EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 215
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PSY 215 Experimental Psychology 3232010 121600 PM January 20 2010 Day 1 of lecture Ways of Knowing o Authority acceptance of ideas as valid knowledge because some respected source claims they are valid 0 expert opinion 0 Pro important information is passed by authorities very safe and fast way to acquire knowledge 0 Cons information could be wrong biased or incomplete discourages further questioning and evaluation o ReasoningLogic rationalism knowledge is derived from reasoning 0 Truth is deduced from some given evidence All crows are black This is a crow Therefore this crow is black 0 Pro reasoning may be sufficient to yield truth in some situations deduction is part of the scientific method 0 Why we don t always use this Brazilians are great soccer players Andrea is Brazilian Andrea is a great soccer player false both premises accepted as true wrong assumptions made 0 Cons reasoning alone is not sufficient o Experience empiricism knowledge is derived through direct observation or experience 0 testimonials personal experience 0 Pro experience is the best teacher 0 Cons testimonials can be misleading because u incomplete information like saying all Americans love horses n biases and expectations o belief perseverance unwillingness to consider any evidence that contradicts a strongly held view confirmation bias tendency to ignore or forget disconfirming events o availability heuristics overestimation of frequency of vivid or memorable events o Common sense folk wisdom what everybody knows or should know 0 Cons today s common sense can be tomorrow s nonsense like earth is flat contradict each other birds of a feather flock together opposites attract it is never too late to learn can t teach an old dog new tricks do not judge a book by its cover where there s smoke there s fire actions speak louder than words the pen is mightier than the sword o Intuition direct acquisition of knowledge without intellectual effort or sensory processing 0 feeling of knowing o sudden insight 0 Pro we have probably used intuition as a source of knowledge for a long time o Cons mysterious process unreliable o Science a way of learning about the world 0 a means of systematically asking questions about some natural phenomenon o combines systematic observations with rational processes to create new knowledge 0 most reliable way to develop a belief January 25 2010 Day 2 of lecture Scientific Thinking o involves a series of assumptions and features 0 1 Determinism all events have causes events are predictable to a certain degree XeY Example smoking CAN cause lung cancer This doesn t mean everyone who smokes gets lung cancer o 2 Discoverability causes can be discovered by using scientific methods 0 3 Objectivity occurs when n a results can be reproduced by someone else can follow the recipe and get the same end result a b peer review no results get publishedinto the media without being peer reviewed papers get critically reviewed by experts in the field 0 4 Systematic empiricism data driven Conclusions about behavior should be supported by data collected scienti cally select the best explanation for a certain behaviorphenomena Example Humans can make cognitive maps mental representation of the environment and researchers tested animals to see if they can make cognitive maps The experiment had the rats go from A to B and from A to C then tested if they could go from B to C Cognitive maps is ONE possibility to why they can get from B to C Another could be bait at the endpoint Another could be landmarks Three explanations for the same behavior To test these limit variables by removing bait and possible landmarks o 5 Conclusions subiect to revision Conclusions drawn from data are always tentative a As new technology and information become available conclusions are changed a Example Butter thought to be more unhealthy than margarine but more research showed that this isn t true Data had to be looked at again more research to be done 0 6 Empirical guestions Questions that can be answered by making systematic and objective observations Scientists should be aware that some questions cannot be answered through science a Is there a God no data can be collected so it s not an empirical question a What makes people believe in God data can be collected it s an empirical question Goals of Research in Psychology o Describe behavior identify regularly occurring sequence of events o Predict behavior o Explain behavior find what caused the behavior o Control behavior apply principles of behavior learned through psychological research change behavior so people can have a better life therapy etc Psychological Science vs Pseudoscience o Pseudo false o Pseudoscience 0 field of inquiry that attempts to associate with true science 0 1 example phrenology 9 proposed in the 18th century became very popular in the 19th century founded by Gail study of the structure of the skull to determine a person s character and mental capacity mental faculties are located in brain organs on the surface of the brain organs affect the contour of the skull organs can be detected by visible inspection of the skull not entirely innocent believed one area corresponded to likelihood of being a murderer accused people of going to commit a crime based on a bump on hisher head would make judgments on behavior fun fact Mark Twain was told by a phrenologist that he lacked a sense of humor January 29 2010 Day 3 of Lecture We watched a movie The Mind Unraveling the Mysteries of the Mind o The movie was about Gall s theory of phrenology Gall thought all aspects of behavior were in the brain 0 He believed he could find where each aspect of personality was located on the brain like secretiveness etc 0 Using that aspect would produce a bump on the skull 2 Example Graphology You are given a personality profile based on handwriting Dr Friedrich actually had a job application based on graphology Numerology is another example of pseudoscience adding up numbers in your name Astrology is another example of pseudoscience Characteristics of Pseudoscience deliberate attempt to associate itself with true science like the name ology 0 Example weight loss drug ads with vague graphs and studies with very little actual information 0 Example learn Russian while you re sleeping relies on anecdotal evidence 0 Anecdotal evidence is a single case Pseudoscience relies on one case to prove a point development of theories that are too vague to be tested by scientific methods 0 start with something scientific then expand it o borrow from cognitive research learn while you sleep but these don t hold for more than a couple seconds priming effects have a short duration 0 no way to test numerology can t follow reasoning tendency to explain complicated phenomena with overly simplistic concepts there is often a reliance on experts with no real expertise o alien encounters create alien experts pseudoscience phenomena normally disappear when subjected to welldesigned experiments 0 James Randy offers a million dollars to anybody who can demonstrate a strange phenomenahasn t given that money to anyone yet o there is a selective use of data tendency to look only for supportive information confirmation bias o the reports they write can fit into anybody s life anyone can identify themselves with it o pseudoscientists tend to provide explanations that fit the facts instead of making predictions in advance 0 Come up with a story that goes along with the facts o findings tend to be disseminated to general public via sources that are not peer reviewed no moderation o pseudoscientists tend to believe that there is no more to be learned 0 no new research 0 However scientists believe that conclusions are always tentative o pseudoscientists make their living off of pseudoscientific products or services payment 0 real scientists rarely get paid for their research get grants to do the research but don t get paid for their results How does pseudoscience hurt us o Can lead to tragedies 9 taking worthless drugs and giving up the ones that actually help o Decisions that affect us can be made based on these pseudosciences like the graphology test for Dr Friedrich s job o Opportunity cost people waste time and money that they could have spent on something else o Claims of miracle cures can raise false hopes like in the tragedies Pseudoscience vs Bad Science o Bad science 9 don t have the knowledge to do a good controlled experiment but try to follow the scientific method is usually caught because of peer review Chapter 2 Ethics in Psychological Research Ethos character or disposition not always clearcut decisions example deception on studies In science the values by which the conduct of researchers and the morality of the strategies they use are evaluated o Examples past research that wouldn t be allowed today o Milgram 19605 0 Watson Little Albert 19205 Watson s study o behaviorist no learning without experience o learn to fear stimuli classical conditioning o associate unconditioned stimulus with conditioned stimulus o associate mom s screaming with snake o Little Albert used because he was easygoing 0 fine with stimuli in beginning that may scare children little albert was just fine o paired white rat with loud noise o have the rat in his lap then make the noise albert would start crying eventually just the rat made albert cry o showed generalization respond to related stimuli in the same way other animals furry coats etc Video John Watson during hereditarians and geneticists Watson proposed that human beings were shaped solely by environment o studies behavior of babies blank slate o Albert shows no fear of stimuli o accompanies rat with noise afraid of all furry things February 1 2010 Day 4 of Lecture Why was the Little Albert experiment controversial o Used an infant o Didn t fully explain to mother o didn t look at longterm e ects intended to condition the fear away o could have had other alternatives Milgram experiment o WWII atrocities following orders special characteristic or does everyone follow orders to hurt others Obedience study Kept participants from knowing true purpose of study effect of punishment on learning pairs of participants one was a confederate fake participant randomly select one to be teacher one to be learner but the participant was always the teacher learner learn pairs of words tested on learning learner tied to chair for shocks separate rooms communicate through microphone if the person makes a mistake the participant has to deliver a shock the intensity of the shock increases the researcher in the room gives him instructions to deliver the shocks Milgram found that most people in the study went to the highest intensity of shock his hypothesis was that most would shock in the beginning but stop before it got too high Milgram experiment video Milgram s Obedience Studies told to go on with procedure continued with shocking ask to check on learner but instructed to continue follows instructions lots of psychological stress these studies were done because there were no guidelines at the time so researchers justified their own experiments Ethics in Psychological Research Psychologists follow the code established by the American Psychological Association APA 1953 revised most recently in 2002 1953 based on survey sent to psychologists Ethical principles developed by APA 2002 available online htt wwwa aor ethics code2002html Research with Humans o Standard 801 9 Benefits X Cost o Assess the risk for participants stress psychologicallongterm effects versus what will be learned o Group of people with no interest in the outcome of research have to review a research proposal o Institutional Review Board IRB 9 every single institution involved in research has to have one Weights the costs physical and psychological harm against the benefits increased knowledge and applications of the research 0 Proposal sent to IRB board reads and discusses proposal says yes or no consists of at least five people 9 faculty members with expertise in research at least one member from the outside community and one nonscientist 0 Research that involves some risk detailed assessment by IRB always some sort of risk 0 Research that involves minimal risk risk is not greater than that typically experienced in everyday life expedited review 9 simple process using a keyboard to type something when you see something on the screen questionnaires observation in public places not interfering merely observing archival research 0 Research that involves no risk eg student projects in research courses class demonstrations etc evaluated by the instructor can still ask the IRB for suggestions o Standard 802 9 Informed Consent 0 potential participants are informed about procedures and risks that might be involved 0 participants are told that they are free to withdraw from a study at any time and for any reason which did NOT happen in Milgram s experiment have to offer an alternative for studies required for classes 0 participants are asked to give their written agreement to participate o Informed Consent Forms 0 O the nature of the study purpose has to be in a language that the participant can understand have to be approved by the IRB any potential risks or inconvenience to participants the procedure for ensuring confidentiality of the data the voluntary nature of their cooperation and their freedom to withdraw at any time without prejudice or consequence give out contact information so the participant can reach the researcher if heshe has questions later any incentives should be mentioned exactly benefits should be mentioned February 3 2010 Day 5 of lecture Deception o occurs when participants are misled about the nature of the study o should only be used when no other feasible alternative is available deception should not harm the participants o would probably need to defend the use of deception to the IRB o majority of psychological studies do not involve deception o instead researchers may not give many details 0 Analyzing groups looking for leadership but saying you re looking at group work o 2 forms of deception o passive deception information is withheld from participants 0 active deception participants are actively misled given inaccurate information not telling people placebos are being used you should tell them that some people will get the drug and some the placebo usually worse but sometimes passive deception has extremely negative consequences as well Debriefing standard 808 o After the study has been completed participants receive information about the study purpose methods etc 0 given more specific information 0 given results 0 let participants ask any questions 0 make sure they still want to participate if not remove the data o 2 purposes 0 Dehoaxing the true purpose of the experiment is explained to participants this is used if deception was involved in the study 0 Desensitizing experimenter tries to reduce any distress felt by the participants as the result of their research experiment Confidentiality not only research but also clinical work o Data should be kept confidential and when possible anonymous 0 Sometimes it s not possible when related with demographic information or keeping track throughout multiple sessions in this case use coding system instead of names 0 In cases involving abuse and neglect especially of children researchers cannot promise confidentiality Researchers should tell participants beforehand that they cannot ensure confidentiality Laws vary by state Research with Animals Standard 809 o Only about 5 of APA members use animals in their research 0 Only about 7 of published studies involve the use of animals o 95 of the animals used are rat mice rabbits or birds 0 Most research involving animals uses rats 0 However humans and rats vastly differ in sensory ability so other animals have to be used 0 Birds have a visual system similar to humans 0 The code does not cover how to treat birds and rats although most researchers use the same guidelines for them as for other animals 0 Chimps and primates are not commonly used Very expensive need lots of space not many can be used for research o Why do researchers use animals in research o 1 to learn about people some behavioral principles are similar across species 9 some basic behavioral phenomena can be studied more simply in nonhumans more control with animals know the experiences can control food can control reinforcement Some experiments are permissible only with animals a Research on how excitement in life affects drug usagecouldn t do that experiment with humans 0 2 to learn about animals to understand how different species learn think and behave o Benefits x Costs 0 Institution Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC Weighs the costs harm and distress to the animal used against the benefits Benefits a increase knowledge of the process underlying the evolution development maintenance alteration control or biological significance of behavior a increase understanding of the species under study could be secondary gains o Example Dolphins on the coast of California get caught in fisher s nets Echolocation made locating the thin nets difficult Contacted dolphin researchers who helped to develop thicker nets that could be more easily located even though they were researching something else dolphinrelated a provide results that benefit the health or welfare of humans or other animals Researchers are encouraged to consider alternatives simulations etc a Evaluate number of animals as few as possible a Dr Friedrich s educational psych class had pairs of students condition rats that had to be put down at the end of the study Researchers avoid inflicting unnecessary pain a If it hurts you it ll probably hurt the animal a Should use the same procedures as with humans Set of standards for housing feeding and maintaining the wellbeing of the animal subjects n Inspections are made often committees etc o Normally surprise inspections o If things aren t fixed a whole university could lose research privileges February 5 2010 Scientific Fraud httpwwwnaturecomnewsZspecialthwangZindexhtml o Faked cloning data o makes people suspect the truth in science o Fraud includes anything ranging from not giving credit to someone else s ideas to faked data that gets worldwide attention o Plagiarism o presenting someone else s ideas as being one s own includes copying on exams includes not citing a source and pretending it is your own ideas printing off papers from the internet o Data Falsification o 1 No data are collected You can use hypothetical data if it is acknowledged as hypothetical 2 Data are altered or omitted 3 Collected data guessed data 4 Study is suppressed when results are different from expected Example You test a drug but find out many adverse sideeffects so you decide to forget about the research Can be detected through 0 O O O a replications other people repeating the research b peer reviews Chapter 3 Basic vs Applied Research o Basic Research 0 The goal of basic research is to describe predict and explain fundamental principles of behavior 0 Basic research is performed for the sake of knowledge 0 Example testing to see how much a person can remember just to see how memory works 0 Common topics cognition learning memory psychobiology etc 0 Basic research focuses primarily on theory testing o Applied Research 0 The goal of applied research is to solve some immediate real life problem 0 Applied research is guided by theories and findings of basic research Example Kindergarteners have trouble memorizing spelling words so researchers discover how to best teach them 0 Predict events directly in a specific environmental situation o It s more defendable to say applied research is more useful the general public understands the importance of applied research like helping disabled children but not of basic research Many researchers think basic research is more important because it s for the sake of knowledge However neither is more important than the other Basic Research Applied Research Principles can be used in applied Goes from data directly to a real situations world application Applied research depends on a solid Applied research outcomes may have foundation of basic research relevance for basic research some researchers do both classified for teaching purposes Laboratory vs Field Research Laboratory Research 0 Research that occurs within the controlled confines of the scientific laboratory Field Research 0 Research that occurs in any location other than a scientific laboratory 0 Example observing chimps in the jungle no control Laboratory Research Field Research Gender control Proximity to everyday life Conditions can be specified Results can make immediate difference in the lives of people being studied Participants can be selected Can confirm findings of laboratory studies Participants can be placed in conditions more systematically Could we associate field research with applied research Example types of attachment 0 basic research in the lab These are independent classifications with moms and infants with cameras 9 lab research 0 OR could be in the home 9 field research basic research Can field research and laboratory research yield similar results Is laboratory research more ethical than field research o Many people think this is true Doesn t have to be the case Follow same guidelines Example daycare asked parental consent talked to kids to see if they wanted to know told parents what was done give parents results give contact information Is laboratory research too artificial 0 environment in the lab Not always the case though it is hard to create a realworld Mundane vs Experimental Realism o Mundane realism how closely a study mirrors reallife experiences 0 memorizing meaningless words little mundane realism o Experimental realism whether the experiment has an impact on the participants involves them and makes them take the experiment seriously 0 researchers should be more concerned with this 0 have air traffic controllers do an experiment with a simple joystick doesn t look like real environment but better results of they take it seriously 0 Animals locating seeds let animals hide seeds in the lab 28 Quantitative vs Qualitative Research o Quantitative Research 0 Results are presented in numbers o Qualitative Research 0 Results are presented as analytical narratives descriptions o Most psych research is quantitative Empirical Question idea for study o must be answerable with data o video jack in the box 0 each baby reacted differently 0 count fear responses but difficult to define 0 whenever baby cries or whenever baby stops doing what he was doing o terms must be precisely defined o Operational Definitions 0 definition of a conceptconstruct in terms of the operations used to measure it o Analogy construct operational definition cake cake s recipe intelligence What is necessary to have to do in order to be considered intelligent 0 Advantages 1 clearly defines our terms no ambiguity 2 discussion of abstract concepts in concrete terms 3 help us communicate ideas to others 4 allow experiments to be repeated 0 example fear verplanck 1957 sudden and intense stimulation responses n alterations of sphincter control a flight behavior a respiratory changes a suppression of behavior occurring at the onset of stimulation video chimp reaction 0 How would you operationally define the terms in these empirical questions 1 do blond girls have more fun a define fun laughing ask on a scale of 110 B define blond natural or dyed shades 2 are UK students friendly n uk students fulltime undergrads grads post bacc course a friendly say hi back see if they help etc o Where do these empirical questions come from o 1 Own observations Personal experience pigeon story Observation of the world around us Serendipity The act of discovering something while looking for something else a Eg Skinner extinction curve rats pressing bar for food boxes broke and rats stopped getting reinforcement burst in response then decline n Pavlov classical conditioning studying digestion o 2 Past research Studies raise questions that can be addressed in subsequent research 0 3 Theories most research involves theory testing Theories o series of statements that summarizes and organizes existing information about some phenomenon provides an explanation for the phenomenon and serve as a basis for making predictions to be tested empirically o Set of consistent statements about some behavioral phenomenon that o 1 best summarizes existing empirical knowledge of the phenomenon o 2 organizes this knowledge in the form of precise statements of relationships among variables 21010 o 3 provides a tentative explanation of a phenomenon o 4 serves as the basis for making predictions about behavior o Steps 0 How do we move from theory to data Deduction n reasoning from the general to the specific o Seen as an inverted triangle the top being the broad general topic and the bottom being the narrow specific topic research hypotheses are derived from theories Hypothesis an educated guess about a relationship between variables Theory deductiongt hypothesis gt test Results as predicted Yes confirming evidence N0 disconfirming evidence 0 What do we do with the results Induction n reasoning from the specific to the general n n n n o Seen as the triangle the top being the narrow a Confirming evidence 9 theory is supported a Disconfirming evidence 9 theory is discarded u check notes Supported vs True o It is impossible to prove a theory to be true o Fallacy of affirming the consequence 0 all Brazilians are great soccer players 0 Ronaldinho is a great soccer player 0 Ronaldinho must be Brazilian can go along with too many other theories o Can only get support for o In theory it is possible to disprove a theory 0 Brazilians are great soccer players John is a bad soccer player Therefore he cannot be Brazilian If he is a good soccer player then the statement Brazilians are great soccer players may not be true 0 If he is Brazilian it s disconfirming evidence o Exercise 0 Hypothesis If a card has a vowel on one side it has an even number on the other 0 EK47 0 Choose two cards 0 O o E odd 9 disconfirming evidence even 9 confirming evidence 0 K odd OR even 9 doesn t have anything to do with the hypothesis 0 4 Consonant 9 learn nothing Vowel 9 confirming o 7 consonant 9 nothing vowel 9 disconfirming o CHOOSE E and 7 because you re looking for disconfirming evidence 0 Cannot prove a theory to be correct but CAN prove it to be incorrect o Do we actually disprove a theory 0 Have to be careful o Disconfirming evidence may not imply that the hypothesis or the theory was wrong Research conducted improperly Insensitive test Made wrong assumptions went to far in deductions 0 Can disprove a theory best when different researchers with different procedures disprove the same theory Attributes of Good Theories o 1 Productivity 0 Good theories advance knowledge by generating a great deal of research 2 Falsifiability 0 leaves room for people to find disconfirming evidence 0 Example but under those conditions that you tested those were expected 0 Theories must be stated in such a way that predictions derived from them can potentially be shown to be false 0 Precision the more specific the prediction the better greater falsifiability o 3 Parsimony o The fewer assumptions and concepts the better 0 The simpler the better What s next 9 information for the test o Replication to repeat an experiment 0 exact replication uses the same procedures for manipulating and measuring the variables that were used in the original research not much value 0 conceptual replication replication of research using different procedures for manipulating or measuring the variables o Extension Testing something with pigeons that had been tested on songbirds more valuable advancing what is known about a certain phenomena to replicate part of a prior study while adding some additional information o tuneup procedure APA Style 9 Appendix A in Textbook o Why so many rules 0 these rules contribute to clear communication 0 Important for Replication o Where can I find these rules 0 0 21210 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 5th edition Lab o Why should I use these rules 0 0 Readers easier to locate critical information Writers easier to know where to put various kinds of information Manuscript looks different than the published article o Major sections of APA style research reports 0 O O O O O O O 1 title page 2 abstract 3 introduction normally lengthy part length depends on the purpose 4 method 5 results 6 discussion 7 references sometimes more if you did three studies you ll have the title page abstract and introduction but then the rest will be repeated for each experiment then a general discussion with all combined o if you have many graphs you might have a section specifically for graphs 0 may have an appendix o Why so many sections 0 Different parts of information that you need to report go into different sections o Title Page 0 Title descriptive explains what the paper is about includes independent variable and dependent variable and the relationship between the two 0 Author information institution in which the research was conducted use the same name for every paper first author did the writeup adviser last because not directly contributing o Page header page abbreviation of title title page is page 1 0 Running head Running Head summary of title o Abstract summary of what was done in the research 0 most commonly read part of your report 0 Include purpose of study 0 hypotheses 0 participants 0 general aspects of procedure 0 main results not stats overall results 0 conclusions and applications 0 limit 960 characters 120 words 0 write abstract last o Introduction 0 General topic opening paragraph 0 What is known about the topic from previous research 0 What are you trying to demonstrate How Deduction o Hypotheses 0 Not titled introduction title of study o Method not new page wherever into finished o 1 participants or subjects age group gender paidunpaid etc o 2 Material or apparatus apparatus is more specific equipment built specifically for o 3 procedure everything needed to conduct research o Results 0 summary of data collected 0 statistical analyses 0 figures and tables at end of text 0 report results as they are at this point don t qualify them don t interpret o Discussion 0 this is where you qualify the results 0 First paragraph would be the hypotheses and whether or not it was supported 0 evaluation and interpretation of results 0 consistent with previous research 0 practical and theoretical consequences 0 limitations of the study 0 ideas for future research o References 0 starts on new page 0 all works cited in the paper if you read it but did not cite it it doesn t have to be included in the references o Important 0 clarity o simplicity o objectivity 0 good grammar 3232010 121600 PM 3232010 121600 PM