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by: Juvenal Beahan


Juvenal Beahan
GPA 3.92

Ruigang Yang

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Ruigang Yang
Class Notes
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juvenal Beahan on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 335 at University of Kentucky taught by Ruigang Yang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/228210/cs-335-university-of-kentucky in ComputerScienence at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
A Color and Display WI Slides from Minglun Gong Outline Intensify Range Quantization Color Color space Color models Displays Thursday March 05 2009 2 Intensity Range of the intensity What energy range will be considered The ratio between the maximum and minimum intensities is called dynamic range Quantization of intensity How to step through the intensity range I0a I1Za I23a I0a I1ra Izzr39za 39 Thursday March 05 2009 3 Range of Intensity Quantization of Intensity Thursday March 05 2009 5 Color We can match a color using red green amp blue Some colors need negative weight for red CIE Commission Internationale de I39Eclairage defined 3 standard primaries X Y amp Z Can match all visible colors using only positive weights 39 Thursday March 05 2009 2 03 F 02 01 V K I gtlt x D39Ulllllllllllllllll 390 430 4m 510 550 590 530 am no 6 CIE Chromaticity Diagram ChromaTiciTy diagram is The XYZ1 plane in The CIE space Can be considered as The colors of lighTs ThaT have The same ToTal amounT of energy 09 Thursday March 05 2009 Monitor Gamut The range of colors that can be shown is called gamut The gamut of a typical monitor does not cover the entire space The corners of the triangle depend on the emittance of the phosphors of the monitor Certain colors cannot be shown Thursday March 05 2009 Color Models RGB Red green amp blue CMY CMYK Cyan magenta yellow amp black HSV HLS Hue saturation lightness amp value YUV YIQ Thursday March 05 2009 9 RGB Model Additive color model Red Blue Magenta Blue Green Cyan Green Red Yellow Blue Red Blue Green White Used by most of The monitors Thursday March 05 2009 10 S RGB vs Adobe RGB sRGB standard RGB is an RGB color space created by HP amp Microsoft Matches what CRT monitors can display Adobe RGB is an RGB color39 space developed by Adobe in 1998 Has a larger gamut Than sRGB Thursday March 05 2009 CMY Model Subtracfive color model Cyan C absorbs r39ed Magenta M absorbs green Yellow Y absorbs blue Used by many printer39s Magenta Thursday March 05 2009 12 Convert between RGB 85 CMY RGBgtCMY C1R M1G Y1B CMYgtRGB R1C G1M B1Y Thursday March 05 2009 13 cmEYTEBmodel Add the 4 h color Block K Use black ink directly instead of mixing color inks Convert from CMY to CMYK K minC M Y C CK M MK Y Y K Thursday March 05 2009 14 HSV HLS Model Useroriented color model Hue Dominant wavelength Saturation Excitation purity 1 Value Luminance HLS model is similar Use Lightness instead of Value Thursday March 05 2009 S atur 5111 011 C onvert RGB to HSV 85 HLS Max maxR G B Min minR G B V Max if Max 0 5 0 else 5 Max Min Max Thursday March 05 2009 Max maxR G B Min minR G B L Max Min 2 if Max 0 5 0 else 5 Max Min Max Min 16 YUV Model Human perception color model One luminance channel Two chrominance channels Chrominance is defined as the difference between a color and a reference white at the same luminance Used in PAL analog video amp digital video Human eyes are more sensitive to luminance than to chrominance 55 MHz for Y 18 MHz each for U amp V 39 Thursday March 05 2009 17 YIQ Model Align with human perceptual color sensitivities I is the orangeblue axis lcos33 Usin33 Q is the purplegreen axis lsin33 Ucos33 ed in NTSC color TV broadcasting Eyes are most sensitive to Y next to I next to Q 42 MHz for Y 15 MHz to I 055 MHz to Q Us 39 Thursday March 05 2009 18 Convert RGB to YUV 85 YIQ Y 0299R O587G Y 0299R O587G 0114B 0114B u 0492 B y I 0596R 0275 v 0877 R y 0321B Q 0212R 0523 0311B Thursday March 05 2009 19 Display Technologies Cathode ray tube Liquid crystal Display Plasma display panel Digi ral micromirror display Epaper Thursday March 05 2009 20 Cathode Ray Tube CRT Key components Electr39on gun Deflection plates Shadow mask Screen Advantages Excellent image quality Excellent viewing angles Low price Disadvantages Bulky and heavy Thursday March 05 2009 Color CRT Based on the geometric position among Three electron guns Metal shadow mask Phosphors on CRT face Thursday March 05 2009 Phosphor Pattern of Striped Picture Tube Phosphor 22 Phosphor Patterns Delta electron gun arrangement Inline electron gun arrangement Thursday March 05 2009 Liquid Crystal Display LCD Key components Backlighi Polarizer39 quot Liquid crystal Wquot Polarizer39 911 Advantages W Thin amp light 395 quot39 Disadvantages Slow response Times Limited viewing angles Poor39 black levels Thursday March 05 2009 How Liquid Crystal Works Without voltage Liquid crystal molecules will change the light39s plane of T u Nat Input voltage u I a v I lnputvoltaga H 7 Vlbr39a l39IOl l to match mm their own angle 39 39 mam 39 With voltage 5331 t o 1 I quot I 39 v73ubslrate a quoti M v Paarizvarr r Iquot J molecules Will be use mam untwnsted 39 Transmissive or39 reflective display Pixels do not lit from themselves Thursday March 05 2009 Plasma Display Panel PDP Key components Gasfilled cells Phosphors Advantages Easy 1390 make larger sizes Cheaper Than LCD Disadvantages Susceptible To burnin Heavier Than LCD Thursday March 05 2009 Structure of Newly Developed Panel fursomv riwlmdr hmcmwume 1quot avour 2 a mg mnpmx ljrem nqunur it Plum390 How Plasma Display Works Same principle as the ordinary fluorescent lamp Electric current pass through gasfilled cell Ionized gas emits quotW39 quot 11w0 fe i melm i r ultraviolet light Ultraviolet light stimulates phosphors from Glass Suhs lrm DIEIECHLV a Pm eclm Layer M90 Baum FLEI Pl ospnur Hear Glass Substrate Admess Eleclmcla Thursday March 05 2009 27 Digital Light Processing DLP Key components Light source Color filter DLPBoard Digital micromirror WinProcessor device DMD Memory ijewonLens Projection lens DMD a Advantages W Optics smOO rh image ShaplngLens quotrquot Disadvantages ColorFmer a o Condensing Lens 1 Video nonse WSW Possible rainbow effect httpwwwdpcomincludesdemoflashaspx 39 Thursday March 05 2009 28 How Micromirror Works Based on controlling the angle of micromirrors On position reflects light to the lens Off position reflects light to absorb surface Grey level is created by the percent of time the mirror is in the on position during an image refresh cycle DMD Lights c s x I v V Mine lD don Thursday March 05 2009 Electronic Paper Sony ERead Amazon Kindle Low cost low weight Extremely power efficient mm out THE LIGHTBEAM RIDER J 3 67 6amp 3 t a eg e eeeg e e 1 e me Thursday March 05 2009 HighDynamic Range Display 31 Display Environments Desktop display Monitor Headmounted display Glasses Immersive display CAVE IMAX Thursday March 05 2009 32 Desktop Display Advantages Low cost High resolution Disadvantages Limited angle of views Thursday March 05 2009 33 Headmounted Display Advantages Stereoscopic display Full angle of views Disadvantages Limited resolution Need to track head direction Weights on the head For one person only Thursday March 05 2009 34 3D Viewing Stereopsis Anaglyph redblue stereo v V39 v 7 1w 3D Viewing Other Display Devices headmounted VR rotating helix screen deformable mirrors 3D layered panels Dlsplay Volume Immersive Display Advantages High resolution Lar39ge angle of views Disadvantages Expansive Need To Track eye position Thursday March 05 2009 37 Using Camerabased Calibration for automatic alignment Thursday March 05 2009 38 V Curved Screen 7 Alphablending is turne off to better show the calibration accuracy Zoomin views 9 332009 Slides from Minglun Gong Outline Light Visible spectrum Human eye Intensify percep on Color percep on Tuesday March 03 2009 2 332009 What is Light Light Electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation Electromagnetic energy A wave characterized by variations of electric and magnetic fields Low frequency gt high frequency Radio waves Microwaves Infrared Visible light Ultraviolet X Rays Gamma Rays Tuesday March 03 2009 3 Electromagnetic Spectrum THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM m m w39 I 10 I0quot w39 m39 10 to lo m39 in w39quoti Tuesday March 03 2009 332009 Visible Spectrum Visible lights have wavelength 400700 nm Violet 380 Blue 450 490 Green 490 560 Yellow 560 590 Orange 590 640 40 Wavelengtnmm mu Red 640 730 Tuesday March 03 2009 5 Light Electromagnetic energy in the 400700nm wavelength Spectral distribution is need to precisely describe a light Key parameters Intensity Frequency Tuesday March 03 2009 332009 Light Cont d Intensity amp Color Intensity of the light depends on its energy Color of the light depends on its spectral distribution The visual effect of light can be described concisely by a triple Different spectral energy distribution look the same to human Mapping between spectral distributions and colors is many to one Tuesday March 03 2009 7 Human Eye Cross section of human eye Vitreous 39 Tuesday March 03 2009 8 332009 Eye s receptors Rods and Cones Cones Roughly 67 million Concenfrafeo in re fovea Highly sens ve fo color Rods 75150 millon Nof39 involved in color vision Sens ve fo lowlevel illumina on Help give an overall pcfure of re field of view Receptor distribution 1E0 000 blind spot rodsx 90 000 e of rods or cones per mmquot2 y m o o o o Fovea Degrees from fovea Facts about Eyes Some numbers Rods 120M Cones 6M Optic nerves 1M Cones distribution 5 red 64 39 M green 32 L blue 2 No blue cones in fovea Tuesday March 03 2009 332009 Field of View Both eyes 180 One eye 120 Correct perspective Focal length equals field of view About 53 Equivalent to 43mm lens for 35mm camera See your blindspot with your right eye Close your left eye and stare at the cross mark in the diagram 332009 Optics of the eye 15 X W 17 X 255mrn 100 rn 17mm Human visual acuity I Visual acuiTy of a normal eye is 160 of a degree I 2 9 Mg XZ 332009 Visual acuity calculations X size of objec r x D Tan 2 D disTance from objec r Z 2 e 160 Thus39 Human acuity X 2D Tana120 degree X 2D0000l4544 X 000029088 D How far can we be from an 1mm abjecf and s39 see If 1mm D 3437 meTers 000029088 gt I Human sampling 332009 Intensity Perception Dynamic range 105105 lumensmz LIIx Need about 30 minutes to ada Contrast sensitivity Can distinguish about a 50 discrete shades of gray 6 7 bits of gray level Sensitive to ratios of intensity levels not absolute values Tuesday March 03 2009 17 Color Perception Only the cones are responsible for color perception Three types of cones Peak sensitivities locate at 430nm 560nm amp 610nm Roughly equivalent to blue 436nm green 546nm amp red 700nm Ema Gram Red Canes Rods Canes Cmes Kenna Emma pa mnuaxmmy 3 39 Tuesday March 03 2009 332009 Chromostereopsis Depth effect due to color Red appears closer quot 122 ff Blue appears further Used to create 3D effect I ST LAWRENCE RIVER Ich r m Tuesday March 03 2009 Afterimage Strong colors create afterimage Red gt cyan Blue gt yellow Green gt magenta Tuesday March 03 2009 332009 Color Deficiency Europe and North America Male 8 Female 1 Major form is dichr oma rism have difficulty in discriminating colors Avoid using color alone To convey information Tuesday March 03 2009 21 Ishihara Test quotvi03951 3 339 I J zsaa a 53 Tuesday March 03 2009 332009 Hybrid Image J 2065 Aude Oliva and Antonio Toualb A Oliva A Torralba PG Schyns 2006 Hybrid Images ACM Transacfions on Graphics ACM Siggraph 25 3 527 530 h pcvcmif eduhybridimage hfrn


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