PRINS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
PRINS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY PPA 400G
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deron Abshire II on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PPA 400G at University of Kentucky taught by Paul Vincelli in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/228231/ppa-400g-university-of-kentucky in Pathology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Introduction to Bacteria Bacteria are Proka ryotes no nucleus existed before nucleus was present in cells Oldesttype of organism Morphology Composedofcell wall Plasmids Somehaveflagella Carrygenesthatareimportantto Rod Nonucleus h Onechromosome pat ogemm 39 Spherlcal C I I d Resistancetobactericides o o splral ircuargenetic units pasmi s Virulencegenes o Fuamenmus Nonressentialgenes Genesthat trigger host resistance Pei0morphic Plasmids carry genesthatare important Reproduction is done by division by duplicating their circular DNA r L L L Becausethey produce a large number of cells in a small amount of time they are highly adaptable and can mutate at a high rate in order to adapt to their environment Most pathogenicbacteria araracuiiaiiva parasites To distinguish the species of bacteria m cell wall Numberflagella cell membrane Position offlagella agellum Physiology 39 a Growth medium 7 Selective mediums Ifthey glow Abilityto grow aerobically Gas production Antibiotic sensitivity ch romosome Bacteria Page 1 Disease Cycles Most pathogenic bacteria are facultative saprophytes They are mostlysoil invaders Ooze Doze produced by bacteria that has infected the plant Bacteria growrapidlywithin the ooze when it is moist it is most favorable Cloudy opaquein color than enough to infect a plant Bacteria infect through Penetration occurs through wounds or natural openings 39 ownr hey need 39 Miran vinyl only the p nt Inmugh sionuia o Depend on nature for dispersal Mo byDroplets facilitative transport tools fur etc d Easily ispersed W via vectors wound Colonization host infectia n Internal Colonizationr within the plant DiseaseCycles Page 2 sup 1 Stop 2 5le 3 sum 4 Eaclerizl Habitat Em Mtcmcolony lmmgnllnn modilicauon Msnu lnrmation Slap s Slep 6 Slap 7 Slap a my Entry Into mum Egressinn Iggvogale Inumal mndl ca on on u armIon spaces and tummy In Innate dlvlshm Dlseasecycles Page 3 Pec tobacterium Carotovorumr Bacterial Soft Rot Snltrntinz tuber Bacterial Soft Rot Management sanitation 1231 O rvl39val rsourzes ofPPl Reducingwnunding o DPl Pathaaeh harrre ls Pactnbactsrlum carntnlnrunl Regulatingtempemture Hostrahgersrleshy vEgEta as o amphumidity PPl Psl DPl Dsl lhrectlan Calahlzatlah re arvest PostHarvest Dldesrparrafrhe l39rlfecn39arl l39s thesaapyparrafrhe l39rlfecrl39arl RD 5 ed bacterl m Neweszpanrs theouteredgerthatls the mostactlvepan nocompetltlon wrzh Facultatlva ParasltE ozhermrcraorgahrsm ass oupy centerln great growth medlumforother mealvesaprophyte in soil mlcroorganlsms Survival Muluple sltes Whatsurwes Bacterlal Cells a Sell a Varloussurfaces machlhery hands shoes a On organlc matter such as crop resldues Ponds Productionof Survival Structures I I Bacterla Cells are drspersed ta sunlla sltEs may nlutlpy Pmdumm 0 Prlmarv quotWWWquot Bactsrla cals nlutlpylng at therr surllla srtes o Bacterlal cells serve as PPl Multlplylng by lelSlOn to produce more Production of Secondary Inoculum WW W h V o Condluons that are Wet and Warm DmpEts nfnnzefur Cell rhulupllcatloh Symptoms Bacterla EDIE o Thlck creamy r soupy rot Dispersal of Primary Inoculum Bacterla cells are drspersed passllEy Droplets o Vectors lnSeCB notspeclallzed d Dispersal of Secondary Inoculum SW5 droplets are belng lntroduce aze ls drspersed pa 0 Dro lets o Vectors lnSeCB notspeclallzed dropleB are pelhg lntroduced Colonization lcells mutlpy BGEtErlG o Blnary FlSSlOn occurs Infection Bacterla cells are lntmducsd ta the rhterrar afthe plant o Through natural Openlngs and Wounds o Condluons need to be Wetand or Warm anaeroblc condltlons Overcome reslstance o Aero c mlcrootelmll cellsneeded o Anaeroblc mlcroote 100 cells Gram Negative Page4 Pepperand Tomato Bacterial Spot Management I Crop rotation effect survival 0 survival once host material decays is limited Host range very limited Cert led seedsunlival 0 Disease free seeds and plant transplants I Spraying with copper plus manebrcontaining bactericidesr Epiphytic colonization 0 Copper is a protectingrcontact O Streptomycin spray on transplants rcontact application only epiphytic I Resistant varie ies I Avoid working in field when wet Dispersal Pathogen name Xantahamonos vesicatoria pepper amp tomato host range very Limited There are four species Rods 3 ed bacterium Facultative Saprophyte The bacterial spot pathogen alone does not cause fruit rot Survival 3 Bacterial Cells in seed 3 Infested Plant Debris u Root system but very minor Production of Survival Structures 0 Seeds become infecte o Tissues fall to the ground Production of Primary lnoculum Bacterial cells multiplying at their survival sites ideal conditions is warm amp wet wea er Production of Secondary lnoculum I Droplets of ooze form from rotted tissues I E i h ic cell and roli eration Symptoms p p yr p f o Necrotic Spots on fruit leavesamp stern Dispersal of Primarylnoculum ooze Bacterial cells are dispersed passively ple s O Vectors insects not specialized droplets are being intro uced O Pesticide applications Dispersalof Secondarylnoculum S cylon39zatlorjl O Vectors insects not specialized Lucamm minnlzutmquot droplets are being introduced 0 Bacterial cells multiply via binary Fission occurs o Intercellular growth Eplphytlc culomzatlon Bacterial cells multiplying on the plant externally Infection Bacterial cells are introduced to the interior ofthe plant h natural openings and wounds 0 Conditions need to be wet and or warm anaerobic conditions Above ground parts leaves stems fruit High Nitrogen promotes succulence faster colonization 39 39 39 39 39 urivenquot39 Gram Negative Page 5 Fire Blight rErwinl39a amyiovom Management Sanintation o survival once host material decays islimited Host range very limited Avoiding excess Nitrogen o Spraying with antibiotics and Copper 7 epiphytic coloniza io Blightban 035 biological control epiphytic colonization o Streptomycin spray on stigma to reducerepiphytil colonization Reduces succulence thus less susceptible to bacteria Infection amp colonization t39 n 0 Copper spraying at budbreakr copper is toxic to fruit epiphytic colonization Pathogen name I Cultivar selections Erwinia amyiovora Starch loving Pruning in the winterpruning cankers areas with symptoms like blight Reduce survival and PPI Host rung very timitchpplesamp Pearssonle rosaceoasornamental Rod shaped bacterium with agella Xylemtransportsendophytic Facultativeanaerobe Facultative saprophyte Pe rs moresusceptiblethan apples Survival Bacterial Cells in cankers on branches and twigs Production of Survival Structures 0 Cankers form Production of Primary Inoculum Bacterial cells multiplying and form ooze when temp increases Production of Secondary lnoculum Dropetsofoozeform 8555 files transporting epipnyticaactena to otherstlgnia Dispersal of Primary Inoculum Bacterial cells are dispersed passivel 0 Flower blight water socked area gray translucent patches y o Vectors Insects not speci c attracted to ooze lookslike frost damage 0 Blackened twigs 0 Leaves cangetblighted o shootblight 0 Fruit 1 o E o E g o E g 8 Dispersal of Secondary inoculum o Droplets orwaterlrain pesticides o Vectors insects notspecialized droplets o Cankers arebeingintroduced drydimares o Dried strands ofoozer sticky so as it falls like stringr t a ofbacteria can be blown away even in Colonization 0 Bacterial cells multiplyvia binary Fission occurs and inwde the llower o lntercellular growth Infection Epiphytic Colonization Bacterial cells colonize on tne stigma rnopenetratl on at tnisstaae Bacteria travel from stigma to nectaries with wetness like Iightruin or heavy dew Penetration and proliferation inside the llower Foliage and twigs hinhi Shepherdsentry so quick quotfreezesquotinthisposition Flrebllghtls sorapld that leaves are still attached to the tWigl Secondary source or inoculurn warm day oozerll emerge Gram Negative Page 6 Erwinia Tracheiphila Bacterial Wilt CucurbiLr BacterialWilt Cucurbits puntni Management Beetle Control best 0 Aggressive use of insecticideseveral applications 0 Foliaror drench insecticides Pathogen name is Erwinl u Trachel phiiu P i5 quot bee o inhibit beetle feeding llostrangeis limited Exclusion by Row Covers 0 Several Cucurbitslmelon cucumbers squashandpumpkin o Putmw covers keep vectors from crow costly and o watermelonisl N Rodshaped bacterium Shim 39 m EEK Bait Crops Trap Crops Vascularwm Disease 0 Attracts thevector more than crop ofinterest quot a um g nu 0 Downside attracts more beetles to field Resistant Varieties O Resis ant to bacterial colonization O Resistant to the beetles less attractive to beetles urvival Bacterial cells 39ve the winter only in the digestive tract of striped cucumber beetles and spotted cucumber beetle Production of Survival Structures Bacterial Cells are in the GI system of the beetles Production of Primary lnoculum Bacterial cells do not multiply thus from sur lval t ey go straight to dispersal oms Production of Secondary lnoculum V quotquot5717quot WWquot Colonization of the xylem W39 T ey pro uce more inoculum thus it is the o Gum production due to xylem wall breakdown some of secondary inoculum o Clogs the xylem Dispersal of Primary lnoculum Bacterial cells survived are in GI tract of beetles o Flyingaroun Dispersal of Secondary lnoculum o Feeding of beetles as feeding is needed toinitiate Colonization Beetles39 mouthparts become contaminated with defecam quot Bacteria 5H5 mummy the bacteria while feeding on infected leaves nary Fission 0 o VISIt other plants or leaves by thght ccurs 0 Begin to spread through the xylem Cthn Bacterial cells are introduced to the plant via fecal matter 0 introduced through wounds due to feedings by beetles Fecal matter of beetles contains bacteria cells of erwinia tracheiophila which is defecation on site of feedin o o Waterfilm on plant is necessary to facilitate bacteria transport Bacteria begin to multiply 0 During springsummer Cannot enltervia natural openings stomata hydrathodes o Gram Negative Page 7 Bacterial wilt of cucurbits Bauerm 12H mhx i u Stem TwssuE sn atmn wuum curmrm Erwmra Tracherophrm 25 a ma a can usE Ms mam furfEEdmg and mem 15 muuthpans and y m anuthEr mam and mfgci n Tms sthEtypE m Aan We see at bactEna vascu ar mfectmn w n s nut prEsEnt n dnEsn t mean that n snt thErE r n mEans that thErE mwght nut be a argE papu atmn m prnducE mg smoky smngy um Emma Trachemphma c uggmg up the w em swEvEs Ron cmcrs lo mclude cucumber bcclles Gram Negative Page 8 Panto ea Stewartii Stewart39s Wilt of CarriE rwinia Stewartii Stewart s Wilt of Com Management 0 Flea Controllbest o Aggressive use ofinsecticidesevera applicationsaftercorn breaks 0 Foliarordrench insecticides 0 Poison Fleas o Inhibitflea feeding 0 Exclusion by Row Covers 0 Put row covers keep vectors from crops costly and effective Pathogen name is Erwinia StewartiiPantoea Stewarn39i 39 t t 0 ResistantVarieties HOSt range 395 l39mlted o Resistantto bacterial colonization 0 Corn 0 Resistantto the fleas less attractive to fleas 0 Can inoculate other plants artificially 0 Rod shaped bacterium 0 Facultative Saprophyteadapts as parasite bettersurvives in plant debris only a few wee s 0 Vascular Wilt Disease 0 Escapes competition soil is competitive developed capacity for vascular growth Su rvival 39 Bacterial cells survive the winter only in the digestive tract of Corn flea beetles 3 And inthe corn ll Production of Survival Structures Bacterial Cells are in the corn ea PrOdUCtlorl 0f Prlmary IHOCLIlle Bacterial cells do not multiply thus fram survival they go straight to dispersal Production of Secondary lnoculum Calanizatian afthe Xy em I They produce more inoculum thus it is the source of secondary inoculum Symptoms Naticeahle wilting t o Wilt O Gum production duetoxylem wall breakdown Dispersal of Primarylnoculum Bacterial cells survived are in GI tract of beetles o Flyingaround O Feeding of beetles as feeding is needed to initiate defecation and regurgitation O Clogsthe xylem Dispersal of Secondary lnoculum Fleas bacteria bearing while feeding an infected leaves 0 Visit other plants or leaves byflig t Colonization lt Bacterial cells multiply o Binary Fission occurs Bacterial cells are introduced to the plant viafecal matter 0 Begin to spread through the xylem O Introduced through wounds due to feedings by beetles O Fecal matter of beetles contains bacteria cells of erwinia tracheiaphila which is defecation on site of feeding 0 Water lm on plant is necessary to facilitate bacteria transport 0 Bacteria begin to multiply 0 During springsummer Cannot enter via natural openings stomata hydrathodes Gram Negative Page 9 Gram Negative Page 10 Xanthamona Bacterial Wilt ofPoaAmlua Xnnthnmnnn Bntterinl Wilt DfPDnAnmm Management duel quot quot by grasswhen dry DPI Regulatingtemperatureamp humidity Pathogen name is X nth mmm o PPI PSI DPI DSI Infection Colonization Host range islimited o Turfgrass Rod shaped bacterium Vascularinfection Facultative Parasite 0 Bacterial cells 0 lnsoil or plant residues Production of Survival Structures Bacterial Cells of survival sites rneyrnultiply PFOdUCtiOH 0f Primary IHOCUlum Bacterial cells multiply in soil orpldnt residues Production of Secondary lnoculu m Droplets ofoozeforrn Located on the rotted issues Cell multiplication Sympto Dispersal of Secondary Dispersal of Primary lnoculum Visible wilt due to system infection spread lnoculum Bacterial cells via water droplets o Mowin ottne turf grass wounding and irrigation or rain 0 Facilitated dispersal Bacterial ooze in xylem Findlstdges is some spotting Lime Green stern base 0oze is dispersed passively 0 r0 ets Vectors insects not specialized droplets are being introduced Colonization lnfectlon Bacterial cells multiply lt Bacterial cells are introduced to the interior oftne plant 0 Bmarv Fisswn occurs In xvlem n natural openings and wounds 0 SVS EmiC WWW 53910 VESCU39 SVS E39 0 Conditions need to be wet and or warm anaerobic conditions Overcome resistance 0 Aerobic microcyte 1 mil cells needed 0 Anaerobic microcyte 100 cells Gram Negative Page 11 Gram Negative Page 12 MandaOctahv mg m EIDAM Pseudomonas syringaetabaci Causes disease on tobacco but not beans Pseudomonas syringae pv Theylook the samesame biochemical properties act the same butwhenyou dependenton strain HOST SPECIES is important here I Where colonization is taking place at that necrotic spot Littleyellow halo is where the disease is spreading by the diffusion ofthe toxin Toxin is ornithine which is an amino acid that assists in the disposal of excess Nitrogen Which pathogen structure is colonizing the plan I Halo Blight of Bean elldmnonatv ringae pY KY llCLL mltlj m tsctlttte than Resistant variety inhibits bacterial infection insidethe plant by not epiphytic colonization Gram rNegatwe Page 13 Angular leaf spot of tobacco IS I htt Yes ooze winorrn when it becomes wet Epiphytesare the spots even though there are no tesions evident Cvmm rNegatwe Page 14 Wild re of tobacco Again From Angular Leafspot of Tobacco it is an internal colonist It is different cause it produces a toxin that actually causes symptoms Infections are small relative to spread ofthe toxin systemically TABTOXIN is the toxin responsible for wildfire tobaccoecauses accumulation ofNH4 related to Nitrogen uptake possible synthesis of ornithineaminoacid Wild re of tobacco Gram Negalwe Page 15 P lacrymans on cucumber Ia flux l RDULO of 361311clxuv 111 11111111 0 Star is zone where there is water soaking it is the area of active colonization 0 Angularinfection as bacteria cannot grow as fast in the veins so they take on angularformationsfrom the veins Eventuallythese leaf spots become necrot39c 0 If we want to isolate pathogen we would get it from theses spots Gram rNegatwe Page 16 Common blight of bean Which pathogen structure 1r r11 cruclxll is colonizing the plant r r l Y39lwie Y 31 ll l you 18quot lill f fin Yes source of secondary inoculum as ooze will form in wet weather as we most likely have a lot of epiphyticcolonization on foliage You would isolate bacterial internallyfrom the diseases tissues Gram rNegatwe Page 17 Pod lesions from foliar bacteria You would isolate from necrotic spots and sea ing Soaking Common blight of bean seed infection Seeds are very infected and extremely soa Water soak spots When they dry out they will look normal but will be source ofinoculum Gram rNegative Page 18 strainsgrowingin medium V20 strain has limited growth in Cu 1000 and inhibited in Cu200 No growth of strain V2 in 200 Cu units But we see other strains are resist nt Sm streptomycin Cu Copper Some are inhibited by Sm antibiotic and others need very high levels to slow Gram Negative Page 19 Disease Progress Dwsease prngrEss curve msease me Tesmg Page 20 anary nfecimn mg nfecimn usuaHy sprEad surrnundmg the mma memnn snemuugh n can b2 at a mstance AsumE gues by ba Ena patchEs m cmnmEs EmErgE UnthE hast ELISATESTING M ms 9 anday omhuu52 i EIEIAM Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay ELISA This technique tests for the presence of an antibody or antigen of a certain sample to indentify the presence of a substance ND CDLDR NGE No infection ELIS Results for Alfalfa Mosaic 39 CDLDR CHANG mme Plant 1 Plant 2 Testing Page 21 PCR TEST SundayOctober 25 2009 1031 PM DNA BASEDTESTING Testing Page 22 Dilution streak sunaay Octahzr 25 ms in my 39 quot quot L quot quotearth 0 transfer them with the plastic loop stick growth medium To test if bacteria can grow aerobically that iswithout Sham oxygen are seen here Asterile lm ofVaseline literally quotplugsquot the tube not allowingthe entrance o air 7 oxygen or carbon and the change ofcolor in strain land 3 are means of determininganaerobic bacterial growth Also strain 3 has actually quotmovedquot the plug indicating gas release Gram stain Fram39 indina stain are applied in succession to cells oflhe bacteria Gram negative Gram p0 ve Testing Page 23 Vocabulary Chemical Ways Pathogens attack plants Toxins Wild Fire Tobacco Orinithine Amino Acid Pseudomonas syringae pv Growth Regulators Crown Gall Agrobacterium Tumafaciens Enzymes pectolytic enzyme Bacterial soft rot Pectobacterium carotovorum Gums Clogging of xylem in Bacterial wilts of Cucurbits Erwinia Tracheiphilia Mechanisms of BIOCONTROL Antibiosis production of poisonous compounds Agrobacterium Radiobacter Parasitism Competition VocabulaIy Page 24 rPleiomorphic Conjugation tubes Facultative Parasites is they can survive in dead material Ooze Epiphyticcolonization Rhizosphere Saprophyte Can be many shapes variable shapes Colonization ON the plant growing on the surface the soil that surrounds and is influenced by plant roots are how bacteria exchange genetic information with each other Prefer to be parasites but can also be saprophyticto survive that Bacterialoutcome organism that obtains nourishmentfrom non livingorganic matter Binary Fission reprod uction Hydathode water leafopening at terminus of vein Plasmids Selective medium i Disease Progress Curves Pathovar FacultativeAnaerobe makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also Asexual reproduction by one cell dividinginto two Prokaryotic epidermal leafstructure specialized for secretion or exudation of plasmidsare used in recombinant DNA experiments as acceptors and vectors of foreign DNA this is how conjugation tubes exchange info quotcircular DNAquot a culture medium containingsubstances that specificallyinhibitor preventthe growth of some species of microorganisms The development of disease through time Strains ofthe same species differentiated by pathogenicityon different hosts capable of switchingto fermentation IStigma pistil Usually sticky The motor part of a root usedforplant propagation Rootstockr The apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the VocabulaIy Page 25 Mondaypcmber 262009 clrcumthecal flagella common pm Crown Gall Page 26 Crown 6311 Ayralmcterium tumafaciens A Vitis Management Agrobacterium radiobacter Antagonist 0 produces poison called agrosin that is poisonous to agrobacterium tumafaciens if Ti is put into this it can become a pathogen Reducing wounding Infection Pathogen name Agrabacterium tumafaciens Host range is very wide Numerous fruits and ornamentals woody preference Rod shaped bacterium with flagella Lignin friendly During infection phenolic compounds Transformation vector Opines are produced during infection and is used as nutrient source for bacterial cells lmummeenl quotwequot Survival Q Bacterial Cells that survive a longtime in soil ram gammaquot an Production of Primary lnoculum Bacterial cells multiplying in the Rhizophere Production of Survival Structures and rhizoplane soil Bacterial trapped in the galls Once the galls rat then in sail Symptoms Gallfnrmatinn Growth stuntingr Weak plants Dispersal of Primary lnoculum Bacterial cells are dispersed passively 0 Movement o s il Colonization Bacterial cells multiply via binary Fission occurs lntercellular growth Infection Roots and crowns Penetrates through wounds Itinserts tDNA transferred DNAinto hosts and genetically modifies it part of the Tipiasmid Production of opines cytokines auxin promoting gaii growth Crown Gall Page 27 Xylella fastidiosa Mamaymm 25 m 7 um Colonizesxvlem N0 CONTROLS Symptoms Leafscorching chronic water stress Wilt quotl wk Vhich pathogen structure is colonizmg the plant 4L 4L i3acterial leaf Leaf Scurchmg Page 28 YELLOW LINE IS CELL WALL Causes Pierce39s disease of Grape Leaf Scurchmg Page 29