INTRODUCTORY NUTRITION NFS 212
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Date Created: 10/23/15
DHN212 Introductory Nutrition Dietary Reference Intakes For more than sixty years nutrition experts have produced a set of energy calorie and nutrient intake standards These standards have traditionally been designed only for those nutrients deemed most essential In addition these recommended levels are based on how much of a nutrient a person must consume to greventa deficiency For example how much Vitamin C does an individual need to consume before they develop scurvy Well in 1997 a new set of standards called the Dietary Reference Intakes was established in the United States The biggest difference between the DRI s and previous nutrient intake standards is that the DRI s are based on how much of a nutrient a person needs to consume for optimal health and to prevent chronic disease For example how much Vitamin C does an individual need to consume to help reduce their future risk for cancer As you can see these recommendations are no longer based on deficiency syndromes Western populations in general have a diet that is very plentiful and therefore deficiencies are not as major of a problem as they used to The DRI s are revised periodically to include more nutrients and if new research data is available to reflect more accurate levels of nutrients that should be consumed The most recent DRI s were published in 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes DRI19 Includes four values Estimated Average Requirements EAR Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA Adequate Intakes AI Tolerable Upper Intake Levels UL 1 Estimated Average Requirements 9 2 Recommended Dietary Allowances 9 Let s Practice What is the RDA for Vitamin 312 for 20year old female What is the RDA for Vitamin C for a 17year old male 3 Adequate Intakes 9 Let s Practice What are three nutrients where AI s are set 4 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 9 How are Recommended Intakes for Nutrients and Energy Different See Figure 15 Nutrients9 The RDA s for nutrients are set high enough above the EAR to meet the needs of most healthy people To be exact if 98 of the quatan were consuming the RDA for a nutrient then they would be meeting their needs for that nutrient For example the RDA for folate is 400 ugday for young adults There are approximately 300 of you in class Therefore for 98 or 294 of you if you consumed 400 ug of folate per day you would be getting plenty to meet your needs It is often said that nutrient RDA s are set to be generous Energy 9 The RDA for energys the same as the EAR Why Well over 60 of Americans are overweight or obese and therefore we do not want to set calorie levels to be generous If they were then people would be consuming more calories then their bodies actually need and therefore would gain weight The Na39ive vs Accurate View of Nutrient Intakes See Figure 16 This graphic is showing us that there is no EXACT amount of a nutrient that a person should be consuming Exam 1 USDA Food Guide o Eat more 0 Vegetables dark greens orange legumes 0 Fruits 0 Whole grains 0 Fat free or low fat dairy o Eat less 0 Refined grains 0 Total fats o Added sugars o Calories Components to USDA Food Guide o Controlling calories o Groups Fruits Vegetables Grains Meat poultry fish dried peas and beans eggs and nuts Milk yogurt and cheese Oils 0 Solid fats and added sugars Controlling Calories o Goal prevent unhealthy weight gain o Individualized at choosemyplategov o Watch portion sizes Defining a serving o Today vs 1985 sizes have doubled Contributing to obesity in the US o Soda refills and cup sizes 0 used to be 10 oz 120cal now 4060 oz 580cal o Hamburgers 0 used to be 34 oz 330 cal now 6802 605 cal o Pasta 0 Used to be 1 cup 220 cal now 23cups 600cal o Candy Bar 0 Used to be 15 oz 220cal now 3402 580 cal O O O O O O Fruits o Consume variety of fruits o No more than 13 as fruit juice o Apples blueberries oranges dried fruit o 12 cup fruit 0 12 C fresh frozen or canned fruit 1 medium fruit 14 C dried fruit 12 C fruit juice 0 O 0 Vegetables o consume variety of veggies from all five subgroups several times a week dark green orange amp deep yellow legumes starchy potatoes corn other 12 C veggies o 12 C cutup raw or cooked veggies o 12 C cooked legumes o 12 C veggies juice 0 1 C raw leafy greens Grains o At least half grains selections whole grains o Whole grains 0 Breads o Crackers o Enriched grains 0 Cereal 0 Pasta o 1 oz grains 0 1 slice bread 0 12 C cooked rice pasta cereal o 1 C cereal Proteins meat poultry etc o Make lean or lowfat choices o Fish legumes eggs lean meat low fattofu nuts o 1 oz meat 0 1 oz cooked meat poultry fish 1 e919 14 C cooked legumes 1 tbsp peanut butter 12 oz nuts or seeds Milk yogurt cheese o Make fatfree or lowfat choices o Fatfree milk lowfat cheese light yogurt fatfree soy milk o 1 C milk 0 1 C fatfree yogurt 0 1 12 oz natural cheese shredded cheese 0 2 oz processed cheese velveta O O O O Oils o Select the recommended amounts of oils from good sources o Olive oil flaxseed oil canola oil transfat free margarine fatty fish nuts o 1 tsp oil 0 1 tbsp lowfat mayonnaise 0 2 tbsp light salad dressing 0 1 tsp vegetable oil 0 1 tsp soft margarine Solid fats and added sugars o Limit intake o Whole milk fatty meat butter sour cream candy soft drinks alcohol o Keep all levels to a minimum but do not have to totally eliminate MODERATION IS KEY Any problems with the USDA guidelines o Hard to understand o Requires access to computer and internet o Key dietary problems 0 Significant increase in dairy o No difference between meat and legumes o Refined grains same as whole grains Harvard University Healthy Eating Pyramid o More categories 0 Protein is divided up red meat is limited to the top 0 Shows importance of multi vitamins and dark alcohol 0 More veggies Mediterranean Diet Pyramid o Low incident in heart disease o Olive oil food group certain fats are better for you than others o Red meat is at very top limited o Includes exercise and red wine Vegetarian Food Pyramid o Vegans dairy alternatives beans and nuts Elderly Food Pyramid o Hydration is important not as thirsty because they re not as active 0 Poor bladder control o Supplements often needed 0 Calcium vitamin D amp B12 Look up o What are 4 pieces of advice you have for someone who is food shopping 0 Don t go hungry stay near the exterior know your budget have a list read nutrition labels o What are exchange lists How are they used Nutrition Facts o Nutrition Education amp Labeling Act of 1990 o If you made something healthy you d want to post your facts 0 Now they re all required to post o Every packaged food MUST state the following 0 Common or usual name of the product Vitamin D instead of scientific name o Name amp address of manufacturer packer or distributor 0 Food illnesses recalled has problems serve allergies 0 Single serve mac and cheese had microscopic metal o Net contents in terms of weight measure or count 0 Makes companies be honest with the consumers Ingredient List o All ingredients listed in descending order of predominance by weight o Which is more nutritious 0 Orange powder Sugar citric acid orange flavor Water orange juice concentrate pineapple juice concentrate 0 Dry Cereal 100 shredded wheat puffed milled corn corn syrup sucrose honey salt Serving size amp number of servings per container o Common household amp metric measures of a single serving of food o Reflects amounts customarily consumed o Nutrient amounts listed for one serving o Keep in mind 0 1 serving ice cream 12 cup 150cal o 2 scoops ice cream 2 cups 4 servings 600cal Calories per serving amp calories from fat c 13 calories from fat o Daily values 0 Total fat Cholesterol Sodium Total carbohydrate Protein Don t have to be completely broken down into what types of fats etc 0 O O O 0 Trans Fat c As of 2007 must be listed because found as a leading cause for heart disease o Vegetable oil goes through hydrogenation margarine Crisco trans fat frying oils in restaurants o Synthetic man made fat that our body can t break down accumulates in our blood vessels o You should eat ZERO trans fat per day Percent Daily Values o Based on 2000 calorie diet o Used as a guide for healthy adults and child over 4yrs o Helps consumers see easily whether a food contributes a little or a lot of a nutrient o Not used to plan your diet used to compare different foods mayo Nutrition facts based on how it s prepared o Pudding when prepared with skim milk or whole milk majority of the ingredients you ve never heard of FRIDAY NOTES MISSED Esophagus o Food pipe moves bolus from mouth to stomach o Esophageal sphincters circular muscle surrounding and able to close a body opening 0 Upper esophageal sphincter Pharynx esophagus 0 Lower esophageal sphincter Esophagusstomach Closes as soon as food enters because if not contents of stomach could go back into the esophagus Acid reflex Foods and factors that contribute to heart burn a Acidic orange juice tomato based products spicy foods fatty foods pregnancy caffeinated and carbonated drinks chocolate n Heartburn medication reduces the acidity not so much as preventing the heartburn n Prevention is the key avoid certain types of food a It s not normal to have heartburn daily Peristalsis o Progressive wavelike motion that moves food thru esophagus and into stomach o Takes 15 seconds o Average esophagus is 1012 inches long o Reverse peristalsis throwing up most prominent in children they can vomit up to 6 feet Food going down wrong pipe o First aid choking using force to dislodge food particle in trachea Common foods to choke on for kids 0 Hotdogs long noodles hard candies ice cubes gumballs carrots Common foods to choke on for adults 0 Steak Choking is more likely to be fatal because it s harder to successfully use the Heimlich Adults eat to fast talk all while trying to breath Stomach 0 Body 0 Upper 3 of stomach secretes gastric juices o Pyloric distal 0 Lower 14 of stomach mixes chime o Stomach functions 0 Food stays in stomach for 4 hours 0 Food reservoirs o Secretes digestive juices o Grinds bolus into a semiliquid mass called chyme 0 release chyme thru pyloric sphincter into the small intestine pyloric sphincter stays open just a little to have gradual dripping into small intestine dumping syndrome stomach dumps too fast into sm intestine and vomiting occurs when stomach is empty PS closes o pH 2 due to hydrochloric acid o Muscles of the Stomach o Allows for the mixing action in bottom part of the stomach o 3 layers of muscles alternately contract amp relax and force chyme downward Longitudinal up and down important for peristalsis Circular back and forth more important for mixing Diagonal o The more you over eat the more the stomach expands resulting in becoming over weight Takes months to years to get back to normal Saliva o Water salts enzymes to break down carbs o Fats in infants o Mucous o Antibacterial components Gastric Juices o Comes from the stomach HCI makes pH2 Pancreatic Juices o Hormones bicarbonates enzymes Small Intestine o 10 foot length of small diameter intestine o duodenum 9 jejunum lleum o surface area of 300mA2 about the size of a tennis court 0 more surface area more absorption o digestion is completed o Absorption of Nutrients o Villi Fingerlike projections from folds of the SI Are in constant motion 0 Microvilli Tiny hairlike projections on each cell of every villus Trap nutrient particles and transport into cells 0 Crypts Tubular glands between villi Secrete intestinal juices Every 3 days new cells will be developed o receives secretions from the gallbladder amp pancreas bicarbonate amp enzymes thru common bile duct 0 To neutralize acidic chyme What about Bile have a good understanding of this o Bile is essential for fat digestion and absorption o The route that bile takes afat from stomach D liverD gallbladde small intestine o Lipase breaks apart fat o Entrohypatic circulation of bile o Bile is made in the liver from cholesterol 0 Gallbladder stores biles o Bile goes to small intestine o Duoduam to illium to be reabsorbed back to liver o Can live without the gallbladder The bile will just go directly from the live to the small intestine This means that you are constantly have the same amount of bile going into the small intestine Affects how much fat you can digest at one time o Gallstones balls of bile blocks the tubes to the small intestine o Inhibiting fat absorption means constantly pooping Large Intestine colon o Ileocecal valve 0 SI 9 LI o Lower portion of the intestine that completes the digestive process vitamin K o Bacterial production can affect many aspects of your health Healthy bacteria such as Fiber increases bifada bacteria yogurt Activtia o Formation storage amp defaecation of feces 0 Avoid removing everything from your colon because you remove healthy and bad bacteria Bad bacteria grows back quicker What happens to the nutrients o Cardiovascular system 0 Closed system of vessels through while blood flows continuously 0 Role supplies oxygen and nutrients to tissues Arteries carry blood away from the heart Veins vessels carry blood back to heart Capillaries small vessels that branch from an artery connects arteries and veins o Lymphatic system 0 Loosely organized system of vessels and ducts that convey fluids towards the heart One way route for fluid from tissues spaces to enter the blood Lymph Contains no red blood cells or platelets O O Transports fat amp fatsoluble vitamins to bloodstream A D E K o Both transport nutrients away from the GIT usually to the Liver How does your body regulate food consumption digestion and absorption o Central Nervous System 0 Brain amp spinal cord are central controllers o Cortex Outermost layer of the brain Perceives sensations of hunger amp appetite n Sight is the most important like or dislike in a food 0 Hypothalamus Located deep inside of the brain Monitors many body conditions in the blood Hormones and nerves send messages to identify need to eat Physiological need to eat glucagon o Hormones 0 Chemicals secreted by glands into the blood in response to conditions in the body that require regulation Nutrition fasting feeding and exercise alter hormonal balance 0 An example The pancreas detects a high level of sugar in the blood 9 secretes insulin Now blood levels of sugar are low 9 secretes glucagon Gastrointestinal Hormones Gastrin n Stimulates secretion of HCl into the stomach n Increases the acidity of the stomach u If over secretes ulcers Secretin n Stimulates secretion of bicarbonaterich pancreatic juice into the SI n Neutralizes acidic chyme entering from the stomach O O Cholecysokinin CCK n Stimulates release of bile into the SI n Slows GI motility to increase nutrients absorption Gastroinhibitory peptide GIP n Slows secretion of gastric juices n Slows GI motility o Putting it all together 0 Peanut butter sandwich Chewing saliva to swallow enzyme breaks down the carbs in the bread bolus pushes it back to the pharynx into the esophagus 1 foot long key role is to move food takes 10secs parstalsis upperlower espigal sphincter circular or smooth muscles relaxopens Stomach as big as fit muscles diagonal longitudinal and Distalpyloric Secretion of HCI acid to make pH2 bottom of stomach mixing turns to chyme pyloric stays open and drips Duadum jujudum illium small intestine parts Bile has fat CCK contraction of the gullbladder Lykase brakes down fat Illium reabsorption back to liver Pancreas secretes the enzymes to finish up the digestion process Villi and microvillitract to absorb cyrpts secrets juices Cardio vascular or lyphatic system Carbs go into blood fat goes into lymphatic Illiosecal valve Large intestine salt water vitamin k and bacteria likes fibers Rectum anus exits Exam 2 Carbohydrates o Green plants make glucose through photosynthesis in the presence of chlorophyll green pigment of plants amp sunlight o Glucose is an organic molecule CHO o Simple Carbohydrates o Monosaccharides o Disaccharides 2 sugar units o Complex Carbs 0 Starch o Glycogen 0 Dietary fiber o Monosaccharide one sugar unit 0 Glucose Used for quick energy Most common monosaccharide Will consume the most of o Fructose Fruit sugar Occurs mostly in fruits honey and as part of table sugar High fructose syrup is cheap and extremely unhealthy in Soads juices energy drinks No evidence that it s causing obesity 0 Galactose Part of milk sugar Does not occur free in nature o Know the structures of fructose and galactose o Draw the structure o Disaccharide Two sugar units 0 Sucrose glucose fructose Table beet or cane sugar 0 Lactose glucose galactose Milk sugar Milk or cheese Milk has higher lactose yogurt has the lowest 0 Maltose glucose glucose Malt sugar Formed when complex carbs broken down o Foods rich in simple sugars o Soda fruit drinks many cereals candy many condiments fruits BBQ 0 Average Americans eat 32 teaspoons of sugar every day 0 Should be eating 12 teaspoons per day o Polysaccharides complex carbs 0 Compounds composed of long strands of glucose units linked together Starch n Plants n Branched or unbranched Glycogen a Only in animal foods a Highly branched chains of glucose n More branching than starch will store more glucose n OVO bonds inbetween Cellulose n Example of fiber n Dietary fiber digested different non digestible because we do not have an enzyme to break apart the molecule the bonding is different a oNo bonds inbetween o foods rich in complex carbs 0 potatoes rice pasta beans bread 0 50 of whole grains o Glycemic Index 0 Measure of the rate of digestion and absorption of carb foods and the resultant effect on the blood sugar level 10 is max a glucose a white bread 0 High gt85 Maple syrup honey bagel candy carrots potatoes bread soda gatorade 0 Medium 6085 Allbran cereal banana grapes oatmeal pasta rice corn baked beans potato chips 0 LOW lt60 Apple kidney beans navy beans chickpeas peaches ice cream milk yogurt tomato soup 0 Glycemic load food glycemic index and how much a person normally consumes Use of glycemic Index 0 Hyperglycemic gt 140 mgdL o Hypoglycemialt 4050 mgdL o Reactive hypoglycemic Rapid release of insulin following a meal of high GI foods results in an overstorage of glucose in tissues o High glycemic index goes up faster and higher body over secretes insulin overstore carbohydrates o Insulin Resistance continually over secreting insulin and can t keep up stops 9 type 2 diabetes Dietary Fibers o Indigestible polysaccharides in food by humans don t have the enzymes o Form supporting structures of plants leaves steams seeds results in a coarse texture celery o Examples 0 Cellulose hemicellulose pectin gums lignins o Cellulose hemicellulose found in whole grain pastas o Pectin jamsjellys fruit 0 Gums oats o Lignins found in skin of fruits and vegetables o Human digestive enzymes cannot break apart bonds BUT bacteria in colon can somewhat Classifying Fibers o Insoluble 0 Do not dissolve in water O Tough fibrous structure of fruits veggies and grains skin Example skin of apple Whole grains are extremely rich difficult to chew celery 0 Constipated people should eat insoluble o Soluble o Dissolves in water 0 Gummy or gellike 0 Example pectin in jellies oats flesh of an apple 0 People with diarrhea Health Effects of Fiber o Improve body s handling of glucose and may prevent amp treat diabetes 0 Eat small meals will keep dietary sugar under control 0 Type 2 Diabetes 9 obesity eating simple carbs o Reduce rick of colon cancer 0 Don t know ideal level o Prevent obesity by controlling food intake and increasing satiety o Reduced risk of heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol 0 Encourage to eat soluble fibers oatmeal o Prevents the reabsorption of bile o Prevent constipation amp hemorrhoids 0 Encourage Insoluble fibers Fiber diagram o 1 Liver uses blood cholesterol to make bile 9 o 2 Gallbladder stores bile 9 o 3 Intestine bile aids digestion binds to fiber 9 4 Fiber and bile excreted in feces o 5 A little cholesterol in bile reabsorbed into the blood9 How much fiber o Daily value 2530 gramsday o Recommendations 0 Start slowly 0 Drink plenty of fluids 0 Know your body o Too much fiber 0 Block intestine O o Decrease absorption of iron zinc calcium 0 Gas Whole Grains o Whole grain 0 Grain milled in its entirety all but the husk o Bran layer is the only part that has fiber o Refined 0 Course parts of food products are removed 0 Endosperm germ grinded together o Enriched 0 Adding nutrients to a refined food product 0 Can not add back fiber Digestion and Absorption of Carbs o Mouth 0 Salivary amylase Begin the breakdown of starch o Chewing tears fiber in foods o Stomach o Acidity of stomach halts starch digestion 0 Fiber delays emptying of stomach o Small Intestine o Pancreatic amylase Starch 9 small polysacc disacc o Maltase Maltose 9 glucose glucose 0 Sucrase Sucrose 9 glucose fructose o Lactase Lactose 9 glucose galactose o Intestinal cells can now absorb monosacc o Directly to the blood to the liver o Large intestine 0 Fiber and resistant starch enter colon unchanged 0 Bacterial enzymes Some fiber 9 fatty acids gas Lactose Intolerance Inability to digest lactose due to a lack of the enzyme lactase o Body stops making less of the enzyme lactase o 0 Asian americans gt native americans gt African americans gt Hispanics gt northern Europeans o Symptoms o Nausea pain diarrhea excessive gas o Treatment 0 Enzyme pills Small amounts of lactose containing foods Lactosefree products Continue to eat cheese and yogurt but space it out in small amounts Absorption of monosaccharides o Through the blood to the liver converted to glucose Regulating blood glucose levels o Glucogen is the storage form of glucose 0 23 in muscles 0 13 in liver but is more generous o hormones secreted by the pancreas o insulin secreted when blood sugars are high 0 glucagon O O 0 Diabetes o Disease characterized by elevated blood glucose and in adequate or ineffective insulin o Blood sugar levels are abnormally high o Type 1 juvenileonset o Pancreas produces no or very little insulin o Type 2 adultonset 0 Body cells resist insulin s action 0 OVERWEIGHT o Gestational diabetes 0 Develops when a women is pregnant eating too much food 0 Bad for both motherfetus the weight of the baby will be affected Abnormally large babies o Goes away automatically after birth but increased risk in type 2 o Glucose tolerance test o Normal blood sugar level 70120 Syndrome X o 9 increased appetite 9 overeating 9 obesity 9 enlarged fat cells 9 insulin resistance KEY 9Type 2 diabetes 9 o obesity diabetes and heart disease all together o Over eating is the only thing you can control Warning signs of Diabetes o Excessive urination type 1 o Excessive thirst type 1 o Glucose in the urine o Rapid weight loss 15lbswk type 1 o Nausea weakness irritability type 12 c Blurred vision retinaopathy type 2 o Tingling in the legs feet or fingers type 2 Treatment o Medications 0 Type 1 insulin injections or pump 0 Type 2 insulin andor pills 0 Diet High in complex carbs fiber Adequate but not excessive calories Moderate in simple sugars Low in saturated fats Not too high in protein protect kidneys o Moderate Exercise 0 Must talk to a physician and monitor their levels 0 Type 2 exercise is good it will lower amount of insulin in the body weight loss 0 O O O O Hypoglycemia o Below normal blood glucose o Postprandial hypoglycemia o Blow blood glucose after a meal 0 Fatigue weakness dizziness irritability O O The more simple sugars you eat the more likely this is Treat small frequent meals balanced lean protein healthy fat o Fasting hypoglycemia O O O 0 Well into the fasting state Headache mental dullness fatigue confusion Carbs stored as glycogen Glycogen is tapped into to get energy The muscles start to hold on to the glycogen Treat by eating o Go to blackboard Ch 4 answer questions on artificial sweeteners Outline The lipids What is a lipid o Classifying fatty acids o Lipid digestion and absorption o Fat and cholesterol in the American Diet 0 O O 0 How much is ideal LDL vs HDL cholesterol Tans fatty acids Olestra Why are fats important o In cooking O O O O 0 Flavor Texture Appearance MOUTHFEEL Emulsifier brings oil and water together o In the body 9 O O O O O ENERGY source Insulation Cushion Part of cell membranes Can be made into other substances eg bile Lipids o A family of compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water 0 Triglycerides Fats and oils 0 Phospholipids o Sterols Cholesterol c As you over consume fat adipose cells swell up and replicating fat cells quickly cellulite 0 Best advice to manage cellulite is to work out builds muscles genetic can never get rid of it unless you get liposuction Fatty Acids o Carbon chains varying in length from 4 to 24 carbons long o Methyl endcccccccarbocyclic acid end o Always an even number of carbons Triglyceride fat o Glycerol 3 fatty acid chains 9 tryglyceride EXAM 3 1232012 70100 PM The proteins amp Amino Acids o Overview 0 Chemical structure of amino acids and proteins Digestion and absorption of proteins The importance of proteins in the human body Protein in the diet Protein malnutrition The joys of soy O O O O 0 What is a protein o Compounds composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and sometimes sulfur o Arranged as strands of amino acids AminoAcids SG DBO HN C C OH H H o Building blocks for protein o Each contains Amine group nitrogen Acid group Hydrogen 0 Side group is unique o Side chain differ in size shape and electrical charge o Body has 20 different The simplest amino acid o Glycine H NH2 C COOH H Essential Amino Acids o Amino acids the body cannot synthesize at all or can not make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs o Threonine valine tryptophan isoleucine leucine lysine phenylalanine methionine histidine 0 TV TILL PMH O O O Peptide bond o Two amino acids bonded together by a covalent bond o R group is always on the same side both down o Strongest type of bond difficult to break apart Protein chains o Primary linear too much space o Secondary coiled as a ribbon o Tertiary coiled and balled up protein in food o Make it more compact Quaternary Structure o Hemoglobin Large globular protein molecule Transports oxygen in the red blood cells Made up of 4 separate proteins held together in the middle by iron o Myoglobin o Transports the oxygen in the muscles Protein Digestion o Mouth 0 No enzymatic digestion 0 Proteins crushed and moistened o Stomach o HCI beings to denature break apart long protein chains 0 It uncoils the ball tertiary structure o Small intestine o Enzymes split polypeptides tripeptides and dipeptides into single amino acids 0 Absorption of amino acids o Large intestine o No digestion The Fate of Nitrogen o Amine groups of amino acids used for energy are removed But what happens to the nitrogen o Amine group 9 liver9 Urea 9 Kidneys 9 excreted o Amine group in the form of ammonia urea is a non toxic form of nitrogen kidneys filter 0 O O o Common lab values 0 BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen high problem in kidneys o UUN Urine Urea Nitrogen high more protein in diet Practical Applications o Protein powder supplements o Sugar busters Atkin s Diet o Potentially bad because it can be damaging to kidneys they stop filtering urea and also the normal waste products blood becomes highly toxic o How much is too much 0 Every person is different 0 Over 1509 of protein is bad o Only way to build muscle is to work out protein is there to help in the resynthesize of muscles timing is important right after Importance of Proteins in Humans o Growth and maintenance o Enzymes o Hormones o Antibodies o Energy o Transportation o Structural components tendons skin etc o Blood clotting Supporting growth and maintenance o Amino acids must be continuously available to build the proteins of new tissue o Will simply eating more protein build bigger muscles 0 No rigorous physical training will build muscles mass NOT excess dietary protein Exercise generates cellular messages that stimulate DNA to build up muscle fibers while food does not 0 Most athletes meet needs with 15 calories coming from proteins about the same Probodybuilders may need about double the protein of the average person Protein in the Diet o How much 0 15 calories 08 gkg body weight divide by 22le greater the body mass means normally more muscle mass 115lbs22 5227kg x 08 4182 3 oz chicken has 259 of protein egg white has protein 0 O o Food 0 Legumes Meat Eggs Milkdairy products Pasta and rice Soy products 0 O O O O Marasmus o Child is exceptionally thin affects brain development c Calorie deficiency disease starvation o Common in third world countries o Infant weighing 8le o Most common in children 618 months o No birth control problem happens when child stops being breast fed o Muscles waste and brain development is impaired o Child has no energy Kwashiorkor o Protein malnutrition o Most common in infants when a second child is born and the first is weaned off breast milk o Edema and some weight loss o Slowed growth Metabolism handout Body Mass Index o BMI is a tool used to determine if a person is overweight under weight or of normalweight o BMI takes into account a person s height and weight o Does not take into account age gender physical activity muscle vs fat o BMI weight kilograms height meters 2 o 1 kilogram 22 lbs 0 1 inch 0254 meters 0 EX 130lbs22 59 kg 0 5 5 65 inches 0254165m 0 BMI 59kg165 2 59272 217 o Underweight BMI lt19 0 Normal Weight BMI 19249 0 Over Weight BMI 25299 o Obese Moderately BMI 3040 Morbidly BMI gt40 Pitfalls of BMI o Does not account for a person s muscle versus fat body mass o 50 by BMI values this man could be considered obese body builder o Normal weight obese syndrome Ideal body fat levels Males 1220 Females 2030 High percentage of visceral fat increases risk for heart disease Visceral fat located close to the organs bad increase higher chance for heart disease 0 More dangerous when in the abdominal Measuring Body Fat o Body Fat Scales o Hydration is a factor only gets to about the abdominal area o Strength training is the most significant way to get rid of fat o High intensity interval training HIIT obese people can t do this because you have to be in shape Energy In Energy Out o Energy in o Calories consumed Remember the daily value is based on the fact that the average adult should be consuming 2000 caloriesday o Energy Out 0 2535 physical activity 0 510 thermic effect of food 0 6065 BMR Basal Metabolic Rate o The amount of energy that your body burns per day when it is at complete rest o Can be affected by 0 Age 0 Gender men have a faster MBR have more muscle 0 Exercise increases 0 Fever increases 0 time of the day BMR Calculation Multiply weight in kg by 0 09 for females 0 10 for males this gives you calories needed per hour o Now multiply by 24 hours in day o Example o 150le 68kg female 68 09 61 calhr 61 24 hr 1473 calday o 115bs 5227kg 09 4705 24 112909 calday Physical Activity c To calculate total energy expenditure will multiple by an activity level o Sedentary M 2530 F 2535 Light M 5070 F 4060 o Moderate M 6580 F 5070 45 dayweek 45mins o Heavy M 90120 F 80100 UK athletes o Exceptional M 130145 F 110130 body builders Activity Example c We will say our example woman is moderately active o Calculate a calorie range 112909 050 56455 ca low 112909 070 79036 ca high Total Daily Expenditure o Add physical activity cal to BMR and you have your total daily expenditure 112909 56455 169364 112909 79036 191945 o to maintain her current weight this women needs to consume 2208 2502 calories per day The Obesity Epidemic o 5070 of Americans are obese or overweight o 516 Billion for2 direct medical costs associated with obesity o Contributes of gt300000 deaths annually o Your DNA does not dictate if you are overweight or not 999 o Environment Genetics Social Other Complications of Obesity o Type II diabetes o Heart disease 0 Arthritis o Sleep apnea o Cancer 0 MISSED FRIDAYS NOTES o BMI 30 moderately obese BMR 1169 total daily output 232600 o 500 calories outday o carbs 55 4calg fat 309 protein 154 o lots of sugar time eating o cut out soda water instead don t eat in the car eating more frequently throughout day eat breakfast eat more whole grain more vegetables o do not recommend aphedrine makes you feel like you have more energy increases your heart rate can cause heart attack caffeine in pills its not helping you to lose weight o no because she s not mobility obese o physical important is good for weight maintance o example start by walking swimming take the stairs Eating Disorders o College campus has a high rate o Purginglaxatives bingeing starving excessive exercise Types of eating disorders o Anorexia Nervosa o Bulimia Nervosa o Binge Eating Disorder Anorexia Nervosa o Refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight o Selfstarvation to the extreme o Disturbed perception of body image o Most common in teenage girls and young women o Athletes are prone to anorexia o Dancers gymnasts longdistance runners wrestlers boxer swimmers 0 Wear very little or have a weight limit Bulimia Nervosa o Recurring episodes of binge eating combined with a morbid fear of becoming fat o Usually followed by selfinduced vomiting or purging o Acidic breath swollen face loose teeth o Laxative abuse problem 0 Can t control to function your own after you re off them o Up to 20000 calories eaten during a binge Binge Eating Disorder o Very similar to bulimia nervosa o Binge eating but this is not followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors o Help Small frequent meals eat early in the day exercise Best to approach the person by yourself Eating disorders are not about food VITAMINS What is a vitamin c Vital for life o Needed in only minute amounts 2 micrograms o Noncaloric essential nutrients o Solubility is important 0 Water soluble 0 Fat soluble Solubility of vitamins o Fat soluble Vitamin A beta carotene Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K o Water soluble o BVitamins Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Folate Vitamin 86 Vitamin BlZ Biotin Pantothenic Acid 0 Vitamin C Assessing Vitamin Needs o Bioavailability o Efficiency of digestion 0 Previous nutrient intake Having an orange and orange juice the bioavailability decreases when previously eaten o Other foods eaten at the same time Vitamin C consumed with Iron will absorb more 0 O O O 0 Method of food preparation More naturalraw the more bio availability 0 Source of nutrient Synthetic v natural Natural has more exception is follate better from a supplement Steam fruits and vegetables to get the most out of them microwave vegetables is good it s quick and doesn t lose the vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in lipids Generally occur together in the fats and oils of foods Require bile for absorption Are concentrated and stored in tissues May be toxic if consumed in excess Deficiencies a problem in people who have malabsorption problems eat a diet very low in fat or who abuse laxatives 0 Vitamin D deficiencies over time people don t work outside now days Vitamin A o Forms quot only found in animal foods dairy la if m an orange pigment with antioxidant activity vitamin A precursor made by plants Carrots peppers squash sweet potatoes 0 Both get transformed in to retinoic acid Key Functions i l 39g depression frequent infection Carrots to prevent blindness o Carrots are rich in betacarotene o Betacarotene act as antioxidant o Stabilize the molecules that could be damaging to many organs l39ll iilitwi l i V ll lilVl liliii ilw o w L Vitamin A Toxicity A SERIOUS PROBLEM o Birth defects o Accutane prescription medication for acne o Derivative of vitamin A o Affects liver if not pregnant 0 MISSED FRIDAY NOTES 46 Watersoluble vitamins toxic doses ileum may be toxic o expensive urine Vitamins Important For Energy ALL OF THEM Thiamin FOOD Riboflavin D Niacin Folate o Vitamin B6 c Vitamin B12 o Biotin o Pantothenic Acid ENERGY o Act as cofactors in B Vitamins Important in Metabolism o Thiamin TPP Riboflavin FAD and FMN Niacin NAD and NADP Folate THF o Vitamin 812 Vitamin 812 o Vitamin BG PLP o Pantothenic Acid CoA o Biotin o pyruvate 9 Acetyl CoA c any deficiencies tired Thiamin Deficiency o Paralysis o Abnormal heart action Rioboflavin Deficiency irl Fm o Skin rash Hypersensitivity to light Niacin Deficiency Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia 0 Death Niacin Toxicity Niacin to LOWER CHOLESTEROL o Supplements in amounts 10 times RDA may cause 0 O O FISH l llLlL l iii Li i1 liliwiil i39sii l w o Sweating o Abnormal liver function Folate Deficiency o In pregnant women l lenuli aljil u L o anemia o Impaired immune function 0 Depression and mental confusion Folate toxicity Hardin 0 Both BIZ and folate deficiency can cause anemia Have to know which it is Vitamin BlZ eficiency w progressing to paralysis 510yrs s o A WIDE variety of foods both plant and animal o Many cereals and grain products have been enriched o Review text for specific food o Folategreen leafy vegetables fruits 0 you absorb twice as much from synthetic folate o 812 naturally found in animal foods meat dairy 0 Needs to watch levels in Vegans elderly intrinsic factor Vitamin C o Forms li l39 noscurvy acid 0 O o Deficiency Lots of appetite Growth cessation Tenderness to touch Weakness Bleeding gums o Toxicity Impaired glucose tolerance Nausea Abdominal cramps Rashes Interference with medical tests Only happens when you take supplements cough drops o Food sources 0 Eat locally grown fruits and vegetables because it loses value over time o If frozen you can conserve the vitamin loss during defrosting Vitamin C to cure the common cold l ll j o Shorten cold by one day 0 Decrease the severity of symptoms by about 25 0 However significant placebo effect often seen in these studies Dietary Supplements o A product other than tobacco that is added to the diet and contains one of the following ingredients 0 Vitamin Mineral Herb Botanical Amino acid body builders take 0 Metabolite o Who regulates 0 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA of 1994 Require labeling and honesty on product NO government approval of product before entering market 0 T l 3 TE l o Be cautious of supplements that offer a miracle cure o Look carefully at the dosing of the supplement If you do use supplements o Vitamin and mineral supplement 0 Take with food Full stomach retains pill and dissolves it with its churning action 0 If you take an iron supplement choose foods that will assist in its absorption Vitamin C OJ citrus fruits REVIEW BMI BMR table on handout amino acid lysine Tertiary form more food exists Athlete with protein supplement not too much extra protein converts to fat and risk damaging kidneys most don t need a supplement Nitrogen group amide group is the difference between fats and carbs Proteins digestions starts in stomach HCI Mirasimis extremely thin o Common 6mo18mo Review metabolism handout Pyruvate can be converted back to glucose Pyruvate to acytal CoA to either ATP or fatty acids alternative energy to brain for ketone bodies Amino acids enter metabolism bpyruvateCoA or amino acid depends on the R group Lactic acid made when no oxygen its pyruvate working out cramping in abdominal area breath massage and stretch Body shifts to ketosis when blood glucose levels decrease no food or type 1 diabetes o Ketone bodies affect pH of blood by making more acidic Glycolosis 2 total of 38ATP Transammination nitrogen group to from one amino acid to another amino acid EXAM 4 The concept of wellness o Nutrition 6969 Exercise 69 Emotional wellbeing Benefits of physical fitness o Physical 0 Improved resistance to disease 0 Flexibility strength endurance o Psychological 0 Stress release 0 Improved selfesteem o Social 0 Team sports Excuses why we DON T o Too busy o Too tired o Cost too much to join a gym o Too out of shape o 14 adults meet the recommended levels of exercise physical activity guidelines o frequency 3 to 5 days per week o intensity 5590 of maximum heart rate o duration 20 to 60 min of continuous activity o mode any that uses large muscle groups o resistance strength training of moderate intensity at least 2 times per week o flexibility stretch major muscle groups 23 times week Physical Activity Pyramid o Level 5 top physical inactivity watching tv o Level 4 resistance 1530min at least min 23 dayswk o Level 3 flexibility exercise 510min min 37dayswk o Level 2 aerobic exercises 2060mins min36dayswk o Level 1 low intensity exercise at least 30min daily Four components of physical activity o Physical fitness o 1 Flexibility o 2 Muscle strength 0 3 Muscle endurance o 4 Cardiorespiratory endurance Weight Training o Builds lean body mass o Strength o Endurance o Reduce risk of back injury o Maximizes bone mass Strength Exercise o 2 to 3 times per week o 8 to 12 reps of different exercises cardiorespiratory Training o increased cardiac output and oxygen delivery o increased heart strength and stroke volume o slowed resting pulse o increased breathing efficiency o improved circulation o reduced blood pressure 0 o Max heart rate 220age resting pulse rate o 35 daysweek 5590 at max heart rate 2060mins o to burn fat be around 70 90 would be a sprint Flexibility Exercise o 23 days per week enough to develop full range of motion 4 reps of 1030 secs per muscle group Yoga and Pilates The body s fuel sources o Fuels that support physical activity Glucose from carbs Fatty Acids from triglycerides Amino Acids from protein Anabolize the muscle protein as a fuel source will break down the muscle not build it 0 O O O Activity Duration amp Glucose use First 10 min of exercise muscles rely almost completely on their own stores of glycogen Within 20 mins 15 glycogen used shifts it s fuel Muscle percentage of fat lower amount of carbs Fat has to be released from adipose tissue adipose is separate from muscle Run for 30mins and then walk for 30mins burn more during the walk Time and intensity If prolonged exercise can use up liver glycogen stores completely 0 Runners need to maintain their glycogen levels TRAIN Effect of Diet on Endurance o Long distance runners High fat diet 57 min o Normal mixed diet 114 min o High carb diet 167 min o Carb loading the week before the event increase the amount of carbs and decreasing the amount of exercise you re doing Maintaining blood glucose levels endurance athletes o Eat highcarb diet regularly o Take glucose during activity fruit juice Gatorade etc Concentration of electrolytes where the carbs come from o Eat carbrich foods after activity o Train the muscles to maximize glycogen stores o After the event replace all those carbs Eat a pasta meal What happens if no oxygen to tissues o Glucose 9 pyruvate 9 energy or lactic acidlactate The Cori Cycle o Glucose9 Lactic acid builds up in the muscle9 nothing happens until muscle gets oxygen 9 lactic acid goes to liver 9 liver converts it back to glucose o Recycles lactic acid Protein needs of an athlete RDA o 08 gkg body weight o Endurance athletes o 1214 gkg body weight o Power Athletes 0 17189kg body weight o Most people don t need tons of protein Fluid Needs During Exercise o Endurance athletes can lose over 2 quarts of fluid every hourthis must be replenished o Day of event extra fluid throughout the day o 2 hours before 3cups o 1015mins before 2cups o every 1530mins during 12 1 cup o After exercise each lb of body wt lost with 2 cups o Football runners wrestlers lose a lot of water Gatorade versus Water o Sports drinks 0 Replenish fluid 0 Glucose 0 Sodium amp other electrolytes o Depends on the activity 0 Running for 30 mins water 0 Running for 3 hrs sports drinks Adding up our day s intake o Nonathlete 0 2600 calories 0 62 calories from carbs o 23 calories from fat 0 15 calories from protein o Athletes 0 3300 calories 0 63 calories from carbs o 22 calories from fat 0 15 calories from protein Athletic performance enhancers o Who uses these supplements 0 Athletes most likely to use baseball football hockey wrestling swimming 0 Lifetime use of anabolic steroids Females 24 Male 49 0 Use of legal OTC supplements 13 use creatine n 80 of collegiate football players use or have used creatine during their career 1 use DHEA o risks of steroid hormone drugs 0 females aggressionhostility greasy skin deepening of voice breast atrophy heart attack liver tumors blood clots infertility seizures 0 Males Mood swings Scarring acne Breathing difficulty or stoppage Reduced HDLcholesterol Kidney stones Sexual dysfunction Permanent shrinkage of testes Infertility Creatine o Most popular supplement among high school and collegiate athletes o Probably the safest supplement as well o It does enhance if you exercise o Works best for short term high intensity o Average bottle 6009 o Lasting approximately 18 days in the maintenance stage NOT CHEAP 6995 o Retain water and get fat quickly if you don t do anything What is creatine Ergogenic aid that nl ma energy timiniluuiila n and iLili i39lllEL jlir I o Made in the body 12 gday and consumed in foods 12 gday o In muscles 0 Creatine 9 phosphocreatinee energy