DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 223
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Date Created: 10/23/15
PSY 223 9 Developmental Psychology 11910 1 Definition a Formal definition of developmental psychology b The developmental approach 11 Historical Context a Historical and philosophical roots ofmodern developmental psychology III The quotbig issues in developmental psychology a What is the basic nature of humans b How does development proceed c What forces contribute to development Formal definition Development 9 systematic continuities and changes in an organism During some time frame 9 conception through death womb to tomb Continuities how things stay the same over time Changes how things change over time Systematic continuities and changes Orderly patterned enduring such as walking which usually occurs around 12 months Many scientific disciplines study development biologists sociologists anthropologists educators etc Developmental Psychology 9 the scientific study of the ways humans change and remain the same over the lifespan 0 Study ofboth behavioral and psychological processes 0 Focus on what changes take place as well as how changes do or do not occur Details 1 Scientific study 9 developmental psychology firmly grounded in scientific methodology and research 2 Behavioral and psychological processes a Behavior directly observable i examples locomotion crawling to walking language vocabulary and grammar b Psychological quotmentalquot processes i examples cognition memory and object permanence emotion regulation of emotion 3 Focus on m changes over time as well as how changes do or do not occur a What 9 descriptive level i example language single words 9 phrases 9 sentences ii Divided into developmental domains cognitive emotion language social biological physical b How 9 mechanisms underlying process Question 1 example language 9 How does a child go from speaking only single words to full sentences AND social 9 How does an infant go from no separation distress to being very distressed when the mother leaves Beginning to formulate answers to these questions 1 Two general processes underlying development a Maturation b Learning Developmental Approach How developmental psychologists look at the world 0 Focuses on a child s behavior and psychology but more importantly how these change over time Advantage we learn about the process of development Want to explain observed changes describing is relatively easy Normative development within individuals Explain variations in development between individuals 00000 What do developmental psychologists do Research teaching Applied developmental psych 0 Practical applications I Help children with learning difficulties I Parenting skills I Help children with social skill deficits avoid peer rejection History 9 historical philosophical underpinnings of developmental psychology Important to consider historical perspective How historical events in uence the treatment of children Early History 0 Children did not have many rights their lives were rarely valued 0 Used for human sacrifice in some ancient civilizations 0 Until 4th century AD Roman parents were legally entitled to kill unwanted unhealthy children 0 At best children were seen as possessions of parents Infanticide not considered murder in Europe until the 12th century AD 17th and 18th Centuries 9 attitudes changed 0 Religious leaders encouraged parents to treat children with warmth and affection 0 Children viewed as innocent and helpless 0 To be protected from adult behavior Enlightenment Era 9 changes in attitude related to in uence of social philosophers o Are children good or bad 0 Are children driven primarily by instinct or are they products of their environment O O O 0 Are children actively involved in shaping their development Or are they passive modeled my parents teachers and society Thomas Hobbes 15881679 I Children inherently selfish must be controlled by society I Passive need to be modeled by parents I Parents need to be very strictharsh to shape children John Locke 16321704 I Mind of the newborn is a blank slate tabula rasa I Development will depend only on experiences with environment I Children have no inborn tendencies I Contribution Children need to be shaped by parents BUT with compassion and praise Jean Jacques Rousseau check on this 17111778 I Children born with an intuitive sense of right and wrong that is misdirected by society I Children as quotnoble savages I Should be given some freedom to follow their inherent positive inclinations Attitudes about children improved in the 17th and 18th centuries but 0 000 O O 0 Still viewed as parental possessions although Parents encouraged not to abuse them to treat with more affection Religious leaders and academics stressed innocence and helplessness of children Encouraged sending children to school Provide moral and religious education teaching and writing would provide a better labor force Major quotIssuesquot in Developmental Psychology Basic nature of humans Good evil or somewhere in between What are we like Central defining characteristics Answer often depends on culture etc Not a quotscientificquot modern dichotomy 12110 has shaped our views on childrearing What are the more current debates about human nature Children as passive or active 0 O Mechanistic view 9 Child is passive recipient of environmental input I Change occurs mostly in response to input from outside the child I Learning theory favors this view of children I Skinner John Watson I example baby cries in crib at night because parent quotreinforcesquot this behavior Organismic view 9 child is active in developmental process I Guided primarily by internal forces I Genetics instinct maturation I Given adequate environment children progress through stages of development 0 These views re ect the naturenurture quotdebatequot in developmental psychology I Forces that contribute to development 0 Organismic 9 nature 0 Mechanistic 9 nurture I What brings development about I What drives development keeps it going Nature 9 geneticsheredity as the predominant force Nurture 9 environment as primary shaper of human developmental change Reality 9 nature and nurture are always interacting to produce developmental change not much in development is purely genetic or purely environmental o Contextualism 9 another quotworld view in developmental psychology I Integration of the naturenurture views I Relatively recent idea 1990s I Many developmentalists favor this view I Development interplay between person and environment I Person and environment are both active in shaping development it I Research in Developmental Psychology Why does this research stuff matter anyway Scientific method General characteristics of good research Correlationcausation Basic strategies research methods How the methods are employed research design Research ethics 00515179 Why Research Matters Many important problems require psychological knowledge for their solution Problems often relate to how people behave Crime greed aggression etc Knowledge is obtained through psychology research Application ofscience to questions about 0 Behavior 0 Thought 0 Emotion Research in development is often important in social issues and policy How many students should be in a classroom What type ofparenting is best Does daycare harm development What s the best way to teach math to a 1St grader Important to understand origins of knowledge We are all research consumers Is all research created equal The Scientific Method In the era of Hobbes and Locke unsubstantiated news was often interpreted as fact Test ofa prediction derived from a theory Researchers must be objective Allow the data to decide the merits of the theory How research is done in developmental psych 1 Pose a relevant question ex Is TV violence associated with aggression o What prediction would one make I Learning theory watching violent TV will be associated with violent behavior I Mechanistic perspective input TV will affect child s behavior despite child s characteristics 2 Decide how to answer the question 0 Choose a methodology I Questionnairesurvey Quantify the data in some way could use Child Behavior Checklist CBCL which is a widely used questionnaire for preschool to adolescents I Observation direct or videotaped not very practical for a violence study 0 Find out if high aggression scores are associated with more violent TV watching I Correlation 0 Number re ecting degree of association between variables 0 Correlation coefficient 0 Previous research suggests a moderate association of040 I Be careful when interpreting correlation 0 Correlation does not equal causation 0 Only a statistical association 0 Then how do we establish causality I Experiment 0 1 Manipulate participant s environment 0 2 Measure change in participant s behavior 0 Allows determination sometimes of cause and effect 0 Better than a questionnaire or other nonexperimental methodology however it is not always practical o How else can we collect data I 1 Questionnairesurvey o Selfreport parent report teacher report 0 Selfesteem etc I 2 Testsassessments 0 Intelligence tests achievement tests etc I 3 Interviews 0 Diagnostic peer relationships etc I 4 Observation 0 Real world naturalistic school 0 Structured in a lab school quotstrange situation I Typically combine multiple methods even to measure the same thing PSY 223 Developmental Psychology 7122010 62900 AM 3 25 l 0 Stages 3 of Language Development Prelinguistic period 0 birth to 10 13 months period before first meaningful words are spoken young infants are very responsive to language from birth infants setup to tune in to human speech by 3 days infant recognizes mother s voice prefer it to the voice of a female stranger Infants also capable of discriminating sounds of speech Discrimination between consonant sounds a bapa data One month olds as good as adults By 2 months babies can discriminate between vowel sounds a and i 0 Sounds production in prelinguistic period all healthy infants are capable of vocalizing at birth prelinguistic vocalizations develop in predictable sequence over first year of life a Neonates crying to communicate needsdistress a 35 weeks cooing repeating vowel like sounds ooh aah a 34 months add consonant sounds begin to bubble papapa mamama 0 may sound like words but not used meaningfully o deaf infants of deaf parents will babble in sign language 0 infants from all language environments sound about the same during early babbling phase 0 suggests that babbling is heavily influenced by biologicalmaturational factors environmental factors come into play a little later 0 For example By 8 months infants babble with a recognizable accent O O O O O 0 Late in babbling stage infants produce vocables 0 unique patterns of sound used to represent objects actions and events 0 Possible Examples m sound when making requests vowel sounds aaaaah when manipulating objects 0 Signals near readiness to talk 0 First sign of pragmatic observed by 7 8 months 0 Infants are often silent while someone else is speaking 0 don t produce a vocalization until that person is finished speallting 0 8 10 months begin to use gestures other nonverbal communication such as pointing 0 Few infants understand individual word meaning before age 1 o correctly interpret non verbals to infer meaning 12 1 7 month olds do understand some word meanings prior to use in their own 0 o 2 Holophrastic Period 0 O 0 12 13 months to 18 24 months One word utterances holophrase often contains an entire sentence s worth of meaning Vocabulary Growth is slow at first one word at a time 3 4 months to attain at lO word vocabulary Early words are simple and idiosyncratic n ba ball awa I wanf Pace of learning quiclltens dramafically 18 24 monfhs n 10 fo 40 new words per week a naming explosion n Many new words are names of objecfs a Typical 2 year old may be able fo produce 200 words 0 comprehends many more 0 Common word usage errors during holophrasfic period l Overexfension u use one word fo refer fo wider variefy of similar objecfs acfions or evenfs n Example car fo refer fo frucllts vans moforcycles n Example doggie fo refer fo all 4 legged furry animals 2 Underexfension u use of a general word fo refer fo a small range of objecfs acfions or evenfs n Example candy fo only referfo minfs n Example coolltie fo refer only fo Oreos o 3 Telegraphic Period 0 18 24 monfhs o combine words info simple senfences go lltiffy daddy home fhere book 0 Telegraphic speech only crifical confenf words many new words are names of objecfs 0 Why are early senfences incomplefe memory limifafion Probably more general producfion consfroinf n can only generafe shorf ufferances 0 only words essenfial for communicafion n Some languages Russian Turkish rely on small grammafical marllters 0 First sentences of children speallting these languages are short but grammatically correct a First acquire most noticeable most necessary aspects of a language 0 Increasing awareness of social and contextual determinants of effective communication 0 By2 pragmatics 2 12 years more proficient at turn tallting aware of relationship between distance from listener and the volume level of their speech Cognitive Development Early Childhood What young children s thinking is like Piaget revisited preoperational thought I Other views of cognitive development 0 End of sensorimotor period 0 emergence of representational thought ability to use one thing to stand for another symbols symbolic representation enables development of language Example fly annoying buzzing insect Example Use language to ask for a glass of water instead of pointing to the sink n play doll representing a real baby building a fort from sofa cushions 0 but still do not have ability to combine or transform information These are mwl ll em 1 quot n Piaget s term for 0 mental action thought 0 use of logic to combine transform and separate information a Example arranging stamp collection by country c Preoperational Stage 0 defined ldrgely by whdl children in This sldge connol do reldlive lo children in concrele operdliondl sldge 7 12 yedrs old 0 Ages 2 7 yedrs o Symbolic representation prelend ploy longuoge develop rdpidly o bul fhoughf is nol fully operdliondl o developmenl in This period is 0 process of overcoming limildlions 3252010 22600 PM 3252010 22600 PM