know the terms in purple print along the margin of the chapters Speciation Chapter 13 What is meant by secondary contact What is reinforcement What is prezygotic reproductive isolation and postzygotic reporductve isolation What are examples of each What is a ring species What is isolation by distance When does hybridization result in either reinforcement or speciation What is allopatric and sympatric speciation When will these occur and what are examples De ne speciation What are the forms of barriers that prevent gene ow that make allopatric speciation possible Be able to explain and define the species concepts phylogenetic biological and morphospecies What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of these What are examples What is lateral gene transfer and in what organism do you see it What is a species Know the three species concepts Some old exam questions Examine the figure showing two color morphs of orchids blue orchid and a white orchid that result from frequencydependent selection From the gure answer the following questions Relative reproductive 15 3 B 0 Frequency of blue morph 3 When will blue orchids have their highest reproductive success a A b B c C d D e E 4 Where will white orchids have their highest reproductive success a A b B c C d D e E 5 Where will blue and white orchids have equal reproductive success a A b B c C d D e E 6 Which of the two color morphs of orchids will likely reach xation a White morph b Blue morph c Both morphs d Neither morph 7 Divergence in traits such as genitalia shape prevents fertilization What specific type of pre zygotic isolation is known as 8 Species exist when they are from one another because of a lack of Examine the figure below to answer questions 20 o Allelic Diversity 0 Island A Island B Island C Island D 9 Which of these examples most likely represents a population on an island farthest from the mainland a A b B c C d D 10 Which of these examples most likely represents a population of collared lizards on a Missouri glade without migration a A b B c C d D 11 Which of these populations has the greatest potential for evolution to occur a A 12 Dispersal and Vicariance result in speciation a Sympatric speciation b Allopatric speciation c Neither allopatric speciation nor sympatric speciation d Both allopatric and sympatric speciation 13 The looks at genetic divergence as well as morphological traits a Biological species concept b Phylogenetic species concept c Morphospecies concept 14 The considers 39 quot y 39 39 l 39 due to l 39 quot isolation a Biological species concept b Phylogenetic species concept c Morphospecies concept 15 The is the primary way in which fossils are assigned to species a Biological species concept b Phylogenetic species concept c Morphospecies concept Exam 3prep sheet Exam 3 will cover chapters 11 sexual selection and behavior chapter 3 history of life and chapter 14 extinction pages 458 to 469 Exam 3 will include recitations since exam 2 Sexual Selection and behaviorChapter 11 Skip pages 329 to 334 What is female choice why and when does it occur What is runaway sexual selection When does sexual selection acts on females When does sexual selection acts on males When is sexual selection stronger on females or on males Why is female choice common but male choice rare What is sperm competition and what are examples De ne sexual con ict What are alternative male mating strategies and why do they exist How can alternative mating tactic in uences which disruptive selection stabilizing selection or directional selection What is the concept of the sneaker male How can sexual selection cause disruptive selection When is male competition and combat expected How does sexual selection influence human body size When and why are sexual selection and natural selection at odds Examples Who typically has higher parental investment Males or females De ne parental investment All the handouts and class discussion and class examples are very important History of life Chapter 3 and Chapter 14 pages 458 to 469 What is meant by the vary phrase Cambrian Explosion What is Ediacaran fauna Why is the Burgess Shale fauna signi cant What caused the Cambrian Explosion What is an adaptive radiation What triggers adaptive radiations What is stasis and what are examples What is the difference between stasis and gradualism Why does stasis occur What is the relationship between adaptive radiations and mass extinction What are background extinctions When did the big 5 mass extinctions occur What is punctuated equilibrium Be sure that you can recognize examples of stasis punctuated equilibrium and gradualism Old Exam Questions 1 In what period did the greatest mass extinction of all time occur a Cambrian b Devonianc Silurian d Carboniferouse Permian 2 Parent offspring con ict will be greater between a a mother and halfsibling b a mother and full siblingc a mother and a sibling that is cloned of the mother 3 In what period did the first mammals evolve a Triassic b Jurassic c Cretaceous d Permian e Carboniferous 4 When trilobites rst evolved they were small creatures with fairly simple minimally armored bodies Over time spines plates and armor evolved as common parts of bodies What is the best explanation for the evolution of spines plates and armor a That the trilobites continued their adaptive radiation b That the trilobites were evolving into new niches c That the trilobites were evolving into new creatures 1 That predators of trilobites were in uencing trilobite evolution 5 Examine the three gures below for males of a species of bird living on an isolated mountain top Based on these gures which phrase best describes factors in uencing male size a Sexual selection and natural selection are complimentary forces b Natural selection is the primary force acting on male size c Sexual selection is the primary force acting on male size 1 Natural selection and sexual selection are both strong opposing forces acting on male size e Natural selection and sexual selection are both weak opposing forces with little in uence on male size 3 H 3 395 39g 3 l E E E 5 a 3 2 g 2 Small Large Small Large Small Large Male size Male size Male size 6 The presence of small male sneakers in a population of sh is an alternative mating tactic that may result in what type of selection for male body size a directional b stabilizing c disruptive 1 none 7 According to Donald Broom something is moral if it a pertains to the fair treatment of all living organisms b pertains to the fair treatment of humanity c pertains to the fair treatment of humans 1 pertains to laws despite what is humane e pertains to right rather than wrong Exam 4prep sheet Exam 4 will cover chapters 17human evolution and 18 evolutionary medicine and any readings and handouts given out in class and all lecture material The recitations on hominid bones and skulls skin color activity readings and simulation will be included Evolutionary medicine Chapter 18 What are the four primary questions asked by researchers in evolutionary medicine What are humans so freaking lazy explained from an evolutionary point of view What are autoimmune diseases What is germ theory What is the anatomy of the In uenza A virus that makes it problematic What are antigenic sites and where are they found How can host manipulation function as a corridor What is rabies and how does it spread What is the relationship between u humans pigs and birds especially ducks What is the relationship between war and epidemics What is hemaglutinin and what neuraminidase What does HlNl mean What are the competing hypotheses for how the Spanish u got started Why are corridors and barriers important to your health What species are the main carriers of the u virus What are antibiotics and how do they in uence the evolution of bacterial resistance What are the best defenses against antibiotic resistance Define virulence What are the hypotheses that consider the evolution of virulence Carefully read the section on reconstructing the history of cancer What did our huntergatherer ancestors eat and how does this differ from today s US diet What is myopia What are the possible causes of breast cancer How might menstrual cycles in uence breast cancer What does it mean to treat a symptom but not an adaptation within reason What the possible adaptation of fever and other nonhuman animals What is the relationship between fever and chickenpox and fever and the common cold What is the relationship between fever and sepsis What is the relationship between parenthood stepparents vs biological parents children s health and child abuse What are the biological explanations for observed differences What is combination drug therapy Human evolution Chapter 17 What is Oldowan tool making How many times did hominins likely leave Africa What is a parallel human What is the relationship between extant apes and humans Do humans belong to the same clade as apes Do humans to the same clade as African apes or Asian apes When did humans and chimps likely diverge When did humans chimps and bonobos possibly diverge from the gorilla branch What is the explanation for why humans have 46 chromosomes while the other apes have 8 What are the greatest discoveries paleontologists have made concerning hominid ancestors Who is the rst family of human paleontology What is the relationship between brain size and tooth size What is the African replacement model vs the multiregional model Which has the evidence What are some of the main anatomical differences between chimps and humans What are the two big anatomical features that have given humans a huge advantage in dealing with their environment What is the relationship between metacarpal I and tool making Did Neanderthals have speech What is the evidence Who was the Piltdown man Who was Nebraska man Who did Louis Leakey help get started in primate research Who is thought to be the transitional form from Australopithecus and Homo When in the past do we think multiple species of hominins coexist on earth and in Africa Who where some of the coexisting species Why is the Denisova fossil signi cant Why is the Miocene of importance to human evolution What is the evidence that humans evolved in Africa then left Africa What is some of the anatomical evidence for arboriality Old Exam Questions from last 4 years 1 In terms of the never ending arms race between host and pathogen iron reduction is a a bene t to the pathogen and a bene t to the host b cost to the pathogen and a bene t to the host c bene t to the pathogen and a cost to the host d cost to the pathogen and a cost to the host e cost to the pathogen and a bene t to the pathogen 2 Interms of the never ending arms race between host and pathogen sneezing is a a bene t to the pathogen and a bene t to the host b cost to the pathogen and a bene t to the host c bene t to the pathogen and a cost to the host d cost to the pathogen and a cost to the host e cost to the pathogen and a bene t to the pathogen 3 When you wash your hands after using a public restroom what are you actually doing in biological terms a Creating a barrier b Creating a corridor c Both d Neither 4 Which of the options below could be considered an effective barrier if you are suffering from a pathogen in your lungs a Sneezing with your hand held about two inches from your mouth b Coughing with your mouth wide open c Taking a cough suppressant d Picking your nose frequently e Letting someone else take a bite out of your hamburger sandwich 5 Paul Ewald has a very different hypothesis for how the Spanish u of 1918 His hypothesis says what a The u mutated and got started in Fort Riley Kansas b The u got started in Boston then spread around the world c The u mutated in China then spread to Boston before becoming a pandemic d The u may have gotten its start in China but evolved and spread in the World War I trenches 6 Which below is not a possible combination of physical characteristics that a mammal can exhibit a Large intestines and small brain b Small intestines and large brain c Small intestines and small brain d Large intestines and large brain 7 Which below is the explanationhypothesis currently considered valid by those studying human evolution a Evolution of large brains permitted ancestral humans to use re b Shifting from hunting and gathering to agriculture caused humans to evolve large brains c Increase in fruits and vegetables in the diet permitted ancestral humans to evolve large brains d Use of re for cooking resulted in the evolution of large brains in humans 8 Exam the hominid family tree below Determine which species is represented by each letter Below write the number representing the species or genus in the box beside the letter Today 1 MYA 2MYA G H 3 MYA 4 MYA 5 MYA 6 MYA 7 MYA El gt11 E C1 r ozz IIEIIZIEIEIIiIIII DZIIZIIII T C F Y D E I l L P Ifl M El 1 Proconsul 2 Paranthropus aethiopicus 3 Paranthropusbosei 4 Paranthropusrobustus 5 Australopithecus anamensis 6 Australopithecus afarensis 7 Sahelanthropus 8 Australopithecus africanus 9 Australopithecus sediba 10 Kenyanthropus 11Ardipithecus l2 Homo sapems l3 Homo neanderthalensis l4 Homo heidelbergensis 15 Homo habilis l6 Homo ergoster l7 Homo erectus 18 Homo oresiensis l9 Purgatorius 20 Plesiadapis 21 Dryopithicus 22 Proconsul 23 Ramapithicus 24 Gigantopithicus Section 2 Short answer ll in the blank ll in the box 1 Examine the phylogenetic tree for great apes below Write the appropriate letter representing a species in the box to correctly show its place in the great ape phylogeny 21132 El III III III III III L l A Gibbon B Gorilla C Bonobo D Human E Orangutan F Chimpanzee G Proboscis monkey D 2 The rst confirmed primate A Purgatorius BPlesiadapis CDry0pithicus D 3 Possible Miocene ancestor to humans DPr000nsul EOreopithicus D 4 First primatelike creature Examine the specimens pictured below to answer the following questions 5 Which exhibit extremely pronounced prognathism can be more than one answer 6 Which exhibit the most reduced prognathism could be more than one answer 7 Which had extremely large at teeth could be more than one answer 8 Which belong to the genus Paranthropuscould be more than one answer 9 Which is of the genus Australopz39thecus only one correct answer 10 Which one existed most recently in the past only one correct answer ll theory of disease was arguably the most important breakthrough in development of modern medicine 12 theropy is considered one of the most effective ways preventing bacteria from evolving resistance to antibiotics 13 That we have bad backs blind spots in our retina and a craving for fat despite knowing too much is bad for us is all the fault of our 14 One of the main takehome messages from the evolutionary medicine lectures is that whenever possible you should create as often as you can By doing this you increase the chance of that pathogens will evolve to be virulent 15 Drastically new stains of u come out of southeast Asia What are the three groups of species or taxa that cause the problem by living together 16 Of these three taxa which is considered the mixing bowl for very new strains of u l7 Contrary to what keeps most eukaryotic species isolated actually causes the speciation of prokaryotes 18 Provide the rst names of all ve members of the Leakey Family who are human paleontologists 19 What was the common name of the creature known as H epseropithecus
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