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by: Hermina Little


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Psychlogy > PSY 100 > INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
Hermina Little
GPA 3.69

Tamara Brown

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Tamara Brown
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Little on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Tamara Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/228240/psy-100-university-of-kentucky in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
PSY Chapter 4 Human Development Josh Miller 2311 Developmental Psychology a Types of developmental Psychology i Physical ii Cognitive iii Socialemotional changes throughout the life span b Three themes that recur i Nature vs nurture i Continuity vs stages iii Early vs later experience Life is Sexually Transmitted a Females i The 23rd pair of chromosomes of the ovum is comprised of chromosomes XampX b Males i The 23rd pair of chromosomes of the sperm is comprised of chromosomes XampY 1 Development is more compels some people get an extra chromosome produces a completely different set of thing here 2 Some people have characteristics of both males and females Mapherdite c At point of conception cells start dividing d Change over the time in the womb Phases of development a Germinal Phase i First few weeks ii What happens here a new cell is formed by fertilization iii Up until first missed period b Embryonic phase i 27 weeks 8 in some textbooks ii What happens internal organs are developing heart brain other organs By the end of the 8 weeks the embryo has arms legs and face c Fetal Period i 8 weeks until birth ii Huge span of time comparatively speaking iii Fetus name we give the baby iv At the start of the fetal period 8 weeks and maybe a bit more the baby starts responding to touch v 1618 week movement of fetus is strong enough for mother to feel it 1 Hair begins to grow 2 Facial features develop into what they will look like birth 3 Internal organs begin to function a Developed earlier but weren t yet functioning not enough to keep it alive if they were born vi Age of viability 1 Point at which fetus can survive if born prematurely about 24 weeks a Maybe a little bit younger than that now b Used to be the case was if you were born prematurely you would die bc we didn t have to technology to sustain the life VII Critical periods optimal periods shortly after birth when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development when some event will have its greatest impact 1 Prenatal a Ex if you take drugsalcohol when the brain is in critical development you will see the effects of it if it s during that period Whatever happens good or bad will have an effect 2 Post Natal a Ex Language development first five years of life if babies aren t exposed a language before 5 years they will probably not learn that language very well at age 10 it won t have as much of an impact bc we re out of the critical period viii Sizes 1 Length around 20 inches average 2 Weight around 7 lbs average IV Whenwhy things go bad a Genetic Influences on the Fetus i Most of the time these produce birth defects 1 PKU Phenlketonuria Inherited Child is born with the inability to produce an enzyme a required for normal development b This is an enzyme critical for reducing poisons9eventually leads to mental retardation c Treatable if caught early This is why all of the prenatal visits are encouraged and even after the baby is born that s why there is all of the checkups i If it s caught we can change to a special diet which will include lots of the enzyme 2 Sicklecell anemia Abnormal red blood cells internal organs are deprived of oxygen organs can t function death 39 10 of African Americans have the chance of passing it a on Used to be that they would die in first five years of life Symptoms poor appetites yellow eyes iv Many now live into adulthood but they need many blood transfusions 3 TaySachs disease a Most commonly inflicts Jews of north eastern ancestry b Die by age 34 c Body is unable to break down fats d Used to look for this when you got married when the testing was required by law 4 Down Syndrome a Extra chromosome at moment of conception that is not supposed to be there i Produces mental retardation and many physical features as well b We don t yet know why this happens we can note commonalities but that s not a cause 9598 of births go off without a hitch So there is no clear path as to why this is happening b Teratogen i Environmental agents that produce a birth defect ii Agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm 1 Many things that fit into this a Emotional state of the mother i Anxious and tense during last months of pregnancy tend to give birth to babies who don t sleep well or eat well very irritable b Mothers nutrition i Undernourished so cannot provide adequate nourishment to the fetus c Mother s illness i Measles for example measles during pregnancy can derail fetal development ii Diabetes caused from pregnancy gestational diabetes iii High Blood Pressure iv Virus causing AIDS HIV moms having this virus the visits to the doctor are 100 necessary to help to keep this virus from being passed on not from placenta but from all of the blood and fluids directly at birth d Mother s Drug use i Hasten to saywhat come quickly to our minds is illegal drugs and alcohol V 1 There s another category ii Prescription drugs 1 HBP example you need the meds now gets pregnant That drug will have a devastating effect on the fetus How do you make a decision Many times there are drugs without the problematic ingredient Alcohol and nicotine 1 iii If you drink it during the critical period then you will see the birth defects 910 times Physical Development a Brain Development At birth you are born with all of the brain cells you need But connections are underdeveloped Experience develops connections between brain cells b MovementBodily Growth Estimated that during the 151 year of life children triple their birth rate Height increases by a half A change in relative proportions of bodies for chapter 1 don t need to know people and Dates For all other chapters need to know Motor Development Chart of American infants and how motor development happens 1 month15 months when they start walking 1 Research around the world motor development is pretty universal it takes a degree of strength to be able to develop like thisthe SEQUENCE is universal Iquot Individual differences in the timing 5 Some cultural differences in the timing a Ex n Uganda babies are walking on average at 10 months The reason for this difference is cultural Here we carry our babies laying down In Uganda they sit on Mom s back So they re used to being vertical Americans have to orient themselves to be up this way P Biological maturation is needed a VIDEO human experience Psychology Child and human Development i Contribution of nature vs nurture ii s development continuous or is it in stages iii 5 stages to conceptualize 1 Prenatalconception birth 2 Infancy02 3 Early child 25 4 Childhood612 5 Adolescence 1218 yrs iv Temperance 1 How people react to a Easy i Calm and easy to soothe b Difficult i Fussy irritable hard to comfort c Slow to warm up i Shy and wary of new experiences 2 Temperament not entirely based on heredity They can be affected in many ways by environment and other people S It is somewhat persistent as we progress throughout life a Shy babies may be shy as we grow old Depends on how parents and other people respond to the temperament Another factor the bond between child and parentscaregivers attachment forms basis P for relationships later in life a Securely attached knows needs will be met and 39 Will use mother or father in new environment will explore and then come back to the parent Convinced that parents will be there when they re needed b Insecure when parents are inconsistent neglective or insensitive has no sense of certainty of care giver or either standoffish to get away from caregiver 5 Most of the research has been with mom but spreading 6 Same infant can have two different attachment relationships between different pa rentscaregivers v Insecure attachment one factor leading to social difficulties and behavior problems vi Secure attachment have fewer problems better in school and have better social lives later in life VI Cognitive Development a Cognition i All the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating b Cognitive Development i The process by which a child understands of the worlds changes as a function of experience 1 Quantative changes a How much we know 2 Qualitative Changes But babies can t talk so they look at what the baby pays attention to This way we can see what babies are thinking cognitively When you first give a baby a stimulus Ball for example Spend 40 seconds at first then give back and maybe 20 1 Habituation a Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation 39 As it becomes more familiar they pay less attention to it Having habituated to the old stimulus newborns prefer gazing at new ones more concerned with new things rather than familiar things c Jean Piaget1896 1980 father of cognitive development Children understand the world DIFFERENTLY when you ask a child a question it s not that they don t know they just understand things in the world differently than we do i Stage Theory ii Schemas concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information 1 Kids get one schema in their minds then when they figure out something else they compare this new thing to their old schema a Ex Child has a mental concept schema for what a dog is i Short four legs and furry A cat comes in and they say it s a dog 1 Assimilation came from Piaget a The incorporation of new information into one s existing knowledge said it was a dog 2 Accommodation a An individual s adjustment to new information making a new spot accommodation for the cat category iii Four stage of sensory development 1 Sensor motor a Infant puts things in mouth to understand what It s about b Object permanence understanding that if they don t have an object it is still somewhere Put keys in front of infant as soon as they reach you cover it up Then if they don t have permanence then they won t care but if they do understand it then they ll try and find it 2 Preoperational stage between 27 a Develop their thinking skills using words SYMBOLIC THOUG HT and images to understand the world b Egocentric couldn t understand that the world 3 Concrete operational stage a Logic is tied to their thought b Conservation they remain equal even if appear differently c Take from one beaker and put water into graduated cylinder d Reversibility childe mentally able to pour from C back to B then they know it has the same amount The liquid level in C is higher but is also skinnier Finally the child may say that nothing was added or taken away so you have the same amt of liquid e Children in this stage 4 Formal Operational Stage a Better able to understand algebra Have an X and Y b Ask to define sentence people living in Glass houses shouldn t throw stones 5 Criticisms a He underestimated the ages at which children would be able to understand it Between 18 months and 5 years there are huge differences b Gradual not abrupt Preoperational kids do have the ability to have logic depending on the questions c Not always universal culture among other things can make a difference in the stages 9 Ecological Systems theorywhat are contextual images in the child s life How do those impact the child s development Instead of looking in lab they go out and look at the context Each child grows up in unique culture 7 Dr Brown Life for a child is more than just the physical and cognitive development V Erikson s Theory also a stage theoryof Psychosocial Development a Psychosocialdevelopment Involves changes in our interactions and understanding of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development each one deals with some sort of conflictcrisis If it s solved in a healthy way then we move on in healthy If not then our psychosocial was less than great 1 Trust VS Mistrust a Birth to 1 V2 years first 18 months of life b Need to develop a sense that the world around them is predictable amp trustworthy i If physical needs are met then they are trusting and for bonding and attachment is met consistently and positive then they leave this stage having a sense of trust ii If they re unpleasant interactions sometimes you get food other times not so much then infants leave this stage with a mistrust can t depend on others to meet their needs 2 Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt a 1 V2 3 years can crawl and walk i a whole new world for them to explore that is accessible to them Natural exploration desire If the freedom is encouraged then they have autonomy If it s not encouraged then they leave with shame and doubt Parents that are too overly restrictive set their children up for shame and doubt 3 Initiative VS Guilt a 36 years b Child to act independently These kids are coming to a sense of themselves They want to make decisions They want to decide what shirt they wear among other decisions Too many negative consequences when they take the initiative results in the guilt factor 4 Industry competence VS Inferiority a 612 years old b Increasing competence across all areas of functioning These are the school years and need to feel confident in different areas school social interaction need to feel that they can be competent and get along with others c If they don t know how to make friends if they social isolates then they develop inferiority d Parenting it s very important but we know that bc the psychological studies in terms of how the parents do things and what happens to the children i Harlow s Surrogate Mother 1 Infant monkeys the choice to cuddle up to wire monkey but have food no comfort Iquot Other one is nice warm cloth no food Which would they cling to a He discovered that the monkeys would 5 cling to cloth mother then if they needed food they would stretch over to the food but never leave the cloth monkey9shows how important the attachment is with the parents b The bondattachment has consequences for ongoing development c Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terrorstricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers Shows that how you parent really matters 4 What they did between different parenting styles The different Parenting Styles and their effects Based mostly on white people We know there s a relationship it s just hard to understand it It s only correlation NO CAUSATIONH They re related but not necessarily caused Maybe childhood behaviors cause parenting style a Possible that child behavior causes elicits certain parenting styles ex Socially mature easy going agreeable children elicit more trust from parents than less competent amp less cooperative children b Maybe other factors education income genetics lead to both ex Authoritative parents tend to be higher education and free from stress of poverty and this influences child s behavior as well What type of study would we need to conduct to know causality a Needs to be longitudinal study over time b Needs to be observational c Need to vary the kind of parents income stress etc d Isolate the type of parenting e Need groups in general randomize the groups exp and control 10 f Take all kids from parents and say you re only going to parent in authoritative and you re only permissibleassume everything is equal then if we see differences in childhood behavior g Who signs up for that study Nobody i That s why we do correlation research b Exam Will cover everything up to this adolescents on into late adulthood Everything from conception onto childhood Parenting Style Parent behavior Children s Behavior Authoritarian Rigid punitive strict standards Unsociable unfriendly withdraw Permissive Lax inconsistent undemanding no Immature moody dependent low self control Authoritative Firm sets limits and goals uses reasoning Good social skills likable selfreliant food clothing shelter encourages independent good 39 39 I 39 social skills Uninvolved Detached Indifferent rejecting emotionally sees role behavior abusedneglect as only providing Psychoanalytic Approach Sigmund Freud 1890 s In uence of childhood experiences and unconscious motivations on personality Psychoanalytic Theory freud s theory that our behavior is triggered by forces within the personality that we are not aware of Unconscious the part of the personality that a person is not aware of Structuring Personality Raw unorganized inborn part of the personality Consists ofinstincts which are the indviduals reservoir ofpsychic energy or libido The id always seek pleasure and immediate gratification regardless of society s rules or the rights and feelings of others Operates on the pleasure principle which guides people toward whatever feels good EG throwing a temper tantrum in the middle of the Grocery store or Libido EGO Develops as parents teachers amp others place restrictions on the expression of idimpulses ORGANIZES WAYS TO GET WHAT a person wants I the word Brings indvidual pleasure within the norms of society Strives to balance the desires of the id and the realities of the objective outside the world Operates on the reality principle making compromises between the unreasoning demands of the id and the practical constraints of the real world Superego The final personality structure to develop is the moral branch personality Introjections internalization of parental and social values the shoulds and the should nots Superego has 2 components Conscience The should nots the things people come to believe are wrong Ego ideal the shoulds that one should conform to Represents the perfect person we wish were Operates on morality principle because violating Defense Mechanisms What are they Unconscious psychological and behavior strategies the ego uses to protect from anxiety and other unpleasant emotions Theses tactic distort reality Everyone uses them but overreliance can lead to problems Developemnt of Personality Oral stage Development during the first 18 months Infants pleasure centers on the mouth Early weaning greatly delayed weaning may leave a child overly attached to the bottle breast or other forms or oral satsification Fixation produces Anal Stage Development between 15 to 3 years During the age the demand for toilet training clashes with the childs instinctual pleasure in having bowel movements at will Childs greatest pleasure involves the anus or the eliminative functions associated with it If toilet training is too harsh or begun too early or too late con icts may result Adults fixated at this stage Symbolically withhold feces by being stingy extremely organized stubborn and perhaps excessively concerned with control cleanliness orderliness or details Or Symbolically eXpel feces by being sloppy disorganized or impulsive Phallic Stage Development between age 3 and 6 Pleasure focuses on the genitals BOYSOedipus Complex Id impulses involve sexual desire for the mother and desire to eliminate even kill the father with whom the boy competes for the mothers affection FEAR of retaliation becomes so strong the ego represses the incestuous desires and the boy seeks to identify with father imitating him and learning male gender behaviors GirlsElectra complex Female child experience penis envy as she realizes boys have them and girls do not She begins to hate mother and transfers her love to her father To avoid mothers disapproval she reidentifies with mother learns female gender role behavior and chooses a male mate other than her father Fixation extreme fear aggression or other difficulties with a boss teacher or other authority figure may re ect unresolved con icts with samesex parent Uncertainty about one s malefemale identity problems maintaining love relationships and disordered or socially disapproved sexual behavior may also stem from poorly resolved con icts at this stage Latency Stage Development between 6 years and puberty Con icts ofphallic stage and quieted by ego Interval ofpeace Sexual impulses lie dormant and child focuses on education and other matters Genital Stage Development from puberty on Children physically mature during adolescence and sexual impulses appear Genitals again the focus of attention pleasure The source of sexual pleasure now becomes someone outside the family Quality of relationships and degree of fulfillment directly tied to success as con ict resolution in earlier stages Weakness of Psychoanalytic Approach Theory re ected freud s biases Based on unrepresentative sample of upperclass Viennese patients with mental problems in o society that considered discussion of seX be uncivilized Focused on male anatomy as something envied by women Refused to believe patient report of abuse interpreted them as fantasies Concepts like id ego superego and defense mechanisms are to vague to measure To much emphasis on instinct and unconscious Behavior Approach Views personality and behavior is basically the same thing 2 main versions operant approach skinner cognitive behavioral or social learning approach Bandura Learning Approaches Social cognitive approaches Emphasizes the in uence of a persons cognitions thoughts feelings expectations and values in determining personality Evaluating the Behavioral Approach Strengths Objective and eXp erimentallyoriented Emphasis on learning engenders and optimistic attitude Is the basis for treatment methods Weaknesses Reduce humans to a set ofacquired responses to environment Too narrow and ignores genetic physiological and other factors based on learning Does not deal adequately with complex internal problems feelings fantasies values etc Humanistic Perspectives Humanistic perspectives The way you perceive and interpret the world is your personality Stresses peoples capacity for personal growth freedom to chose one s own destiny and positive qualities Emphasize people s basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning Selfactualization a state of selffulfillment in which people realize their highest potential Personality Assessment Projective Test Presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it It is believed that people will project their own unconscious thoughts and feelings into that s story that they tell Different Test Inkspot Test Thematic apperception Test Behavioral Assessment Direct measures of an individuals behavior used to describe characteristics indicative of personality Self Report Tests Self Report Test Directly ask people whether items describe their personality traits MMPI The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory The most widely used and researched selfreported personality test 550 true or false items such as I like to read magazines or I never sleep well Ch 16 Social Psychology The study ofhow people s thoughts feelings and actions are affected by others Two components Social cognition how people perceive and react to others Interpersonal behavior how behavior is in uenced by others Forming Perceptions of Ourselves Social comparison When evaluating our own perceptions opinions values abilities etc we use other people as a basis of comparison Social Norms Learned sociallybased rules that prescribe what people should or should not do in various situations EG norm of reciprocity the tendency to respond to others as they acted toward you Forming Perception of others Social Perception Process through which people interpret information about others draw inferences about people and develop mental representations of them In uence whether you see a person as hostile friendly repugnant likable or possibly lovable EG First impressions Explaining Behavior Attribution theory People are motivated to discover the underlying causes ofbehavior in an effort to make sense ofbehavior Attribution the process people go through to explain the cause ofbehavior including their own Attribution Dimension of causality InternalExternal causes Internal attributions are cause that re ect characteristics of the person personality traits intelligence attitudes and health External attributions are causes that arise not from the person but from the situation social pressure aspects of social situations money weather and luck Stableunstable causes Refers to whether an internal or external cause is relatively enduring and permanent or whether it is temporary and likely to change Controllableuncontrollable causes Attributional errors Fundamental attribution error A general widespread tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal factors Observe overestimate the importance of traits and underestimate the importance of situations when they seek explanations of an actor s behavior Problems May generate overconfidence about impressions of other people Leads to underestimates of the variability in other s behavior created by external cause May lead to people to blame the victimunemployed are lazy homeless are irresponsible women who are raped deserved it Actor Observer Bias Attribute other people s behavior to internal causes but attribute their own behavior to external factors especially when the behavior is inappropriate or involves failure Actor more likely to give external situational explanation of own behavior Observer more likely to give internal trait explanations of an actors behavior Results from differences in social info available when considering you own versus others behavior SelfServing bias Attributing explanations for one s successes to internal factors and explanations for one s failures to external factors Failure more likely to give external explanations More likely to give internal explanations Occurs because People are motivated not to think about negative information To attribute failure to an internal characteristic is likely to be threatening to the selfesteem Internal Behavior How behavior is in uenced by others Social In uence The process by which the actions of an individual or group affects the behavior of others Conformity Involves a change in a person s behavior to coincide more with a group standard Involves changing what you say or do because ofa request or pressure from someone who has no authority over you Asch Conformity Experiment video Don tlike being different or wrong people succomb to group pressure Obedience Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of an individual in authority Milgram s Study ADOLPH Hitler and the holocaust Study of memory and punishment a person would have to shock another person of the got it wrong see ifpeople would listen to authority people do listen to authority Groupthink Type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view Impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appraisal of alternatives in order to maintain group harmony When a group is cohesive and isolate from outside forces when there is no impartial leader and when the group is under stress groups tend to become very closeminded and rationalize their decision the only reasonable one Other options dismissed prematurely and dissenting views are suppressed Banduras jail study people forget it was a studypeople begin to come impartial Prejudice and Discrimination Stereotypes generalized beliefs and expectations about social groups and their members Prejudice the negative or positive evaluations of groups and their members Discrimination negative behavior towards members of a particular group Selffulfilling prophecy The Foundations of Prejudice Social learning approaches People feelings about members of various groups are shaped by the behavior ofparents other adults and peers Social Identity Theory We use group membership as a source ofpride and selfworth Social Inequalities quotHavesquot develop attitudes to justify status quo Prejudice rationalizes inequalities Positive and Negative Social Behavior Attraction Proximity Mere exposure Similarity birds of a feather ock together Reciprocityof liking effect Physical Attractiveness Aggression Intentional injury or harm to another person Instinct Approaches Catharsisprocess of discharging built up aggressive energy EX sports football Frustrationaggression approaches Frustration The thwarting or blocking of some ongoing goaldirected behavior Frustration leads to aggression Observational learning approaches Effects ofmodeling Prosocial Behavior Prosocial Behavior Helping Behavior Diffusion of Responsibility Tendency for people to feel that responsibility for acting is shared or diffused among those present Altruism Helping behavior that is beneficial to others but clearly requires self sacrifice Ch 13 Psychological Disorders What is abnormal Statistical Approach basis ofwhat the average person does Anything that deviates is abnormal Normality with conformity Valuative Sociocultural Approach cultural norms if you do anything otherwise you are abnormal Homosexuality Drapetomanio quot the insane urge of a slave to run away from hisher slavemaster Federal government s asylum for quot insane Indians in Canton SD The problem with this is that cultural changes all the time and who gets to set them Practical Approach Content ofbehavior what a person does and how it affects others maladaptive or diabling appears bizarre or irrational or unpredictable or uncontrolled ConteXt of Behavior where and when the person does it Cultural standard Consequences ofbehavior how much suffering and distress the person feels Subjective Download Medical Model on web site Anxiety Disorders Anxiety wo external justification and affects daily functioning feelings of tension hyperactivity apprehension Generalize anxiety disorder Experience long term persistent anxiety Worry about everything but cant say why Physical symptoms trembling diarrhea dizziness sweating heart palpitations Panic Disorder Attack of overwhelming anxiety that is not triggered by an identifiable stimulus Includes physical symptoms Agoraphobia Fear of going into openpublic Become housebound May stem from panic attack Phobic Disorder Intense irrational fears of specific objects Acrophobia lleights Agoraphobia entering public places Arachnophobia spiders Claustrophobia closed spaces Xenophobia Strangers Other Anxiety Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Persistent uncontrollable urge to engage in senseless rituals Obsession thoughts A persistent unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring Compulsion behavior Urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable even to the individual who experience them Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Anxiety from a traumatic event Can include reexperiencing ashbacks nightmares etc Dissociative Amnesia Sudden loss of memory ofidentity or personal incident Often associated with a traumatic event Dissociative Fugue Amnesia for the identity and entire life Take a new life Memory loss is selective Can remember matters unrelated to identity eg driving Dissociative Identity disorder aka multiple personality disorder Individual displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities Mood Disorders Disturbances in emotional feelings strong enough to intrude on everyday life Major Depression Severe Symptoms form of depression that may last months or years Depressed mood Loss of interest or pleasure Weight loss or gain Fatigue or loss of energy Sleep disturbance Worthless feeling Concentration problems Thoughts of death Bipolar disorder manic depression Periods of mania and depression Mania EXtended state ofintense wild elation Elevated mood Grandiosity high self esteem Hyperactivity Racing thoughts Distractibility Pressured speech Psychomotor agitation Schizophrenia Class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs Decline from a previous level of functioning Distorted thoughts perceptions Hallucinations and or delusions Odd communication Inappropriate emotional expression Social withdrawal Impairment of functioning Process schizophrenia Symptoms develop relatively early in life slowly and subtly Poor prognosis Reactive Schizophrenia Onset of symptoms is sudden and conspicuous Better prognosis Positive symptom of schizophrenia Negative symptom schizophrenia Ch 14 Treatment of Disorders Old Fashioned Cures Trephining crack opening the skull Exorcism and Burning at the Stake Confinement whirling Legal Protection of Patient Rights In 1973 Federal Court ruled person threatened with commitment can expect four things Right to written notice Opportunity to prepare a defense with help of attorney Court hearing with a jury if desired Right to take 5th amendment to avoid self incrimination In 1980 Supreme Court ruled that before forcibly committing someone the State must provide Clear and convincing evidence person not only mentally ill but Person poses imminent danger to self or others People have right to receive treatment not just confinement Refuse treatment and little restriction Most States conduct periodic reviews Recent Developement Managed Care Consist of strategies for controlling health costs including mental health Types of Therapy Biomedical Drugs ECT Psychosurgery Psychological the process used by trained mental health professionals to help individuals recognize define and overcome their psychological and interpersonal difficulties and improve their adjustment Approaches to Psychotherapy Psychodynamic therapies Stress the importance of the unconscious mind extensive interpretation by the therapist and the role of experience early ch dhood Psychoanalysis Freud s therapeutic technique for analyzing and individuals unconscious though Behavior Therapy Disorders due to Learning maladaptive behavior Can happen through Classical conditioning pairing of stimuli Operant Conditioning client is be reinforced for problem behavior Ways to help Classical Conditioning Extinction or Changed pairing of stimuli Operant Conditioning Change reinforcements in environmentgt learn different b ehaVi or


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