PSYCHOLOGY IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
PSYCHOLOGY IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY PSY 302
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Little on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 302 at University of Kentucky taught by Catherine Carswell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/228247/psy-302-university-of-kentucky in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Natasha Barnes PSY 302 Exam 5 Notes Organizational Psych Leadership Theories I Todo list 0 Learn about leadership approaches from outside psych 0 Learn about early direct effect psychological theories 0 Introduce contingency theories 0 Dependency theories From outside Psych 0 Management studies 0 Scienti c Management Theory X verses Human Relations Theory Y approach 0 Theory X vs Theory Y Political Science 0 Use of power I Leadership is the exercise of power Divide up things in terms of power 0 Ex Presidents exercise Theory X o Breakdown between who does what on the job scienti c management focuses on task vs people 0 Theory Y o Refers to specific managers amp their personal beliefs about how one should lead Managers job human relations approach 0 To increase the workers satisfaction so worker will be more committed etc 5 Different Types of Power 1 Reward Power a Get as a part of the job b You may be able to hand out raises c The person says if you do X I will promise you Y 2 Coercive Power a Stick basically you will punish someone if they do no do what you want b A threat c Have to have some sort of arsenal 3 Legitimate Power a You can boss people around because of your rank Your rank gives you that privilege b Those are the rules of organization c Example the military 4 Expert Power 5 a Things the individual leader has to earn his or herself b You have knowledge that your workers value Referent Power a The power everybody aspires to b The idea that the leader has your best interest in mind cares about you as a worker and orders given are seen as advice Early Psych Theory Trait Theory Born Leaders Critical traits Physical 0 Height 0 Physical strengths 0 Being male gender 0 Etc Research approach 0 Get a list of highly successful amp much less successful leaders 0 Compare on many characteristics Examples 0 Cognitive ability 0 Extraversion o Locus of control I Locus location I Internal locus you are a master of your own fate I External locus other things in the environment is what controls you Factor analysis is sometimes used Results no defining characteristic Methodological Note What is Factor Analysis Way of reducing data from a complex data set Multivariate data Helps deal with complexity Looks at how each variable co varies with every other variable Groups variables based on covariation Tries to find latent structure 0 Can t see them on the surface Early Psych Theory Behavior Theog Midcentury behaviorism Leaders are defined by what they do Good leadership can be taught Ohio State studies 0 Have good amp bad leaders and see if there are some speci c behaviors that good leaders always show 0 Method I Divided leaders into effective and ineffective I Collected behavioral descriptions I Conducted factor analysis Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Sample Items 0 He o Treats all group members as his equal 0 Assigns group members to particular tasks 0 Encourages the use of uniform procedures 0 Etc Findings in Ohio State Studies 0 2 latent behavior dimensions 0 Consideration o Initiating structure 0 Leads to 4 possible leadership styles which style It depends 42 120 1 1 Leadership 11 Contingency theories Today s todo list 0 Maj or contingency theories 0 Fiedler s o Cog Resource utilization theory 0 Etc Overview of Fiedler s Contingency Theog o Leadersituation match is critical o Leadersituation match training 0 Leaders defined by 0 Highlow LPC I There are people who fall between the two 0 Aka highlow cognitive complexity 0 Leadership situations 0 8 octants categories from low to high control I Situations are divided into 8 diff categories Step 1 Measure the leader 0 Use least preferred coworker scale 0 Categorize each potential leader as either 0 Low LPC I Low cognitive complexity taskorientated 0 High LPC I High cognitive complexity personoriented 0 Cognitive complexity does NOT refer to intelligence Scoring 0 Sum of all scales 0 73 or above High LPC leader person oriented 0 High cognitive complexity 64 or below Low LPC 659 72 mix of both Characterize the o 2 situation T Structure power over a Best leadership situation Good structure amp a lot of power 8 Octants o Divided into 3 categories 0 Good leaderworker relations 0 Intermediate 0 Everything is unfavorable 0 Extreme situations 0 A Low LPC is better 0 Intermediate situations 0 A High LPC is better 0 The cognitive model High LPC m R Low LPC Conclusions from Fielder 0 Low LPC low cog Complex best for extremely favorable amp unfavorable situations 0 High LPC high cog Complex best for mixed leadership situations 0 Effective leadership is determined by the match Problems w Fielder s Original Theory 0 LPC test may have reliability problems 0 Perhaps leaders can learn to adapt to any situation 0 Changing the situation to fit the leader is often not feasible 0 Often hard to apply this 0 Situations are hard to change What if there is a mismatch 0 Leader can try to change the situation 0 A new leader can be picked for the situation 0 MBoth are sometimes hard to do Cognitive Resource Utilization Theory 0 Also from Fiedler o Considers leaders intelligence and knowledge 0 Intelligence is only important for leadership in certain situations autocratic low stress 0 Autocratic 0 Example a dictator I There is nothing worse than a really stupid dictator 0 Low Stress 0 You have time to think the situation out High intelligence is not always good LeaderMember Exchange Theory LMX 0 Written from the perspective of the worker o l on 1 relationships 0 Vertical dyads 0 Individual leadermember bonds Ingroup vs outgroup Ingroup members 0 Demonstrate reliability 0 Ask for greater responsibility I The fact that you are asking is a big deal 0 Follow through HerseyBlanchard Situational My Theory How mature in the job is the worker Match leadership style to maturity of subordinate Job maturity vs psychological maturity Types of leadership appropriate for low to high maturity in order o Telling 0 Selling I The why I Participating ask worker for advice amp allow them to do things in the job themselves 0 Delegating I You totally trust the worker to the job at this point PathGoal theory 0 Very idealistic every leader is trying to be a referent leader 0 Leader must clear the path for each worker to reach hisher goal 0 Leader must assume many faces 0 Directive o Supportive consideration 0 Achievementorientediget to be a cheerleader for a person I Reward w public praise o Participative letting workers have a say in what gets done Really getting to know each persons goal amp the orgs goals amp trying to get everyone to achieve their goals Match style to worker o Locus of control 0 Selfperception of expertise I Some workers are unaware of how much they actually know Match style to task 0 Pleasant unpleasant I If your job is unpleasant supportive leadership 0 Requiting imitative I Achievement oriented 0 Both are environmental factors Problems with pathgoal theory 0 Are leaders able to shift leadership styles easily 0 Do workers perceive the leader as being fake 426201 1 Organizational Psychology Motivation VroomYetton Decision Tree 0 A normative model of leadership 0 Decision making how you should do it 0 One issue worker participation 0 Relies on decision tree 0 Yesno decisions amp depending on what you answer will take you to another question 0 Autocratic l o Overlord tell everyone what to do 0 Make decisions Autocratic 2 0 Leader uses workers to get info for them Consultative l 0 Boss brings in workers heshe is thinking of conducting l on 1 amp gets opinions or picks their brains Consultative 2 0 Do one except as a group much faster Group 2 0 Democracy in action 0 Boss tells people what he is thinking amp people talk it over and vote Critical Questions Quality Requirement QR Commitment Requirement CR Leader s Information LI Problem Structure ST Commitment Probability CP Goal Congruence GC Subordinate Con ict COO Subordinate Information SI Review Contingency Theories of Leadership Fiedler s Contingency Theory Cognitive Resource Utilization Theory 0 Tells you when a particular type of leader is appropriate LMX Theory 0 Diads pairs boss amp individual worker ingroups amp outgroups HerseyBlanchard maturation Theory 0 How mature worker is in a particular job Pathgoal theory 0 Trying to be a referent leader more of a mentor VroomVetton Theory Turning to motivation Is poor motivation to blame Poor performance may be due to MAKE o M motivation problems 0 A ability or lack of 0 K knowledge or lack of I Maybe more training will do 0 E Environmental Factors I Maybe a news worker is distracted or equipment is no good Suggestions for Diagnosing Tackle knowledge amp environmental rst 0 Equipment changes 0 Environment change 0 New colleagues Performmg ngnt task7 o o o Usmg Wrong rnfonnatron7 o Usmg Wrong procedures7 0 EL Suggesnons for ddagnosmg eontrnued Look at abdrty amp mouvauonquot last New or oldproblem7 o Networkrssues 52 stressors 0 Broken prornrses7 e g rneennves o Selfresteem or selfcon denceproblems7 The Fxx7 Enwronrnentsd problems 0 Redesrgn orreplace Knowledge problems 0 Trammg superwsor or Worker Abdrty problems 0 ob redesrgnreassrgnrnent terrnrnanon Motwatron o Depends on the cause Tneones ofMouvanon Content uneones 0 Motivation as a recourse 0 About needs Proeess uneones o How do you deerde wnetner ornot to put alot ofeffortmto sornetnrng Maslow39sNeeds errarchy 5 basre needs Rrgrd nrerareny ERG Theory 7 introduces frustration regression o 3 different needs Clayton Alderfor s ERG Theory Existence needs 9 Relationship needs 9 Growth needs Existence needs 6 Relationship needs 6 Growth needs 9 satisfaction 9 progression rfrustration 6 regression 0 Sometimes you get frustrated at one level and regress to another level 2Factor Theory 0 Employees dissatisfied amp unmotivated
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