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by: Hermina Little


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Psychlogy > PSY 100 > INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
Hermina Little
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Andrea Friedrich

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Andrea Friedrich
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Little on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Andrea Friedrich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/228246/psy-100-university-of-kentucky in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Chapter 1 Study of Psychology Science of Psychology I People before psychology became a science I Socrates and Plato 0 Relationship between mind and body 0 Completely separate 0 Mind could survive after body dies Dualism 0 Knowledge is born with us I Aristotle 0 Mind amp body not separate 0 Knowledge is NOT born with Instead grows with experience I Descartes o Dualism 0 Mind is in the brain 0 Mind and body communicate and are connected in the brain I Pineal gland o Innate ideas some knowledge comes with us I God and self 0 Rationalism I Knowledge should be sought through process of logical reasoning I Locke o Aristotle s Tabula Rasa I mind is a blank slate o Empiricism I All ideas and knowledge are gained from experience observation to learn Psychology is born in 1879 I William Wundt 1879 Father of Psychology 0 First psychology lab studied in systematic way 0 Leipzig Germany 0 Broke down mental process in experiment sound and response atoms of the mind measured structure of mind Structuralism I Edward Titchener 0 Early school of psychology discovers basic elements of mind 0 lntrospection steps in a process not very reliable must put experiences into words looking inside Functionalism I William James 0 School of psychology focus on functions of the mind and behavior in adapting to the environment 0 Not used anymore early idea What is Psychology I Until 1920 s SCIENCE ofmental life I 2060 s SCIENCE of observable behavior NOW SCIENCE of behavior and mental process 0 behavior any action we can observe amp recall 0 mental process private events inferred from behavior A Scientific Attitude I Empirical Questions questions that can be answered by making objective observations 0 Not Empirical Ex is there a god Any evidence to collect I A No evidence 0 Empirical Ex what makes people believe in God I A can survey people I Psychology only deals with empirical questions I Skepticism an explanation for a behavior is accepted only after other possible explanations have been ruled out 0 Ex baby memorizing numbers or actually counting I Critical thinking thinking that examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses observations Scientific Method I Idea for research 0 l Theories series of statements about relationships between variables that taken together attempts to explain some natural phenomenon o 2 Personal experiences child with autism wondering what works and doesn t work 0 3 Daily Observations o 4 Someone else s work I knowing what other researchers are doing can inspire you I Hypothesis testable prediction 0 Dropping books in an elevator One person will they pick them up for you I Data Collection Data Analysis stats that support or disagrees with the hypothesis How we study behavior I Case studies descriptive method 0 A single person race case event or an event that clearly exemplifies a phenomenon is studied in detail Not many people under those conditions 0 Insight gained through a case study may also lead to the development of hypotheses that can be tested using other methods 0 Girl who was locked in the closet no idea of language studied the development of language in teens o No cause and e ect relationships I Surveys descriptive method 0 Participants are asked a series of questions about their behaviors thoughts or attitudes 0 Sample subset of the population 0 Interview face to face good way to get detailed information if you don t understand you can ask the person for an example participant can ask questions problem is costs and time 0 Phone surveys people hang up and refuse to take it low response rate 0 Electronic surveys E surveys bias people are either against or extremely for ex rate my professors 0 Written surveys mailed given to the participant 0 Find one with the least amount of problems 0 No cause and e ect relationship I Naturalistic observation descriptive method 0 The behavior of people or animals is studied as it occurs in its everyday natural environment sometimes must have to get them used to your presence I Ex how college students behave during finals week I Ex Jane Goodall observe animals in the jungle 0 Used when the researcher wants to describe and understand how people in a social or cultural setting live work and experience the setting 0 No cause and e ect relationship I Correlational studies 0 Exists whenever 2 variables are associated or related to each other in some fashion 0 Example how much you study during the week and what your GPA is 0 Positive correlation direct correlation two things increase or decrease together I Experimentation Research with animals I Only 5 of APA members use animals in their research I 95 of the animals used are rats mice rabbits or birds 0 Rats are not used as much birds are used more because of good visual system I Before animals research can conducted it must be reviewed and approved I Researchers weigh potential benefits of research against possible harm to the animals 0 Most researchers like working with animals I Researchers avoid inflicting unnecessary pain 0 Have to remember that if it would cause pain to us it will cause pain to them Must take certain steps to avoid pain I There is a set of standards for housing feeding and maintaining the wellbeing of the animals subjects 0 Surprise inspections from vets to inspect the entire lab Go through the entire logs to make sure animals are being taken care of properly 0 All researchers must be trained in every area I Why do psychologists use animals in research 0 To learn about humans Humans are extremely complex and is extremely difficult to study Animals are more simple Researchers can change one variable much easier I Some behavioral principles are similar across specie but some basic behavioral phenomena can be studied more simply in nonhumans I Some experiments are permissible only with animals I Study with raising rats in different conditions and then having them self inject drugs Can t do that with babies 0 To learn about animals I To understand how different species learn think and behave Deadline for research credits April 24 5pm 12512 Chapter 2 Brain and Behavior The Neuron I Nerve cell I 3 main parts 0 Dendrites branching extensions that receive chemical messages and pass them to the cell body 0 Cell Body Contains the neuron s nucleus with DNA and typical nuclear organelles o Axon Takes information away from the cell body to other neurons or glands Can be up to a couple of feet long Action potential impulse occurs when chemicals contact the surface of the neuron changing the balance of ions and a brief electrical charge travels down the axon o Na in K out balance the cell 0 Open s only one way Myelin Sheath fatty tissue that covers the axon of some neuron and helps speed neural impulses 0 Similar to an electrical cord s outside insulation Threshold there is certain level of stimulation that is required to trigger an action potential All or none principle if the threshold is not reached then no action potential will fire39 if the threshold is reached and action potential always the same size will fire Neurotransm itters o Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons 0 Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron The tiny gay at this junction is called synaptic gap 0 Reuptake the process by which the sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters 0 Examples of neurotransmitters I Dopamine in uences movement learning attention and emotion Serotonin affects mood hunger sleep and arousal Acetylcholine enables learning and memory Endorphins natural pain killers produced in response to pain stress and vigorous exercise The Nervous system I Peripheral Nervous System ENS 0 Link the central nervous system to all of the body s sense receptors muscles and glands o 2 components I Somatic specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs D Raising arm walking Can control I Autonomic controls the parts of the body that function involuntarily Without our awareness Gland functions heart pumping D Sympathe c prepares the body for defense I Parasympalhelic acts to calm the body after the emergency situation has been solved I Central Nervous System CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord 0 2 components I Brain I Spinal Card connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain Re ex of removing hand When touching something hot Brain I Central Core old brain 0 Brainstem I Medulla D Unconscious functions breathing circulation I Pans D Coordinates muscles integrates movements between the right and left halves of the body Involved in sleep and arousal o Cerebellum I Body balance Involved in intellectual functions 0 ReticularFarman39an I Functions related to sleep arousal and attention 0 Thalamus I Messages from the senses are directed to higher brain regions I Limbic System 0 Hippacampus I Involved in the storage ofmemories o Amygdala I Involved in aggression and fear 0 Hypothalamus I Maintain homeostasis Regulates basic biological needs hunger thirst I Cerebral Cortex 0 Where the highest mental functions such as thinking and planning take place 0 Le Hemisphere I Receives information only from the right side of the body D Raising right arm goes to left side of brain I Concentrates more on tasks that require verbal competence speaking reading thinking and reasoning o RightHemisphere I Receives information from left side of the body I Concentrates more in nonverbal tasks such as the understanding of spatial relationships recognition of patterns and drawings music and emotional expression I Processes things as a whole 0 Each hemisphere is subdivided into 4 regions I Frontal Lobe D Control of voluntary movement speaking personality making plans and judgment I Parietal Lobe D Receives sensory input for touch and body position attention spatial location I Occipital Lobe D Receives visual information from the visual fields I Temporal Lobe D Hearing language processing memory 0 Laleralizalian the dominance of one hemisphere in specific functions 0 Corpus Callasum wide band of axon fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres 0 Roger Sperry 1968 described the difference between the 2 hemispheres Experiments with epileptic people Cut the corpus callosum and noticed the difference between the two hemispheres 0 Split Brain Research I The two hemisphere s do not communicate with each other Act as individual brains 0 Functions of the Cerebral Cortex I Motor Functions u Frilsch and Hitzig I870 stimulate certain parts of the brain with dogs to study movements u Wilder Pen eld 1 930 s mapped the motor cortex using wideawake patients so he could talk to them during the procedures I Sensory Functions D Wilder Pen eld mapped the somatosensory cortex I Very close to the motor cortex controls smaller functions of the body I Auditory cortex below sensory visual cortex back of head are related to sensory I Higher mental functions learning remembering thinking and speaking D We use the Whole brain not 10 like people say D Association Areas I Language D Aphasia inability to use or understand written or spoken language D Broca s Area controls language expression putting sentences together frontal lobe I Broca s Aphasia difficulties in controlling the actual production of words D Wernicke s Area controls language reception parietal lobe I Wernicke s Area difficulties in understanding receiving the meaning of words Sensation amp Perception 2312 Sensation How do we construct our representations of the external world Detect physical energy from the environment o 2 Physical energy is encoded as neural signals 0 step 1 amp2 sensation allows the nervous system to receive and represent stimulus energy from our environment information is selected organized and interpreted o perception organizes and interprets sensory information o Picture of black and white dots sensation seeing the dog perception Which information do we extract from the environment c We detect from the environment the information that we need to function and survive c We detect what are for us the important features of the environment o Ex pigeons use a electromagnetic compass to fly south in order to survive bats use high frequency sounds humans do not have these sensory abilities How intense must a stimulus be before we can detect its presence o Psychophysics area of psychology that studies the relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them o Threshold minimum stimulation to detect the stimulus Thresholds o Absolute threshold lowest intensity at which stimulus can be detected at least 50 of the time o Subliminal stimulus stimulus that is so weak or brief that although it is received by the senses it can not be perceived consciously o Difference threshold noticeable difference the smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 of the time o The difference threshold increases with the magnitude of the stimulus 0 wineamp chocolate tasters o Weber s Law to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount H o w Examples lights 8 difference in intensity a Weight 2 difference a Tones 3 difference Sensory Adaptation o Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus o Adaptation occurs in all sensory modalities 0 AC in a room all day becomes unmeaningful o Adaptation allows our senses to pick up informative changes in the environment that could be important to our well being or survival How do we see the world o 1 Light enters the eyes through the cornea o 2 Light passes through the pupil 0 amount of light that passes is regulated by the iris o 3 Lens helps to focus the incoming rays into an image on the retina o 4 Light energy is converted into neural impulses and sent to the brain 0 2 different receptors rods and cones o Rods retinal receptors that detect black white and gray Sharp and good quality Owls only contain rods giving them exceptional vision in very dim light 0 Cones receptor cells that detect fine fine detail and give rise to color sensations not as sharp don t respond well to dim conditions of light Chipmunks and pigeons have only cones in their retina so they have color vision but very poor night vision 0 Optic nerve carries the information to the brain 0 Many more rods than cones in the human eye How do we see color o Light waves 0 Amplitudes are the peaks on the wave length higher the peak brighter the color Determines brightness o Wavelength determines dim can vary in size 0 Our visibility is limited on the light spectrum o Theories o YoungHelmholtz trichromatic theory Individual cones are most sensitive to wavelengths that correspond to either blue green or red Problems a What about yellow red green pure color Color blind people can t see BGR but can see yellow American flag experimente lead to Hering s theory 0 Hering s opponentprocess theory Each of the 3 cone types responds to 2 different wavelengths Red or green Blue or yellow Black or white 0 Dualprocess theory Combines the trichromatic and opponentprocess theories Retina red green and blue color cones Nervous system signals are processed by opponent process cells n n Hearing o Sound waves 0 Amplitude determines loudness o Wavelength determines pitch 0 Frequency range humans 20 to 20000 Hz 20 whisper o Loudness humans absolute threshold 0 o How do we translate sound energy into neural messages 0 Sound waves pass through the auditory canal to the ear drum 0 Ear drum vibrates and this vibration is transmitted to the cochlea through the hammer anvil and stirrup o The vibrations causes the oval cochlea s membrane to vibrate isolating the fluid that fills the tube 0 This motion causes ripples in the basilar membrane which is lines with hair cells Touch Smell Taste 0 The movement of these hair cells triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve fibers Normally thought of as the detection of pressure against the skin Sense of touch is a mix of at least 4 distinct skin senses 0 Pressure 0 Warmth 0 Cold 0 Pain Thermoreceptors 0 Sense temperature changes at or near our skin 0 Provide input to keep our body s temperature regulation at 986 0 Warm and cold thermoreceptors Pain 0 Pain is the sensation that warns us that damage to our body is occurring 0 There is not a specific type of stimulus that triggers pain 0 Nociceptors sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures pressure of chemicals Smell can provide us with important information 0 Food choices spoiled milk 0 Tracking gas leak 0 Recognition moms and babies 0 Scenes and emotions from the past How do we smell things 0 Chemical molecules reach receptors at the top of the nose and then the receptors send messages to the brain How good are humans at recognizing smell 0 Human olfactory system can be improved 0 Smell fingerprint 0 Hard to recall odors by name Taste like smell is a chemical sense Taste sensations 0 Sweet sour salty and bitter 0 New 5th sensation umami elicited by glutamate bacon chicken broth o Not only taste buds are involved in taste but also nose o Sensory interaction one sense may influence another as when the smell of food influences its taste Perception Perception is an active creative process in which raw sensory data are organized and given meaning EXAM 2 LEARNING What is learning I Relatively permanent change in an organism behavior due to experience I No such thing as learning without experience I 3 types of learning 0 IClassical Conditioning 0 2 Operant Conditioning 0 3 Observational social Learning Classical Conditioning I Pavlovian Classical Conditioning is the process whereby an organism learns to associate stimuli and thus anticipate events I Ivan Pavlov Russian scientist 0 won noble prize in 1904 for studies of the physiology of salivation 0 Experiments with dogs I Selected a stimulus that has no meaning bell metronome started to ring the bell then give them food Later on when the bell was rang they anticipated food and salvatory glands became active Condition Re ex I Unconditional Stimulus US stimulus that elicits a particular response re exive involuntary reactions without the necessity of learning 0 food chopping onions I Unconditioned Response UR involuntary automatic Response that occurs to a stimulus without the necessity of learning 0 Finger in an electrical outlet the jump is a UR I Conditioned Stimulus CS stimulus that does not elicit a particular response initially but comes to do so as a result of becoming associated with an US 0 Flashing a light every time before air is blown in your eye play a certain song before you start to chop onions you will start to cry I Conditioned Response CR Response that comes to be made to the CS as a result of classical condition 0 CR is the blinking to the light or crying to the song I EXAMPLES o Cat s hearing a can opener they come to the kitchen meowing asking for food Associate the sound of the can opener with being fed CScan opener US food UR salivating CR salivating and meowing to the sound of the can opener I 5 major conditioning processes 0 1 Acquisition 14 I CS is paired with US I No fixed rule for how long it is I CS comes to elicit the CR 0 2 Extinction I US no longer follows the CS D ring the bell and give no food until the point when they stop salivating I CR eventually disappears o 3 Spontaneous Recovery I if the CS is presented again to the subject after a period of rest the CR reappears o 4 Generalization I tendency to respond to stimuli resembling the CS 0 5 Discrimination I responding occurs in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of another Operant Conditioning Trial and Error Operanl Conditioning the process whereby an organism learns to associate a response and its consequences and thus to repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment Edward Thorndike 0 Experiment with cats puzzle in a box to get out because tuna outside the box Eventually the cats would figure out the solution and could figure it out if had to do it again I Cats would continue to repeat the same behavior behaviors that didn t work they would stop them trial and error If the action brought a reward the action was stamped into the mind 0 Law ofE ecl if a response in a presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event the association between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened If the response is followed by an annoying event the association will be weakened I BF Skinner o Skinner box metal one door made out of plexy glass one bar Shocks and rewards food for actions Mainly for rats but also adapted a box for pigeons lOO trial runs I l Reinforcement o stimuli that increases the probability of behavior Rewards the behavior of whatever action the participant is doing 0 2 types I primary reinforces events that are innately reinforcing D normally related to something with biological significance D water for someone who is thirsty 15 I Secondary reinforces requires learning I Money as a reward they associated money with the things they can buy I Stickers for doing well token game center Learn to appreciate 0 Positive Reinforcement presentation of a desirable stimulus increase the probability of behavior 0 Negative Reinforcement Removal of an aversive stimulus increase the probability of behavior I 2 Punishment 0 punishers stimuli that decreases the probability of behavior I positive punishment presentation of an aversive stimulus decreases the probability of behavior I spanking I Negative punishment removal of a desirable stimulus decreases the probability of behavior I time out take away video games I Reinforcement increases the probability of behavior I Punishment 4 decreases the probability of behavior I Positive give I Negative take away I 3 Shaping 0 method of successive approximations I reward responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior I ignore all other responses Social Learning observational learning I Albert Bandura 0 Trial and error is dangerous observing others is faster and safer Social Learning Theory 0 Learning by observing others Learning from the consequences of their behaviors Modeling process of observing and initiating a specific behavior Advantages 0 Economy learning through observation usually saves time 0 Less dangerous than trial and error 0 Allows for exible behavior I How to open a door with your back 0 Transmissions of knowledge I Learning from generation to generation 16 I When do we start imitating o Facial expressions can be imitated by infants as young as 2 or 3 weeks old 0 9 month old infants can imitate a novel play behavior 0 14 month olds can imitate acts modeled on television I Other aspects 0 Outcome of the behavior of the model I A child climbing up the slide the other child will do so depending on the first child being reprimanded or praised o Similarity between observer and model I The more similar we are to the person the more likely we are to do it I 2 year old sees a 4 year old climbing up the slide and does what they do 0 Status ofmodel I Women want certain styles based on celebs because they re considered cool I Kids at the playground imitate the cool kids not the losers I Bandura Ross amp Ross 1961 0 Watch a video of the model beating and kicking the bubble doll Took them to 15t room with cool toys then removed them to a less cool 2quotd room 2nd room had bubble doll would beat kick and curse at it like the model did Control children did not show any aggression towards bubble doll I Experiments indicate that children can learn aggressive behaviors by watching aggressive models I Watching aggressive models on TV and in movies may also enhance the viewers tendency to aggress I Watching a model engage in prosocial behavior can increase a viewer s tendency to help others 0 What a parents DOES re ects more on the child than what they say Information processing model I Assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory I 3 stages 0 1 Encoding o 2 Storage 0 3 Retrieval I Encoding 0 Automatic encoding information is stored in memory with very little effort I Knowledge of event frequency time and location I Remembering where you ate out don t have to think about where you ate it was automatically encoded and you can recall 0 E ortful encoding effort to encode and remember information is required 17 Trying to study for an exam making an effort to remember Remembering a phone number Herman Ebbinghaus 18501909 conducted a series of studies by using himself Probably because he couldn t find anyone to participate in his study Memorized a long list of words varied how many words kept track of how many he could memorize Thought he was cheating because he was associating the words Tried to get rid of the meaning of the words by using Nonsense syllabus Nonsense syllabus HAQ PIF ZOD VOX u u The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning a Longer lists required more repetition u Overlearning no such thing as too much learning you can always benefit Easier to repeat in the future if overlearned o Spacing E ects tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better longterm retention than is achieved through massed study or practice I Better to study 1 hour for 5 days 0 Semantic Encoding giving meaning to what you re trying to encode I When studying relating it to things in order to remember Easier to recall later 0 Visual encoding making mental pictures I Making visual pictures relating to the words you re trying to study Dogs cats imagining the picture of the experiment to relate to different psych concepts 0 Chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units I 6547893217 breaking it down into chunks in order to remember I Storage 0 Storage model Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 I The human memory system is composed of 3 stages or 3 types of memory system which information must pass D J Sensory memory 2 Shortterm memory 3 Long term memory I J Sensory Memory D first stage of information processing D sensory receptors are stimulated by external energy D different kinds of sensory memory I Iconic Memory coming from eyes visual information very brief don t need all the information of things we see only important things 18 Echoic Memory39brief period of time 24sec watching tv and your mom walks in the room says something you say what and suddenly you remember what she said I ETC Memories other memories but researchers don t study as much not as important D Information can only maintained for only a short period of time I 2 Short Term Memory D Has a limited storage capacity D Digit Span Test D George A Miller 1956 Can hold approximately 5 to 9 items of information average of 7 I Magic number 7 2 D Holds memory for only a limited period unless rehearsal is used Rehearsal is a mechanism we use to keep the information longer Unless it s rehearsed for a long period of time then it s sent to long term memory B Environmental Si imuli9Sensory Memory not important it s lost If important selective attention is used 9Short Term Memory info is lost is not rehearsed a lot just stays in shortterm for a period of time if rehearsed tons of times 9Long Term I 3 LongTerm Memory D Permanent and limitless reservoir of information D Episodic Memory portion of longterm memory that stores personally experienced events I Your sweet 163911 birthday party Wedding Day D Procedural Memory portion of longterm memory that stores information related to skills and habits I Hard to put into words Explaining how to ride a bikeswim but know what to do when put in the situation D Semantic Memory portion of longterm memory that stores general facts and information I Who is the 203911 president how many colors in the rainbow If you just know the fact then its semantic If you remember where you learned the fact it s episodic I Updates on the Model B Some information can go straight to longterm memory without conscious awareness frosted akes box color 19 D Working memory vs shortterm memory I Associates new and old information and solves problems I Information that is important or novel that we focus our attention on I Retrieval 0 Recall I Measure of memory in which a person must retrieve information learned earlier I Write down the names of the 7 dwarfs without any help D Grumpy happy bashful dopey doc sneezy sleepy 0 Recognition I Measure of memory in which a person must identify items I Easier to recognize things such as the dwarfs names when given a test suspects in a crime lined up multiple choice test vs essay I False Positive error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory 0 Retrieval Cues I A stimulus for remembering I Example bringing a binder home and can t find it going to yoga class and putting the binder in the trunk Parking lot functioned as a retrieval cue Going back to the parking lot unaware it was retrieved from the memory to where the binder was put 0 Forgetting I Encoding failure some information never enters longterm memory I Storage Decay fading of the physical memory trace I Retrieval Failure difficulty in retrieving information that was previously stored a Putting things in the garage find a bunch of items but the item you re looking for So much information is in the long term memory it s just difficult to retrieve certain things a 2 types of interference I proactive intetference prior learning interferes with recall of new information 0 get a new phone but you just keep remember your old visversa Retroactive intetference new learning interferes with recall of old information 0 Your old address at the house you lived at for 5 years can not be remembered because you moved to a new address 20 Childhood Amnesia aka infantile amnesia inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3 Amnesia severe deficit in remembering events caused by problems in the functioning of the memory areas of the brain D Causes Alzheimer s disease strokes chronic alcoholism brain damage 21 EXAM 3 1182012 35900 PM The Developing Person 0 Just after birth 0 Re exes o Rooting re ex turn head in direction of stimulation looking for something to suck on o Sucking re ex I Move head toward human voice Gaze longer at a drawing of a face like imagepreference for human faces Ability to recognize mother s smell Ability to recognize mother s voice Preference for 3dimensional stimuli Sense of touch most well developed Sense of smell also highly developed Sense of taste is nearly fully developed like sweet salty Hearing is functional but takes a while to reach full potential Vision is the least functional fuzzy U Rods are well developed U Cones will take about another 6 months to fully develop I Brain triples in weight after 2 years head 75 of weight Physical Development 0 Maturation biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior relatively unin uenced by experience 0 Sets the basic course of development 0 As the nervous system matures more complicated skills develop 0 Infancychildhood sequence of motor development is universal I Individual differences in the timing of the sequence experience has limited effects 0 Adolescence period of sexual maturation I Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics I Further development of frontal lobes o Adulthood 0 Young adulthood I Relatively minimal physical changes but signs of aging are already beginning 22 I Physical decline accelerates gradually 0 Middle Adulthood o Gradual decline in fertility starts 0 Sensory abilities also starts declining o Other changes 0 As people grow older their immune systems also weaken 0 With aging brain regions important to memory begin to atrophy Cognitive Development 0 Cognitive mental activities related to thinking knowing remember and communicating 0 Jean Piaget children s thinking changes qualitatively with age and differs from the way adults think 0 Schemas concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information helps organize the world 0 Assimilation the process by which new information are incorporated into existing schemas I Little girl told new information to understand that a dog isn t a quaqua ducks Accommodation the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change I New experience with the dog to understand it s not a duck and from now on understands that a dog is a dog 0 Spurts of cognitive change are followed by periods of stability 0 4 stages 0 I l Sensorimotor stage I 2 Preoperational stage I 3 Concrete operational stage I 4 Formal operations some people may never reach 0 all according to Piaget o Sensory Motor Stage I Birthabout 2 yrs grab touch items in mouth Understanding of the world through sensory experiences and physical interactions with objects Objectpermanence 8mos object exists even when it cannot be seen 23 U Hiding a teddy bear under a cover they don t think it exists It takes time to leam They love peaka boo mom appears and disappears o Preoperational Stage About 2 yrs 67 yrs Use of symbolic thinking in the form of words and images to represent objects and experiences U Telling a story about a dog the dog doesn t have to be shown in order for the story to understand This is where kids learn this concept Pretend and make believe play U Playing with dolls cars they are exercising this skill of symbolic thinking E gocentrism difficulty in perceiving things from a different point of view D Inability to see viewpoints other than their own Child in the back seat pointing to the ballerina in a book mom driving in the front seat she points and says isn t this ballerina cute This one right here believe that if they can see it EVERYONE else can see it Closing eyes people around saying where did she go And she giggles opens her eyes Theory of Mind ability to infer other s mental states U Seeing someone else crying while you re having a great day You can put yourself in their shoes U Kids this age can not put their self in someone else s shoes Use of intuitive rather than logical thinking U Believe in Santa Clause until about 7 or 8 when they enter the next stage Conservation principle basic properties of objects such as their volume mass or quantity stay the same even though their outward appearance may change U Tall glass vs short glass U 2 slices of hot dog vs 3 slices Irreversibility difficulty in reversing an action mentally El 24 0 Concrete operational stage I About 67 yrs to 1112 yrs I Being to grasp conversation and serial order smallest to biggest I Ability to form mental representations of a series of actions I Logical thinking but reasoning is purely concrete I Able to comprehend mathematical transformations using fingers to count 0 Formal operational stage I About 12 yrs frontal lobe fully developed I Abstract thinking imaginative realities symbols I Ability to think logically about concrete and abstract problems I Hypothetical thinking 0 Piaget stages today 0 Children acquire many cognitive skills at an earlier age than Piaget believed 0 Development is seen more continuous and gradual 0 Cognitive development is more complex and variable than Piaget proposed Psychosocial development 0 Attachment emotional tie with another person 0 Until 1950 s infants became attached to those who satisfy their need for nourishment I Body contact D Harry Harlow 1950 U Importance of warm contact to infant attachment H Human infants also become attached to parents who are soft warm who rock feed and pat them I Familiarity D Konrad Lorenz I 93 7 o Imprinting process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life 0 Humans 9 no automatic imprint or critical period Familiarity is still important 25 0 Different types of attachment 0 O 0 Strange situation procedure for examining infant attachment I Mom and baby put in the room stranger put in the room with the baby to observe the baby s reaction Secure vs insecure attachment I Secure I Explore playroom and react positively to strangers 0 While the mom is there they feel secure to eXplore I Show distress when mother leaves and unhappily greet her when she returns I Insecurely I Anxiousresistant fearful when mother is present demands attention shows distress when she leaves but is not soothed when she returns I Anxiousavoidant show few signs of attachment seldom cries when mother leaves and do not look for contact when she returns Other signs of attachment I Stranger anxiety distress over contact with unfamiliar people I 67 mo 18 months I strangers look at the baby in the stroller and baby starts crying I Separation Anxiety distress over being separated from a primary caregiver I Peaks around 16 months disappears between 2 or 3yrs I Going to preschool crying and running to the windows 0 ErikErikson O 0 Each stage of life involves a different crisis con ict that needs resolution Each crisis is present throughout life but takes on different importance during a particular age period Erikson s 8 psychosocial stages 26 Basic trust vs basic mistrust U Infancy first year dependent depending how well these needs are ful lled results in trust or mistrust U Developing a basic trust or basic mistrust of the world depends on needs being met and the amount of love and attention received Autonomy vs shame and doubt U Toddlerhood l2yrs becoming independent by getting dressed and eating U Children start exercising their individuality and start leaming to do things by themselves U Either children develop a sense of autonomy or doubt their abilities Initiative vs guilt U Preschooler 35yrs U Being free to explore development of a sense of initiative U Being held back or punished development of guilt about desires and suppression of curiosity Competence vs Inferiority 6 to puberty 12yrs experiencing pride and encouragement in mastering tasks learn the pleasure of applying themselves experiencing repeated failure and lack of praise for trying develop a sense of inferiority Identity vs Role Confusion U Adolescence 1220yrs U Teenagers test roles and then either integrate them to El El El form a single identity or become confused about what they are identity crisis Intimacy vs Isolation D Young adulthood 20early 40s D Young adults struggle to form close relationships or feel socially isolated Generativity vs Stagnation El 27 U Middle adult hood 40s60s U Through their careers raising children or involvement in other activities people achieve a sense of contributing to the world or they may feel a lack of purpose I Integrity vs Despair U Late adulthood late 60 and up D If major crises of earlier stages have been successfully resolved there is a sense of completeness and fulfillment Otherwise there may be a sense of despair failure Moral Development 0 Lawrence Kohlberg 0 Right vs wrong 0 Posed moral dilemmas to children adolescents and adults 0 3 levels of moral reasoning o l Preconventional morality I before 9yrs I based on anticipated punishments or rewards not right and wrong all external to the person I Yes because if he lets his wife die he ll get into trouble 0 2 Conventional morality I early adolescence I based on conformity to social expectations laws and duties I yes because it s his duty to take care of his wife 0 3 Postconventional morality I formal operations I based on well thought out general moral principles I stealing breaks the law but what Heinz did was reasonable because he saved a life Motivation 0 A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal 0 Different Perspectives o I Instinct Theory evolutionary perspective I a compleX behavior that is rigidly pattemed throughout a species and is unlearned 28 I EX A lion chasing its prey has an instinct Fish swimming up stream to reproduce I Human Behavior is caused by instincts sexual behaviors eating I What are the genetic contributions to motivation 2 Drive Reduction Theory I Hemostasis a state of intemal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain I physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives states of internal tension that motivates an organism to satisfy the need I Need 9 Drive9 Drivereducing behaviors I Foodwater 9 hungerthirst 9 eatingdrinking I optimal state that we like to be in when were too cold we get motivate to do certain things to become warm working out sweating you ll want water to get back to ideal state glucose levels decrease then you eat I EX Hull 1943 9 reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behavior I Problems I Motivation in the absence of physiological need I Being in class there s no physiological need maybe even makes it worse when you re hungry I Playing video games there s no physiological need I So what makes us do these things Can t eXplain why 3 Arousal Theory I We are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal a certain state of emotional intellectual and physical activity I The level of arousal considered optimal varies from person to person Optimal levels can be very high skydiving or very low reading a book 4 Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs not really a theory but still deals with motivation I Hierarchy of needs there are some lower level needs that we need to be at before we can strive for higher level needs I Most basic needs pyramid of hierarchy 29 El El El El El El 0 Hunger One of our most basic motives O O O 0 Physiological Needs needs for food water shelter and sleepUntil these needs are filled nothing else matters eating instead of going to class Safety needs needs to feel safe and secure physically and psychologically once they have food then they will pay the insurance on the house Belongingness and love needs needs to love and be loved to belong and be accepted once basic needs fulfilled and feel safe then they will be concerned about love Esteem needs needs for selfesteem achievements competence independence Need for recognition respect from others Selflactualization needs needs to fulfill our potential to be the very best person we can be Ultimate goal is to reach selfactualization very few people reach that Necessity or pleasure we like to eat a lot of holiday s events in our life relate to food Food intake is regulated by biological psychological and environmental factors Physiology of Hunger I What triggers hunger El El El Hunger pangs Glucose levels Set point a biologically determined standard around which body weight or more accurately fat mass is regulated dieting overeating Stomach and intestinal distention may serve as satiety signals takes a while for it to reach their brain eat slowly Leptin a hormone secreted by fat cells long term regulation I Conditioned habits 30 I Moviespopcorn I Memory of how much and when we have recently eaten I I m hungry butl ate 2 hours ago I Beliefs and feelings concerning body imagine I Anorexia 0 Environmental amp Cultural Factors I food availability I parties and holiday s I food taste and variety I stimuli associated with eating I time of the day I norms that affect what when how and how much we eat 0 Sexual motivation 0 Sexual motivation sexual arousal 0 Masters and Johnson 1966 I 382 women and 312 men more than 10000 orgasms were observed I human sexual responses can be described as consisting of 4 stages I 1 Excitement may be induced by physical stimuli touch caress or by psychological stimuli erotic pictures or fantasies longest stage of all El 2Plateau sexual arousal is intensified El 3 Orgasm sexual climax during which the building sexual tension is dramatically reduced 4Resolution the body returns to its prearoused state In men there is a refractory period a resting period El after orgasm during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm o Forces affecting sexual motivation Physiological readiness Imagined stimuli External stimuli 9 sexual motivation Physiological readiness Hormone levels Extemal stimuli Women are less likely to be aroused to them than men 0 Need to Belong 31 0 Love needs are not equivalent to sexual needs separate 0 Craig Hill 1987 need to affiliate with other people I I Obtainpositive stimulation I 2 Receive emotional support I 3 Gain attention I 4 Permit social comparison 0 Homeostatic models 0 Mate seeking I Women vs men different mating strategies I Women should engage in less relationship but choose well because they have to take care of children I Men engage in more short term relationships and have more sexual partners I What qualities do men and women seek in a mate I Men value looks more 0 Achievement Motivation 0 Achievement motivation a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things people or ideas39 for attaining a high standard 0 How does achievement motivation develop I Kids are encouraged by parents and teachers who encourage them to become high achievers Low achievers may lack that support or may just be afraid of failure may be scared to achieve Personality o Psychoanalytic Perspective 0 Sigmund Freud went to med school opened private practice in Vienna specialized in nervous disorders Psychoanalysis Freud s Theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious actions to unconscious motives and con icts Psychological causes I Hypnosis not everyone can experience hypnosis I Free Association method of exploring the unconscious in which a person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind 32 Unconscious reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories U Sweeping dust dust never goes away the unconscious is like pushing all the dirt under the rug You can t see it but it s still there affecting our behavior El Freud helped them out by making them aware of it in a slow process with prompts because it can be painful for the person Dreams could reveal the nature of inner con icts It relaxes the unconscious to let it come out By studying the dreams you can learn insights about unconscious Slips of tongue unconsciously slip something when speaking 2 Di erent Forces D Pushing and Restraining B Our personality is the result of our efforts to resolve a con ict between impulse and restraint D 3 Interacting Systems concepts not structures in the brain ID only part present at birth source of all psych energy strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operates on the pleasure principle demands immediate grati cation babies crying for a bottle want it and want it right now 0 Instinct and pleasure o The little devil on your shoulder EGO develops as young children learns to cope with the real world mediator between the demands of the id superego and reality operates on the reality principle seeks to gratify the id s impulses in realistic ways finds solutions SUPEREGO develops at 45yrs contains the traditional values and ideas of family and society right and wrong moral arm of the 33 personality strives to control the instincts of the id devil Super ego angel 0 Conscious o Ego ideal perfect person ever unrealistic U Personality forms during life s first few years I Psychosexual Stages the childhood stages of development during which the id s pleasureseeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones U Pushed from one stage to another U 5 stages 0 Oral 018mo pleasure centers on the mouth sucking biting chewing greatest challenge is being weaned off the bottlebreast o Fixation points biting nails talking anything focused on the mouth 0 Anal 1836mo pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination coping for demands of controls potty training 0 Fixation points either extremely neat or sloppy she s so anal o Phallic 36 yrs Pleasure zone is in the genitals39 coping with incestuous sexual feelings o Oedipus Complex con ictual situation involving love for the mother and hostility toward the fatherboys develop sexual interest in mommy afraid of daddy and being castrated Daddy is bigger and stronger I Solution repress the feelings for mommy and have hopes to be someone like mommy so they become like daddy Doesn t relate anything to female they re just envious of the male penis and are weak 34 El El El 0 Identi cation children incorporate their parent s values into their developing superego wear dad s ties o Latency 6 to puberty Dormant sexual feelings 0 Have no interest in opposite sex 0 Genital Pubertyon maturation of sexual interests Fixation a lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage where con icts were unresolved Fixation Points characteristics left from different phases Everyone has fixation points Anxiety brings out the fixation points Con icts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages can surface as maladaptive behavior in the adult years I Defense Mechanisms mechanism to reduce anxiety Problem when you use them too much it interferes with normal life El El El El Repression anxietyarousing impulses to memories are pushed into the unconscious mind Regressionpeople regress to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psych energy remains fixated toddlers who give up bottles and binky mom has a new baby toddler wants to kill the new baby and they regress by going back to the bottle or having accidents Reaction F ormationimpulse is repressed and its psych energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behavior fall in love with a guy who s the complete opposite of what you ever thought of now all you do is hate him and fight You transform the feeling into the opposite Projectionunacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed then attributed toproj ected onto other people a girl who is a complete copycat of what 35 o Neo Freudians El El El El everyone else is doing and then complained about how everyone else is copying her Displacementan unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed then directed at safer substitute target bad day at work with boss and wants to ght boss represses the feelings dog greets him at the door kicks it for no reason to release the tension Rationalizationunconscious generation of self justifying explanations to hide from ourselves the real actions for our actions caught cheating on an exam instead make a rational explanationexcuse as to why you cheated Sublimation a repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable or even admired behavior guy who likes to fight with others but he has to repress all the aggressive feelings sublimation helps transform the aggressive feelings into something good for society such as becoming a police officer Deniala person refuses to acknowledge anxiety arousing aspects of the environment people with cancer are in denial the first stage because of high anxiety or when people die 0 Alfred Adler importance of childhood social tension instead of sexual tension Feelings of inferiority 0 Karen Horney importance of childhood social tensioninstead of sexual tension Sought to balance Freud s masculine biases that women don t have weak superego 0 Carl Jung unconscious contains more than our repressed thoughts and feelings I Collective unconscious concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history symbolic representations shared by all of mankind El EX mother is always full of kindness seen through art 36 EXAM 4 Psychological Disorders Psychological disorders a harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical disturbing maladaptive and unjustifiable I Demon possession I PjilippePinel doesn t think they re invaded by the devil Medical Perspective I Mental illness 9 diagnosis cure through therapy BiastychaSacial Perspective I Psychological disorders 9 biological psychological sociocultural factors I May have a physical problem anxiety environment problems DSM IVTR I Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders forth edition by the American Psychiatric Association I Use for classifying psychological disorders I Many people don t like to use it because of labeling but have to Anxiety Disorders I Psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 the person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal 0 they can t answer what makes them feel the way they do 0 genetic predisposition o GABA o Psychological and sociocultural factors 0 set high standards for themselves low self esteem self critical had strict parents history of stress trauma in childhood I Panic Disorder 0 Marked by a minutelong episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain chocking or other frightening sensations I Think they re having a heart attack but don t find anything when at the hospital 0 Concern when happens on a frequent basis I Person avoids the event with the panic attack stops going to work stops grocery shopping 0 Biological predisposition identical twins 0 GABA and norepinephrine 37 o Traumatic event 0 Sociocultural factors I X2 more to women than men in US I Environment has an affect I Phobia o Marked by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or situation spiders elevators social phobias I Know what causes their anxiety and disturbs their life 0 Biological predisposition 0 Defense mechanism or learned fear 0 Psychological and sociocultural factors I Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0CD o Characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions and or actions compulsions I Washing hands over and over I Thought 9 produces anxiety 9 behavior I Howie Mandel from Deal or No Deal 0 Genetic component 0 Life stress I Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 0 Characterized by haunting memories nightmares social withdrawl jumpy anxiety andor insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience Dissociative Disorders I Psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity I EX dissociative Identity Disorder multiple personality disorder 0 Believed not to be a real disorder people used it to escape jail time 0 Very rare Controversial issue mechanism for dealing with anxiety result of a traumatic event Personality Disorders I Psychology disorders characterized by in exible and enduring patterns that impair social functioning I DSM IV groups personality disorders into 3 clusters 0 I Oddeccentric cluster I Schizoid personality disorder D exhibit social disengagement withdrawn behavior do not form adequate social relationships D shy hard time expressing anger bold loaners but enjoy that o 2 Chronic Fearfulnessavoidant cluster 38 I avoidant personality disorder D suffer from being loaners because they are fearful of rejection Want to be with people but avoid social gatherings because they re too uncomfortable I Difficult to diagnosis this disorder 0 3 Dramatic Emotionally Problematic Cluster I Histrionic Personality Disorder D Manipulative center of attention D Individuals seek a lot of attention and tend to overreact I Narcissistic personality disorder U Love empathy only think about themselves D Individuals have an unrealistic sense of selfimportance I Borderline personality disorder D bored easily emotionally unstable D individuals are often emotionally unstable implusive unpredictable irritable and anxious I Antisocial personality disorder D no guilt psychopaths sociopaths D person exhibits a lack of conscience for mingling D no superego no right or wrong Mood Disorders I Maj or Depressive Disorder 0 The person for no apparent reason experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods feeling worthless and diminished interest or pleasure in more activities I Depression more common during wintertime I 1 cause for people seeking mental health services I Bipolar Disorder 0 The person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the over excited state of mania I Depression I Manic episode marked by a hyperactive mildly optimistic state Person becomes talkative overactive may act impulsively and have little need for sleep and shows fewer sexual inhibitions I DSMIV must last at least 1 week I Causes of mood disorders 0 Biological factors I Heredity identical twins are more likely to have it 39 I Neurobiological abnormalities different sleep patterns I Neurotransmitter deregulation serotonin no repinepherin dopamine I Hormones o Psychological Factors triggers I Psychodynamic explanations I Learned helplessness dog shocks nothing they can do cannot learn reaction I Cognitive explanations think negatively o Sociocultural Factors triggers I Marriage divorce I Poverty I Depression more common in women than men Schizophrenia Split mind A can live Without problems Psychological disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions Delusions false beliefs with no basis in reality often of persecution escaping gov constantly after or grandeur very important person destroy gov Hallucinations sensory experiences Without sensory stimulation hear see smell and feel things that aren t there 0 EX Snakes coming out of the shower often hear voices that may tell them What to do 4 types 0 I Catatonic Schizophrenia characterized by bizarre motor behavior I EX completely immobile stupor39 bizarre postures o 2 Paranoid Schizophrenia characterized by delusions of reference misinterpretations of chance events grandeur thinking of themselves as exalted beings and persecution o 3 Disorganized Schizophrenia characterized by delusions that have little or no recognizable meaning I Before 16yrs o 4Uquot 39 quotr quot icdbyquot n behavior delusions and incoherence Biological factors 0 Heredity brain abnormalities neurotransmitter deregulations dopamine levels 0 Psychological factors I Stress women in menopause ages 0 Sociocultural factors 40 I Based on culture correlational link between poverty and schizophrenia Social Psychology I The study of how people think about in uence and relate to others 0 1 Social thinking 0 2 Social in uence 0 3 Social relations I Social thinking 0 Attribution Theory Fritz Heider 1958 Ideas about why people behave the way they do judgm ents health etc social situation money weather luck want to know Why people do that things they do analyze them and make Internal attributions all causes internal to the person personality traits intelligence External attributions all causes external to the person social pressure aspects of the Fundamental attribution error the tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition B when analyzing someone s behavior you assume they didn t do it because of internal attributions negative too lazy when you defend yourself you blame external too busy making attributions either to the person or the situation have important consequences 0 Attitudes Beliefs or opinions about people objects and ideas EX money is evil TV is not good takes away family time Attitudes 9 behaviors D Belief that smoking causes lung cancer 9 stop smoking D Attitudes may guide behavior Behavior 9 attitude D Sometimes changes in behavior precede changes in attitude Freedman amp Fraser 1966 D 17 drive carefully D 55 petition and drive carefully signs 41 Social In uence D Foot in the door phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request D EX sample s at sams D Door in Iheface I Car is 30000 then go down Role Playing D Role set of expectations norms about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave D Zimbardo I972 arrested students made it a real life situation for his study The role they were told to play changed their beliefs and attitudes Behavior 7i Attitude 9 cognitive dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Theory D Leon Festinger D We act to reduce the dissonance we feel when 2 of our cognitions are inc onsistent a People who got paid more truthfully said it was really boring people who got paid 1 lied and said it was awesome D We like our attitudes to match our behavior don t like to feel cognitive dissonance o Conformity a change in a person s behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard Hugging people maybe common in Latin culture but not in US Pressured change the way you act Not always good to go with group norm sometimes it is required Solomon Ash I951 asked them to compare the length of a certain line When done alone 99 correct when done in groups 37 gave the wrong answers because they conformed Reasons for Conforming u Unanimity of the group n Prior comm itm ent a Personal characteristics low self esteem people who doubt their abilities a Group members characteristics a Cultural values cultures where living well and helping each other matters a Normative social in uence influence that other people have on us because we seek their approval or avoid their disapproval 42 D Informative social in uence in uence resulting from one s willingness to accept other s opinion about reality I Watching people cough into their arm instead of their hands 0 Obedience behavior that complies with the explicit demands of an individual in authority I Teacher says you have to be here to take a test I Stanley Milgram I963 1975 D Deception that they were in a study about punishment D Teacher and learner shocked 0 Group In uence Social facilitation tendency for an individual s performance to improve because of the presence of others D Running on a treadmill the presence of the person next to you making you run faster D Occurs with simple or well learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered Social Loa ng tendency for an individual to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort D Person in the group that puts in less effort in a group feels diffusion on responsibility u The larger the group the more likely it is that the person can loaf without being detected Deindividualion tendency for an individual in a group to experience a reduced sense of personal identity and personal responsibility D Setting the car on fire after the championship game Mardi Gras Risky Shi tendency from a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by individual group members D By ourselves we take low risk decisions groups high risk Group Polarization solidification and further strengthening of a position as a consequence of a group decision D Testing your opinion against others in the group Group Think Mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionm aking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives D Happens most often when group is extremely optimistic I Social Relations 0 Prejudice an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual s membership in a group 43 0 Social Roots I Social inequalities D Just worldphenomenon tendency of people to believe that the world is just and people therefore get What they deserve and deserve What they get I lngroup vs Outgroup D People tend to have an ingroup bias D UK teams are the best 0 Emotional Roots I Scapegoating D Prejudice offers and outlet for anger by providing someone to blame D Blamed all the Muslims for 9 l 1 turned our anger to a certain target 0 Cognitive Roots I Categorization D Category of college students problem tend to stereotype D Stereotyping generalization about a group s characteristics that does not consider any variation from one individual to another I Biases of perception of diversity I Vivid Cases D EX remembering 9 ll first think Muslims Brazil all Brazilians like soccer 0 Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy I Biological In uences D Genetic in uences a Neural in uences a Frustration the blocking of goal directed behavior I F rustrationAggression Principle frustration creates anger Which can generate aggression D Other aversive stimuli E Learning 0 Altruism an unselfish interest in helping someone else I Murder of Kitty Genovese I Bystander E ect the tendency for individuals Who observe an emergency to help less when someone else is present than when they are alone 44


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