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by: Hermina Little


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Psychlogy > PSY 100 > INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
Hermina Little
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Jonathan Golding

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Jonathan Golding
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Little on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Jonathan Golding in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/228248/psy-100-university-of-kentucky in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
V Unit 2 Learning process that resul13 in a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential based on experience People learn 0 Grasp a bottle 0 Eat with a knife and fork 0 Read and write 0 Love and hate The simplest of all forms of learning is habituation 0 The decline in tendency to respond to a stimulus that has become familiar due to repeated exposure 0 An organism learns to recognize an event as familiar but does not learn about the relationship between an event and other circumsmnces I Doesn t learn to associate between two things example Getting used to the noise of airplanes when living by an airport Brain and behavior V V VV V V 0 Sympathetic nervous system fight or flight Increased heart rate Increased respiration I Increased pupilary dialation Increased adrenal functioning I Decreased digestion Parasympathetic nervous system pause and plan I Reversal regulation of above I Calming response Within subjecm design all did some msk and mke before and after heart rate between subjecm design 2 separate groups Some of the most basic learning is called conditioning 0 Acquisition of fairly specific pattern of behavior response in presence of a wellIdefined stimulus called stimulusIresponse learning Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning 0 Studied in various behaviors I Re exes Put food in dogs stomach and measure digestive juice and salivation I Won a Nobel prize for research on digestion Discovered that salivary reflex could be set off by a neutral stimuliIsight of a person who brought food Unconditioned stimulus UCS the stimulus that evokes a response innately naturally not dependant on learning Unconditioned response UCR an unlearned or innate response to a US Conditioned stimulus CS a stimulus that through association evokes a response normally associated with a UCS Conditioned response response that through association is evoked by a CS in anticipation of a UCS 0 CS and UCS association example the office altoid prank on Dwight 0 UCS Altoid 0 UCR salivating 0 CS Bell sound from computer 0 CR Salivation Impormnt aspects of classical conditioning 1 Presenmtion order and timing 0 CS just before UCS works best 2 Generalization 0 CR elicited by stimuli similar to original CS example Albert and furry objecm Wamon o 1920 0 Not ethical 0 UCS loud noise 0 UCR crying 0 CS rat 0 CR4 crying 3 Discrimination 0 CR to specific CS example learn that not all loud noises are harmful 439 Extinction 0 Eliminate CSIUCS pairing will stop CR 0 But spontaneous recovery after extinction I Reemergence of CRl after extinction has occurred example Pavlov Cartoon I Hair blowing no hair drier I UCS air that comes out of hair drier I UCR hair blows I CS click sound I CR hair goes back Operant Instrumenml Conditioning Limimtion of classical conditioningI must build on innate reflexes or feelings reacting to environment gt However sometimes we volunmrily operate on the environment example Steve Murphy and Bill MurrayI Steve gave Bill reward for doing things he told him to gt The way we operate or respond is often affected by the consequences of our behavior gt Learn relationship between response and consequence 0 Critical environmenml stimulus consequence comes after response and is obmined by the action of the learner Conditioning Positive reinforcement addition of a stimulus to increase behavior candy I Negative reinforcement removalavoidance of a stimulus to increase behavior phobia I Positive punishment addition of a stimulus to decrease behavior spanking I Negative punishment removalavoidance of a stimulus to decrease behavior no TV History of Operant conditioning example Thorndike puzzle box with cam IFood outside of box ITime to solve problem decreased with number of trials Law of Effect gt When a response is followed by a desirable consequence the probability of that response is increased when a response is followed by an undesirable consequence the probability of that response is decreased example Sheldon trains Penny Positive reinforcement chocolate Positive punishment spray of water Positive response adds something Negative response takes something away Reinforcement increase response rate Punishment decrease response rate example reinforcement Shocllt rat If he presses lever the shock goes away Increase response rate pressing bar Impormnt issues in operant conditioning 1 Shaping successive approximations 0 Goals to get pigeon to turn in circles 0 Do it in little steps 2 Generalization 0 Respond to similar stimuli eg different amounm 3 Discrimination 0 Respond to only one stimulus 439 Extinction 0 No reinforcement or punishment 0 But sponmneous recovery 5 Superstitious Behavior 0 Coincidenml consequence Mechanics of operant conditioning Time is crucial don t delay Schedules of operant conditioning Continuous reinforcemen punishment RP after every response 0 Does not work very well gt Partial 0 Variable random 0 Fixed every time or response 0 Ratio responses 0 Interval time gt Types of Partial 0 Variable interval RP for 1St response after random amounm of time example reinforcement after 2 seconds 8 seconds and 54 seconds Variable ratio RP after a random number of responses example reinforcement after response 4 response 13 and response 39 Fixed ratio RP after a specific number of responses example reinforcement after response 4 response 8 and response 12 Fixed Interval RP for 1St response after specific amounm of time example reinforcement after 3 seconds 6 seconds and 9 seconds One of the best partial schedules is variable ratio slot machines Classical and operant conditioning are typically viewed as examples of behaviorism Cognitive Learning V V V The problem with a strict behavioristic View of learning is that learning can depend on menml processes that cannot be directly observed and that organisms can be active processors of information 0 Casual attributions I Dispositional vsi situational 0 Observant learning I Bandura example Bobo doll experiment When the child watches the adult hit the Bobo doll the child mimics when given the doll IV young kids Group 1 Observes adult aggression Group 2 Observes adult that isn t aggressive DV how aggressive will kids behave towards Bobo doll These problems led to the study of the menml activities involved with the acquisition storage and retrieval ofinformation Cognition active processing of information example deciding what to rehearse One impormnt aspect of cognitive learning is memory example video she observed his explanation of how he robbed the store she did the same Memory set of skills that involve the menml capacity to store and later retrieve previously experienced evens 1 Acquisition encoding 2 Storage 3 Retrieval 0 Central to being human 0 Sensory I The immediate initial recording of sensory information in the memory system 39 No storage capacity 39 Trouble with names 0 ShortIterm memory active memory I Holds a few items briefly 7IZ items I Duration 15 seconds or less if no rehearsal I Rehearsal leads to encoding in 0 LongIterm I Permanent and limitless capacity for storage I Ease of retrieval depends on the quality of encoding and storage I Types of knowledge 39 Semantic vs episodic knowledge about self vs procedural Serial Position Effect 0 Primary effect words at beginning are easily remembered 0 Recency effect words at the end are easily remembered 0 Van Restorff effect qualitatively different stimuli are remembered more and more vividly 0 Chunking putting dam together Get information into memoryI acquisition encoding 0 Depends on I Attention 39 Limited pool of cognitive resources 39 Withdrawal from some things to deal effectively with others I Don t always pay attention usually we attend to one thing at a time example Penny we never notice the demils on the penny but we see it all the time 0 Cockmil party phenomenon never remember everyone s names 0 Moonwalking bear video people passing basketball try to count how many passes Never notice the moon walking bear 0 Factors affecting attention I Motivation and emotion 39 Weapon focus 0 Stress and anxiety YerkesIBodson Law I Moderate anxiety produces optimal performance 0 Factors effecting encoding I Imagery 39 Concrete vs abstract words I Organization 39 Chunking example FBICIANASAUK Remember all the letters by chunking into FBI CIA NASA and UK I Type of rehearsal 39 Maintenance vs elaborative 39 Role rehearsal Z Storing Information in memory retention 0 One view the 3 store model of memory I Sensory Information store SIS 39 SIS for each sense example vision iconic memory 39 Takes in relatively large amount of sensory information but doesn t classify it 3 Retrieval recallrecognitionrelearning 0 Recall generate on your own 0 Recognition given info 0 Relearning in memory can retrieve If information cannot be retrieved we describe it as forgotten gt Why do we forget 0 Decay 0 Interference I Retroactive I study A study B test A 62 study B interfered with retention of test A I study A study nothing test A 95 Z Proactive I study A study B test B I study nothing study B test B 0 Retrieval failure I Encoding specificity I Best memoryI context in which you encoded something matches the context you retrieve it in 0 How to avoid forgetting I Internal mnemonics 39 Importance ofmeaning 39 Imagery I External mnemonics 39 Force you to pay attention Assessing Individual Differences Question How do we differ in out ability to learn and behave adaptively Answer Investigate individual differences Interest in individual differences is relatively recent V V T e stu y of individual differences makes little sense in a society in which each person s adult rate is determined by the social circumsmnces of hisher birth example dad a soldiergtson a soldier Our society 0 More complex and industrialized I Many more socioeconomic roles and same mobility across them 0 We therefore try to find a means however imperfect for setting the proper person to occupy the proper role I menml tests were meant to supply this means Psychological Assessment 0 Use of specialized testing procedures to evaluate abilities behaviors and personal qualities of people Use to make more informed decisions about current problems or to help make future choices in person s life Basic Features 0 Reliability I Ability of a test to produce consistent and stable resul13 I Do different par13 of the same test to produce the same resul1s internal consistency I Do repeated administrations of the test produce the same resul13 testIretest reliability 0 Validity I How well does the test measure what is it is supposed to measure 39 Either about a theoretical construct or about future performance 0 Smndardization I The test should be administered to all people in the same way under the same conditions eg the ACT test I This leads to norms 39 Smtistical smndards used for comprehension 39 BellIshaped normal curveInormal distribution of scores 0 Assessing Intelligence I Intelligence the capacity to profit from experience go beyond the given to the possible think abstractly using symbols and concep13 be goal directed I Allows us to learn and behave adaptively I Allows humans to gain dominance over more powerful and numerous animals I MABAxlOO calculation for IQ History of Intelligence testing Binet and Simon 1905 French psychologists made first intelligence tes13 Genetics and Intelligence How can we find out whether differences in human intelligence within a group have a genetic basis I Look at correlation between family members for intelligence very high 45 2 Look at consistency in IQ over time for an individual 0 Generally consmnt 3 Twin studies 0 Compare identical twins same egg with fraternal twins different eggs 0 If intelligence is primarily due to genetics identical twins should have a higher correlation than fraternal I Identical twins reared together correlation is 86 I Fraternal twins reared together correlation is 60 439 Adoptive children studies 0 If heredity is impormnt there should be a greater correlation between a child and 113 natural mother than the child and 113 adoptive mother 0 There is I Natural mother and child correlation is 28 I Adoptive mother and child correlation is 17 Environmenml factors and intelligence 1 2 Correlation between child and hisher natural mother are notvery high Enriched environmen13 eg better education lead to higher IQs than impoverished environmen13 Therefore both heredity and environmen13 play a role in determining differences in IQ within groups V V V V V Unit 3 Development 0 Is there any common pattern in the progression that marks the development history of each human life example Tom Hanks in Big Tom is physically aged by size but psychologically is only 13 yrs old Methods in Developmenml Psychology 0 Same as discussed before and I CrossIsectional design different ages 2 Longitudinal Same person across time 3 Biographical reconstruct past through interviews and investigating the effect of past events on a persons current behavior Prenaml Development 0 Fertilized egg to embryo first 8 weeks to fetus I Importance ofgrowth of neural connections I Problem if teratogens toxic subsmnces from the environmentI eg alcohol drugs that can damage the developing baby NatureINurture Debate development affected by genetics vs environment 0 Genetic influences on behavior I ChromosomesI double smndards of DNA in nucleus of cells that contain genes 39 GenesIsegmenm along chromosome strands that conmin blueprint and timetables for our development affect physical and psychological characteristics 0 Many that argue that heredity se13 an upper limit and learning experience affecm how closely are limi13 approached ex height and heredity sets limit but eating nutrition affecm development Newborn 0 Incorrect to think that newborns only eat sleep cry and go to the bathroom 0 They sense the world around them and undersmnd things that are said and done to them 0 Imimte adul13 0 In addition we are born with a number of useful reflexes I Rooting reflex when finger is touched to cheek the baby turns towards it I Grasping reflex I Stepping reflex I Sucking reflex Infant sensation and perceptual development example Vision 0 At first things look fuzzy to an infant 0 Visual activity develops rapidly so that by 6I8 months they can see as well as the average college student Infants can see some color even in the first week of life but they are more interested in contras13 initially eg black and white contras13 Physical Development 0 In the first year oflife a child will grow 10 inches in height and gain 15 pounds I Development will slow down until adolescence 0 Body grows differentially I Head grows most rapidly at first V V V V V I Nervous system developing The physical development of a child follows a regular course known as maturation 0 An orderly progression with some evens occurring before others eg locomotion Cognitive Development 0 Intellectual Growth I Perceiving reasoning imagining problem solving use of memory I Novice to expert Jean Piaget smge approach to cognitive development 0 Qualimtive differences at different smges not just different amoun13 ofintellect 0 Interchange between organism and environment Stages in cognitive development 0 Stage consistent and discreet Four smges of cognitive development I Menml growth reliance on appearance to reliance on rules I Sensorimotor birthI age 2 0 At birth sensory impressions and motor reactions 0 No past nor future 0 No distinction between smble objects and fleeting evens 0 Only stating to develop object permanence image in head represenmtion example Baby playing with money sheet put in front of monkey baby has no clue where the monkey went 2 Preoperational age ZI age 7 0 Centrism cannot take view point of others eg what is someone else seeing 0 Not yet developed conservation I Cannot take into account more than one perceptual factor at a time example Water containers height and volume 3 Concrete operational age 7I age 11 0 Achieve conservation menmlly transform and menmlly reserve sequence I Can mke into account two perceptual factors example WaterCoins more amounts is actually the same 439 Formal Operations age 11 and up 0 Reasoning apart from concrete situation 0 Reality seen as one aspect ofwhat might by hypothesis formulated Social Development 0 How do individuals develop in their relations to other people 0 Social world includes I Mother I Father I Family I Same sex peers I Different sex peers 0 Social development begins with the first human bond that of the infanm atmchment to the person who takes care of himher I It is sometimes said that atmchment lays the found action for all later relationships with others 0 If there s no attachment due to separation distress may result I Research by Harry Harlow 39 He found that monkeys separated from their mothers IV gtCh gtAd O O Huddled in corner Rocked back and forth Bit themselves Would not interact with others Incompetent in sexual and parenml matters I Origins of attachment 39 Original View of atmchment was that it served an adaptive function Paren13 fulfilled physical needs such as eating and drinking Love of mother goes beyond bodily needs 39 Monkeys prefer the security and a safe base from which to explore even though no food Conmct comfort example Video monkeys spent one hour on feeding monkey wire 17 hours on money with no food cloth ild Socialization Process by which a child acquires patterns of thought and behavior that are characteristic of the society in which heshe is born Socialization morality Morality system ofbeliefs values and underlying judgmenm about the rightness or wrongness of ads example finding money helping someone in need not cheating Initially the child s world is confined to hisher family and the first lessons about morality are mught in this limited context example pick up your toys don t hit your brother Social sphere soon grows to include peers and others heshe has not met and may never meet Rules moral codes must be learned and internalized to deal with others These moral codes are adopted so that they control behavior even when there are no external rewards or punishmenm Kicking dog Stealing from roommate olescence Transition periodchild to adult Initiation rites in some societies Biological changes I Physical growth spurt and attainment of sexual maturity Body proportions change hair on body males get deeper voice Puberty condition of being able to reproduce for the first time Boys ejaculate for first time and girls begin to menstruate Psychological changes Maturing of sex attitudes Ambivalence and stress identity crisis Erikson Who are you and who will be your friends cliques Thought no longer dependant on direct experience WNH Become person on one s own Committing to basic beliefs Deciding on a preferred social and vocational role 999 8 Formal thought 0 Can formulate general rules ahout the world and test them against awailahle actors gt one View of social development psychosocial development Erik Erikson o All humans pass through a series of major crisis as they go through the life cycle 0 At each stage there is a critical confrontation between self and the various demands posed by hisher social and personal setting Each stage involves a new level of social interaction and a new conflict that must he resolved before moving onto the next stage 8 stages 1 Infancy Trustvs Mistrust 5 Adolescence Identity vs role confusion 8 Late adulthood Integrityvs despair gt Motivation 0 Starting directing andmaintaining physical and psychological activities self regulation Do not see motivation but see changes in behavior 0 2 types of motivation Intrinsic engage in activity for is own sake Extrinsic engage in activity to achieve an external consequence e g areward Instincts as motivations 0 Preprogrammed tendencies that are essential for survival of species 0 Certain hehaviors appear at certain points for every member and are not altered by experience e g imprinting mmplc ducks following first thing they see 0 Calledfixed action patterns by ethnologists who study animals in naturalistic setting V Criticism of instincts ot explanations only names 0 Too much emphasis on innateness N Drive reduction theory 0 Drives 39 We are driven to reduce those needs i e reduce tension and maintain a balanced physiological state homeostasis 1mre1 1r 111 1 example hunger drive as hunger increases so too does drive to eat Human behavior not always motivated by physiological drives to reduce needs 6 g why do we eat 3 Humanistic Theories Pyramid ofhuman needs 7P Ln Arousal Theory 0 People are motivated to mainmin a level of arousal optimal for their functioning example some individuals act to increase arousal by riding a roller coaster Incentive Theory 0 People are motivated to attain desirable stimuli and avoid unwanted stimuli example buying a lottery ticket Hunger Mainmining appropriate nutrien13 supplies in the body often least reason why we eat Internal signals I Glucose simple sugar that is the source of energy when level is low neurons fire in brains hunger center Hypothalamus I If lateral hypothalamus activatedI smrt eating I If ventromedial hypothalamus activatedI stop eating I Liver mkes note of membolism rate External signals I Expected mealtime I Sight of food I Smell of food I Stress I Boredom Eating too much I Can be led to overweight 39 Excess amount ofbody weight that inducts muscle bone fat and water I Can lead to obesity severely overweight 39 Excess amount ofbody fat 39 Most health care providers agree that men with more than 25 body fat and women with more than 30 body fat are obese Body Mass Index BMI I 35I299 overweight I Over 30 obese Obesity is dangerous I Physiologically 39 Higher incidence of diabetes 39 High blood pressure 39 Heart disease Psychologically 39 Affecm how others treat you 39 Stereotype of obese as slow lazy sloppy 39 Ridicule and job discrimination 39 Affecm how you feel about yourself I Billions are spent on dies drugs and exercise routines to reduce weight I Most dies are not successful and those who do lose weight often regain the weight I Keep in mind that when you diet as an adult fat cells shrink but do not disappear 39 This is because fat cells do not multiply after puberty they simply get bigger or smaller I Major causes in weight gain 1 Calorie inmke 39 Obese people tend to overeat when they break a diet eat high fat foods eat more when emotionally aroused are more responsive to external hunger signals 39 Portion size 2 Expend too few calories 39 Low membolic rate often due to dieting and high proportion of fat 39 Not enough exercise 3 Selprerpetuation ofweight gain 39 When you gain weight your membolism and energy expenditures change in a way so as to keep your excess weight at 113 set point 439 Genetics 5 Modeling paren13 eating habits gt Sexual behavior Human sexual response involves physiological arousal 0 Motivational smte of excitement and tension brought about by physiological reactions and cognitive reactions based on experience to erotic stimu I Usually reduced by sexual activities that are satisfying eg orgasm gt Sexual Response cycle 0 Smrted by hormones going into the blood stream Stages 1 Excitement 0 Physiological arousal eg heart rate up and blood flow to genimls Z PlateauI peak of arousal 3 OrgasmI waves of muscular contractions sweep over body and feelings of intense pleasure 4 ResolutionI body returns to normal state 0 Refractory period no sexual arousalI much longer in men gt Studying sexual behavior 0 Better undersmnd sexual behavior and use this knowledge to help those who have sexual disorders 0 Study by I Observation Masters and Johnson I Surveys Men embellish women modest people will misrepresent gt PreImariml sex 0 More accepted than in past for females as well as men 0 Majority of Americans have had sexual intercourse before marriage I Smtistics 39 48 ofhigh school studen13 have had sex gtno condom 39 39 4 or more sexual partners in high school gt 15 181439 years old 79 have had sex 39 19 million STDsyear half are between 15 and 24 gt ExtraImariml sex 0 In many cases individuals feel that something is missing from the marriage 0 Judged that something is wrong eg infrequent sex although not bad enough to ask for divorce I Smtistics 39 11 ofwomen have sex outside of marriage 39 21 ofmen have sex oumide of marriage gt Personality V 0 Unique psychological qualities that influence a variety of characteristic patterns of behavior and ways of thinking that determines a persons adjustment to the environment Theories 5quot V V m Type Distinct no overlap pattern ofpersonality characteristics assigned to categories 0 Sheldon somato types body types I Endomorph short plump sociable relaxed and even tempered I Ectomorph 1211 thin restrained selfIconscious fond of solitude I Mesomorph heavy muscularI noisy callous fond of physical activity 0 Eycenck I Introverm extrovert 0 Type A vs Type B Aggressive when frustrated impatient controlling Trait theories 0 Trai13 characteristic patterns ofbehavior or conscious motives 0 Assumed that most trai1s exist in all people to some degree and that we can measure the degree to which a trait exists in a person 0 Thousands ofwords describe trai13 I narcissistic honest happy affectionate mean obsessive Research has shown that various trai13 tend to cluster or appear together in various dimensions 0 5 factor model of personality I O penness tendency to be sociable I C onscientiousness tendency to be selfIdisciplined I E xtraversion tendency to be sociable I A greeableness tendency to be cooperative I N euroticism tendency to experience negative affect Criticisms of both type and trait theories 0 Identify but don t explain how behavior is caused 0 People are not always consistent in different situations eg punctuality on regular lecture days vs exam days 0 Trai13 may emerge more in familiar situations I When eating dinner at your paren1s you might be mlkative but when you re eating at your girlfriend sboyfriend s house for the first time you may be quiet 0 No conception of development I Still types and trai13 give us a way to describe individual differences in behavior and types and trai13 can be regardless as predispositions to respond in similar situations Psychodynamic 0 Sigmund Freud I Vienna Austria I Physician I Interested in treatment or nervous disorders eg hysterical blindness I Adopted mlking cure in which patien13 were able to get rid of their symptoms by mlking about experiences and problems 39 What you re conscious of vs you re unconsciousness 0 Fundamenml concepts 39 Unconscious portion of personality in which 2 types ofinstincm reside Life instinc13 Eros reflect a source of energy libido Death instinc13 responsible for aggression and destruction 00th 39 ID operates on the pleasure principal of seeking immediate satisfaction of both kinds ofinstincm regardless of external considerations society s rules or righ13 of others 39 Unconsciousness larger iceberg model er pans of personality include Superego 39 Represenm values and morals 39 Just as relentless as ID in trying to get a person to act in a cermin way Ego self 39 Operates on reality principal by mediating impulsive demands of ID restraining demands of superego and real life demands of external world example of 3 parts working together Mr X sexually attracted to Ms Y ID Mr X does not feel he should have sex superego Mr X joins a club that Ms Y is in so he can be closer to her Ego Important to prevent unconscious conflicm among the ID ego and superego from becoming conscious and leading to anxiety 39 This is achieved by the ego using defense mechanisms 39 Some examples are 9 Denial refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality 9 Regression reverting to a child like behavior eg temper mntrums O Rationalization generate self justifying explanation to hide from the real reason for our actions eg habitual drinker may say they drink with their friends just to be sociable gt Personality Development 0 Freud believed that personality is affected by how a child deals with changes in the focus of the ID on different pans of the body as the child gem older gt Psychosexual Development smges 1 Oral mouth region 018 months old 2 Anal elimination then retention 18 months to 3 yrs old 3 Phallic sexual love toward opposite sex parent 36 yrs old The Oedipus complex with male children Family triangle of love jealousy and fear which is at the root of internalized morality and out ofwhich grows the child identification with parent of the same sex The child seeks external object for his erotic urges since masturbation is viewed as bad This external object is Mom Dad is in the way Fear ofDad castrating him Throws in the towel renounces Mom and identifies with Dad The Electra complex with female children named after Greek woman who got her brother to kill her mother 1 Female decides Mom castrated her penis envy Z Hates Mom and loves Dad 3 Throws in the towel renounces Dad and identifies with Mom m pmgx 439 Latency exploring environment and developing skills 6 years old to puberty No 5 Genital interest in opposite sex sexual puberty V V V Fixation at a smge can effect personality later in life example Anal xation problems during toilet training can lead to a stubborn compulsive stingy person Criticisms of psychodynamic theory 0 Based only on what he observed with emotionally disturbed adult patien13 even though it was concerned with development I AdultZresearch issue 0 Construc13 are ambiguous difficult to define and test 0 Offers after the fact explanations ofbehavior not predictive 0 Sexual conflic13 Positive aspec13 to his thinking 0 Emphasis on internal conflict 0 Discussion of sex led to the scientific study of sexuality 0 Scope of theoretical contribution I Unconscious symptoms of various disorders personality family development memory dreams language Freudanships I Do not like the idea of personality being pushed around by internal instincts Concern with person s perception of himselfherself in the present no emphasis on childhood I Emphasizes the fundamenml goodness of people and their striving toward high levels of functioning and fulfillment adopt learn grow and excel I Achievement motivation Self actualization 0 Innate push toward growth with all par1s of personality Criticisms of humanistic Concepts are fuzzy unclear about nature of concepm Neglect of environmenml variables Neglect of person s past Inability to predict behavior Little to say about individual differences SocialIcognitive perspective 0 Applies principals of learning cognition and social behavior to personality 0 Explores the effect of differing situations on people s behavior patterns and attitudes Criticisms of socialIcognitive 0 Emphasis on the situation loses sight of the person Personality assessment 0 Techniques 1 Objective personality tests 39 Minnesom Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI asses a number of psychiatric patterns simulmneously I Cermin distinct patterns of responding for different types of menml disorders I Problem person can misrepresent himselfherself 2 Behavior Observation 3 Interviews Conservations with a purpose 439 Projective unstructured measures 0 Person projec13 describes ambiguous picture or pattern example TATI does person identify with hero or victim of story they produce I Look for cermin themes eg failure I Rorschach test 0 O O O O Describing movement imagination and a rich inner life Ink B1013 Using color indicates emotionality and impulsiveness Location conten13 determinan13 eg color shading Using inkdot indicates interjective thinking I Criticism ofpersonality assessment 0 Low predictive values gt Personality The unique psychological qualities that influence a variety of characteristic patterns of behavior and ways of thinking that determine a person s adjustment to the environment Theories of personality Trait theories smble characteristics of personality Psychodynamic the unconscious Behaviorism personality doesn t really exist Type theory There are specific Unit 1 Science of Psychology gt Psychology the science that studies behavior and mental processes example Tayshaun Prince UK basketball smr behavior after scoring stand up in seat make a sound yell what were you thinkingfeeling gt Goal discover laws andor principles that govern the relations among objec13 being studied 0 Laws enable prediction and sometimes control of the objects action 399 To explain human behavior and mental processes 3 ways of Psychology 1 Applied Psychology specialties 65 of all PHD psychologism mckle real world problems 0 School psychologists IndustrialOrganizational psychologism Human factors psychologists Clinical Psychologists Counseling Psychologis13 Z Experimenml psychologism conduct basic research 0 Cognitive psychologists 0 Physiological psychologism 0 Developmental psychologism 0 Social Psychologis13 3 Teachers of Psychology psychologist i psychiatrist gtmedical in certain states can prescribe drugs Specialization leads to many phenomenons being studied phenomenon can be studied from different vanmge poin13 Brain stimulation 2 Automization example the stroop effect colored words say color not word 3 Conformity 439 Eating disorders 5 Forgetting example dreams 1 Conscious menml experience 0 Incorporating what is said while sleeping in a dream 2 Dreams as behavior 0 Rapid eye movement REM during 85 of dreams 0 Electro encephalogram EEG patterns during REM similar to those while awake 3 Dream reflect the unconscious not aware 0 Freud Dreams are a censored masquerade defending you from the clash between unconscious primitive urges eg sex and the civilizing constrains imposed by society I symbols in dreams reflect unconscious urges eg riding a horse symbolized the rhythmic movements of sexual intercourse 439 Dreams as cognition 0 Dreams reflect what we know have experienced remember or have thought about Upcoming exams I Dieting Someone to whom we are attracted Scientific Method Set of procedures Ask a question example Why do people become depressed 2 Develop a hypothesisI a tesmble prediction example If someone has had traumatic experience in their life then they are more likely to become depressed 3 Collect data empirical evidence that suppor13 or refutes hypothesis 0 operational definition define what you are studying in terms of specific operations example 1 Give tes13 of depression that ask TF questions such as I am feeling sad I Operationally define depression in terms of specific test scores high scoredepressed Z Operationally define traumatic 4 Analyze resul13 determine if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected 5 Publishing criticizing and replicating the resul13 0 report findings precisely enough in a scientific journal so that others can testyour hypothesis and replicate your findings IAll scientis13 follow the scientific method but each science has a research method specific to their discipline The research methods of Psychology 1 Descriptive Methods a Naturalistic studyI no interference with behavior example Hypothesis Little girls are more aggressive than little boys Operational definition aggressive how many times they hit someone b SurveyI questionnaire or interview administered to a select group of people Obtain descriptions of behavior from more people than direct observation usually allows Take a random sample of the population because you cannot usually ask everyone about the behavior in question I Your sample should be represenmtive of the entire population example 10 ofUK s freshman class is African American the sample group must be 10 African American to represent the entire group c Case studyI intensive description and analysis ofa single individual 2 Correlational Method gt Investigate relationship between 2 variables to determine whether they occur together or not in a systematic way gt Value between 1 and I1 gt Correlation with respect to casualty example a positive correlation between success in college and eating chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream does not mean eating chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream will cause you to do well in college I Could be other way around or another factor could be involved 1 The experimental method 0 Esmblish cause and effect 1 Manipulate independent variable example Hypothesis Watching TV while studying lowers test scores Independent variable Vary it depending on factors what you manipulate watching TV or not experimenml conditionJ controlJ 0 Dependant Variable Varies depending on what occurs during the experiment what you are measuring example Test Scores 0 Resulm watch TV 768 no TV 905 aggrative dam averages Go beyond dam gt Evaluation ofideas by criterion of probability no smtemenm of certainty 0 What is the probability that I got this result by chance I Best to have a result where the probability ofgetting a result here the probability of getting a result by chance is less than 5 in 100 plt 05 Problems in psychological dam collection Ethical considerations in conducting research shock deprivation aggression gt Practical considerations in conducting research 0 Length oftime may be too long 0 Amount of money may be too much eg buying equipment 0 Too many participan13 may be needed gt Hindsight BL tel learning about an outcome to he overcont s The tendency at one s ability to have predicted it Four maior research perspett i 1 Biological internal FOCUS how the l DSYVOUS SVSYSX and other PhYSlC lOgiCEl mechanism YOL39J UCE behavior and mental processes 2 Cognitive internal 0 Focus how mental processes such as perception memory and problem solving work and impact on behavior 3 Behavioral external h w xternal environmei39rml evenIs condition ob wable behavior w Foe 4 Sociocultural 0 Focus how other people and the cultural context impact on behavior and mental processes Psychological aspects of psychology gt What are the internal mechanisms and structures that determine how any given behavioral sequence operates 0 Neurons estimated to be 100 billion in the human nervous system I Individual cell neuron I Multiple neurons serving a single functionInerve 3 Parts Cell body soma metabolism occurs here 2 Dendrites many short fibers from soma that receive activity from adjacent cells Axon single fiber extending away from soma that transmi13 activity to other no neurons muscles or glands 0 May be ZI3 ft long 0 Glial cells form a myelin sheath around axonI protective coat that helps speed neuron impulse I Hardening of myelin sheath leads to less ability to transmit nerve impulse multiple sclerosis ITransmission of neural impulses gt Synapse junction between neurons slightly physical separation IElectrochemical process Neurons communicate via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that are stored in synaptic vesicles gt Neurotransmitters cross from one neuron to another at receptor sites to excite and inhibit example Shoulder anlltle demo I Trial 1 shoulder faster I Trial 2 shoulder faster 0 Acetylcholine ACH Enables muscle action learning and memory I Fewer neurons that produce ACH in Alzheimer s patien13 0 Serotonin Affecm mood hunger sleep and arousal I Low levels lead to depression Prozac amp other drugs raise serotonin levels IThe effect of drugs on neurotransmitter activity Anmgonist a drug that binds to a cell and blocks an action from occurring example curare blocks receptor sites for the muscles including the heart gt Agonist a drug that binds to a cell and triggers a response by the cell example is operational mimics the effect of adrenaline prepares the body in case of emergencyI eg boosm supply of oxygen to brain amp muscles IOrganization of the nervous system gt Central nervous system spinal chord amp brain simple reflexes 0 The Brain I 3 layers 1 Brainstem 0 Medula breathing heartbeat 0 Reticular Formation helps to control arousal 0 Thalamus sensory relay smtion on the way to the cortex 0 Cerebellum non verbal learning motor coordination balance 2 Limbic System Ring of structures around brainstem 0 AmygdalaI linked to emotion and memory 0 HippocampusI helps in forming memories 0 Hypothalamus controls temperature membolism and endocrine balance 3 Cerebral Cortex Outer layer of right amp left hemispheres 0 What we think about when we think about the brain 0 Most complex aspects of behavior such as receiving sensory information dispatching motor control signals and speech 0 Left hemisphere controls right part of the body right hemisphere controls left part of the body 0 Important aspects of the cortex 0 Several large par13 are called lobes eg vision occipiml lobe at the back of the brain 0 Frontal Lobe allows you to pay attention mere volunmrily have emotion gt Peripheral nervous system 0 Interfaces the central nervous system and the environment 1 Somatic system 0 Deals with voluntary actions 0 Carries messages to and from sense receptors muscles and body surface 2 Automatic system 0 Deals with involuntary actions 0 Carries messages to internal organs from central nervous system gt Two divisions I Parasympathetic division 0 Conserve and protect bodily resources 0 Stimulates digestion pupil constriction lower heart rate 2 Sympathetic division fight or flight 0 Prepares body in cases of emotional excitement 0 Inhibit digestion dilate pupil increase heart rate sweating increase respiration example video Broadcast News sweating anchorman 39 Using the sympathetic division to test for lying I A polygraph or lie detector test measures sweaty palms heart rate respiration blood pressure In general lie detector test resul13 CANNOT be used in court I Initial questions are base questions what is your name what is the date today to get a base line The Endocrine System gt Compliments and often works with the autonomic nervous system 0 Carries out long term regulation of basic body functions and helps deal with stress gt Secretes hormones chemicals directly into the bloodstream to act on body example Pancreas regulates level of sugar in blood Adrenals adrenaline energy Ovaries amp Testes sex drive development Thyroid membolism Sensation and Perception Fact as we live our lives many stimuli bombard our bodies 0 In a silent inner world flan your brain 0 To represent the world physical energy is detected by receptor cells in one of the sense organs and transformed into neural energy transduction and sensory experience I This is called sensation 0 The selected organization and interpretation of these sensations is called perception I Sense itgtperceive it example picture people and little man I Man looks unreal because he is little but he is the same man as the one in the back of the picture eye is tricked by depth perception gt Sensation 0 For something to be sensed there must be some minimum energy or minimum intensity I This is called threshold I How we measure sensory psychological intensity 39 Difficult to assess example Brain is 6 2 he is mll but Brian next to the basketball team is short To look at Psychological intensity we must look at how we detect physical intensity 0 Physical intensity stimulus energy I Pounds degrees decibels 0 The Study of how physical energy relates to the psychological experience is called psychophysics gt Absolute Threshold 0 Minimum physical energy to activate a given sensory system 0 Not an all of none value I Response bias favor responding in a certain way due to noise expecmtions formed by experience reward and punishment I Noise any extraneous sensory information example radar operator IConcentrating on screen looking for enemy light IDistractions noise can cause him to miss the light The Senses gt Responds to visible spectrum gt Light electromagnetic energy light waves 0 Our visual system experiences color based on wavelength gt Par13 of the eye 0 Cornea transparent light enters 0 Pupil opening in muscular iris regulating amount of light 0 Lens focuses light onto retina 0 Retina has no photoreceptor cells that absorb light and are connected to nerve cells leading to the brain V V V V Unit amp Abnormal Psychology 0 People are fascinated by abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders 0 Why 1 It may be partly because we see something of ourselves in the abnormal eg we all get depressed anxious withdrawn antisocial 2 It may be because many of us have felt bewildered and have felt the pain of a psychological disorder personally or through family and friends 0 Defining I NormIviolation a difference in the degree to which behavior or thinking resembles an agreed upon criteria varies with culture and times also often based on smtistics feeling sad hallucinating 0 Thus abnormally as it relates to psychological disorders involves behavior I Considered atypical I Considered disturbing to others I Unjustifiable not a normal reaction eg laughing at a funeral I Maladaptive harmful Psychopathology study of menml disorders 0 Clinical psychology 0 Different views of madness through history I Primitive cultures demonic possession evil spirits Greeks 400 BC disease natural cause imbalance in body fluids I Middle Ages 15 1316 11 century AD spiritual context witches and devils Disturbed people in asylums which were like prisons 1773 A critical turning point Philippe PinelI reformed French hospiml system smted that madness was a sickness in response to severe stress and inhumane conditions Models of menml disorders 0 Medical Model menml disorders are diseases that have objective physical causes and require specific treatmen13 0 Psychological Models menml disorders are attributed to the interaction of 3 factors Biological anatomy and chemistry of the brain s other psychological processes 2 Psychological unconscious conflic13 maladaptive ways of viewing the world and learning 3 Sociocultural abnormality viewed differently around the world Classifying menml disorders 0 Traditional breakIdown 1 Neurosis symptoms related to ineffective attempts to deal with reality try to reduce anxietyI such as with an obsessive individual 2 Psychosis general category for a number of severe menml disorders in which perception thinking and emotion are impaired 0 DSM 4R diagnostic and smtistical manual Classifies but does not attribute cause I Helps in describing treating and researching the cause of the disorder I Assumes medical model 39 Z30 psychological disorders and conditions are put into 17 categories not including neurosis No Diagnosis Miss True Negative I Diagnosis I I Disorder I Hit I No Disorder I False Positive I l V V 0 Statistics National Institute of mental health 2006 I Menml disorders all types are common in the US An estimated 262 ofAmericans ages 18 and older 1 in 4 adulm suffer from a diagnosable menml disorder in a given year Types of Menml disorders Personality disorder 0 Long smnding in exible maladaptive patterns of perceiving thinking or behaving 0 Subtypes of personality disorder I Narcissistic personality disorder 39 Need for consmnt attention respond inappropriately to criticism grandiose sense of selfIimportance 39 Why Person does not grow out of view that heshe is the center of the world I Antisocial personality disorder formally called a sociopath or psychopath 39 Typically male 39 Violates rights of others violent criminal in ethical exploimtive 0 Schizophrenia I A menml disorder characterized by a disintegration of the process of thinking and of emotional responsiveness I Most commonly manifesm as auditory hallucinations paranoid or bizarre delusions or disorganized speech and thinking and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunctions Why personality disorder 39 Emotional deprivation in early childhood 39 Learned from paren13 39 Arrested moral development 39 Brain Abnormalities 39 Heredity Anxiety disorders originally grouped under neurosis 0 Primary symptoms anxiety inappropriate to circumstances or defenses that ward off anxiety 0 Subtypes of Anxiety disorders a Phobias I Intense and irrational fear no real danger or exaggerated behavior of some object or situation example claustrophobiaI fear of closed places agoraphobiaI fear of open places b Generalized anxiety disorders I Not focused like with a phobia I Continually tense and uneasy c Obsessive compulsive lasts a long time I Trying to deal with persistent thoughts example Scrubs he has to touch everything obsessed with dirt so he cleans his hands consmntly c Panic disorder Short term each atlack lass a short time I Sudden unpredicmble feeling of intense fear or terror d PostITraumatic stress disorder PTSD I Anxiety after an event occurs example Vietnam war rape m 5quot Ln Why anxiety disorders 0 Psychoanalytic I Unconscious conflic13 eg fear of paren13 I Behavior that once helped to control anxiety becomes a problem imelf 0 Behavioral I Associate anxiety and harmful situation 0 Biological I Inherited 0 Observational learning I Observe someone who is anxious in a particular situation and then you become anxious in the same situation Somatoform disorders psychosomatic 0 Physical complaint suggests a physical disorder but no organic problem is found a Hypochondriac I Preoccupied with body sensations despite assurance that there is no problem I Interpret small symptom as a sign of a serious illness bi Conversion disorder I Loss of specific sensory or motor function eg hysterical blindness Why somatoform disorders 0 Psychoanalytic I Conversation of emotional problems to a physical problem example Punished for masturbating and then loses sensation in hand 0 Behavioral I Learn that sickness can avoid unpleasant situations 0 Biological I Unusual sensitivity to internal process Dissociative disorders a Some part of memory or personality fragmented from the rest b Sudden temporary loss of consciousness a Dissociative amnesia I Selective memory loss brought on by extreme stress b Dissociative fugue I loss ofidentity c Dissociative identity disorder I Multiple personality Why dissociative disorders 0 Psychoanalytic I Block out though13 typically form childhood that cause anxiety 0 Behavioral I Blocking out unwanted thoughts is rewarding Affective mood disorders 0 Disturbances of mood in which the person is either excessively depressed loss of interest or pressure or elated manic or both bipolar a Depression I Symptoms 39 Think of oneself as a failure 39 Paralysis of will Ilack of motivation OWh 39 Loss of appetite for food and sex 39 Don t sleep 39 General smte ofweakness and fatigue 39 2 or more weeks of feeling sad I Suicide some forms of depression implicated in 40 6000 of suicides b Manic disorder I Symptoms 39 Elated and very active emotional smte 39 Impulsive 39 Unrealistic optimism 39 High energy Severe Agimtion y affective disorders Psychoanalytic 39 Real or imagined loss of a loved one turns anger against oneself depression Behavioral 39 Lack of reinforcement depression Cognitive 39 Negative and self blaming though13 depression Biologica 39 Heredity 39 Neurotransmitters 6 Psychotic disorders Schizophrenia split mind Out of touch with reality Prevalent 2 of population will have episode during lifetime About 12 of country s menml health hospiml beds are occupied by schizophrenics Symptoms 39 Pervasive thought disturbance 39 Fluid thinking 39 Difficulty with selective attention 39 Withdrawal from social conmct 39 Delusions misinterpret real even1s 39 Paranoid some person or group is posing a serious person threat when there is none 39 Hallucinations no actual stimulus 39 Sometimes bizarre behavior eg catatonic odd gestures 39 More sensitive to sensory stimuli example Annick she can hear voices if she chooses to Why Schizophrenia Cognitive 39 Inability to keep thoughm in proper focus Biological 39 Viral infection during pregnancy might impair development of feml brain 39 Heredity 39 Neurotransmitter too much dopamine being transmitted 7 Eating disorders 0 Deprive oneself of food or prevent food from being digested 0 Most are females I Anorexia Nervosa 39 1 of all adolescen13 39 95 of adolescen13 are female 39 Fanatical dieting selfIsmrvation 39 Intense interest in food but View eating with disgust 39 Not aware that dieting behavior is abnormal 39 Menstruation can often be affected I Why 39 Environmenml at a time when young women coming to grips with their changing bodies and sexuality society bombards them with ads for rich foods and ads exposing a slim body I Bulimia Nervosa 39 Binge on high calorie foods in a short period of time and then purge 39 Secretive behavior 39 Aware that behavior is abnormal I Why 39 Same as anorexia environmenml gt Treatment of psychopathology 0 439 general steps of treatment I 1 Diagnosis label I Z Etiology determine cause I 3 Prognosis estimate cause of problem with and without treatment 439 Treatment 0 Biomedical treatment I Deal with body often by changing the brain s function I Typically psychiatris13 0 In the past I Blood letting I Dunking in water I Trephining drill holes in the skull 0 Today I Drug therapy 39 Antinsychotics chlorpromazine eg thorazine block dopamine which has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia 39 Tranquilizers calm and relax eg prozac increase norepinephrine and serotonin 39 Lithium bipolar disorder I Problems of drug therapy 39 Side effecm dry mouth blurred vision 39 Regulating dosage 39 Drug dependence 39 Interception of drugs 39 Not necessarily a cure I Psychosurgery 39 Prefronfal lobotomy 39 Cut connection between thalamus and fronml lobes 39 Thought to disconnect person from emotions and past trauma O BUT brain damage including loss of memory emotion personality 9 Only used in most extreme cases ie when nothing else works intracmble psychosis Electroconvulsive shock therapy ECT 39 Originally used with schizophrenics then used with severely depressed individuals Now used only if drugs are ineffective or person is suicidal 39 Electrical current put through brain and each side of forehead Loss of consciousness followed by convulsive seizure drugs given to minimize muscle contractions Not clear how it works but may increase norepinephrine which elevates arousal and mood gt Psychotherapy 0 Use of psychological methods to help people modify their behavior so they can move satisfactory adjust to their environment It involves I Emotional reIeducation I Interpersonal learning I Having person achieve greater selfIknowledge Types of psychotherapy I Psychoanalyticpsychodynamic I Problems stem from unconscious defenses pitted against unacceptable urges dating back to childhood 39 Person must achieve access to his buried though13 and wishes gain insight and resolve them intraIpsychic harmony victory of reason over passion I Techniques 39 Therapis13 behind patient remaining neutral and mostly silent Free association 0 Bring unconscious repressed thoughm into consciousness and these thoughts are interpreted by analyst manifestvs latent content patientJ underlying meaningJ example Patient mlks about being possessive in a relationship manifest interpreted as due to father abandoning patient as a child latent content 2 Interpreting dreams 0 Manifest vs latent content horse example 0 Person must not just remember things from the unconscious but must regain access to the feelings that went along with them 0 This will allow for the catharsis emotional release 3 Transference 0 Patient responds to analyst in personal terms 0 Analyst identified with a person who has been at the center of an emotional conflict in the person s past gt Behavior Therapy behavior modification 0 Importance of unlearning stimulusIresponse association and learning new SIR association 1 Classical conditioning techniques 0 Systematic desensitization used with phobias I Learn relaxation technique relax muscles when tense 2 Fear hierarchy least to most feared situation 3 DeIsensitization imagine each situation while smying relaxed 0 Implosion ooding used with phobias 1 No hierarchy 2 Continuous intense exposure to anxiety provoking situation I Keep hand washer from washing han s I BUT implosion may cause more anxiety 0 Aversion therapy I Learn negative association I Drinking and nausea 39 Positive association replaced with negative association example CheersI every time he says something obnoxious he gem shocked FriendsI When Rachel sees a picture of Ross Phoebe him her gt Use of operant conditioning 0 Reinforcement I Token economy reward behavior with a token positive reinforcement 0 Punishment I Time out gt Humanistic Therapy 0 Goal is growth in selfawareness and selfIaccepmnce not a cure Help client fulfill their potential recognize their freedoms and enhance their selersteem Must treat person at global level unlike behaviorism Stress the present One type is called ClientIcentered Carl Rogers I Have client arrive at insigh13 and make their own interpretations and mke responsibility for their though13 and actions Reflection of feelingItherapist paraphrases what client said to help client undersmnd their emotions NonIdirect 39 Therapist does not direct client to a specific topic Therapist shows unconditional positive regard 39 Creates an atmosphere of accepmnce and feedback gt Cognitive Therapy 0 1 Modeling observe models 0 2 Social skill learning example Learn when where why and how to say something to someone else 0 3 Cognitive structuring I Change the way a person thinks about themselves and the world example Rational emotive therapy change false irrational beliefs I everyone hates me postman doesn t hate you checkout lady doesn t hate you etc gt What is the best kind of therapy 0 No definite answer 0 Leads to many therapism using an eclectic approach I Combine several approaches gt Social Psychology 0 Scientific study of how we think feel and behave in relation to one another 0 Social perception how we come to know and evaluate others A Making attributions ie inferences about cause 39 Explaining the behavior of ourselves and others 39 Was the cause of something due to situational or dispositional factors Biases in making attributions 39 Fundamental attribution error 39 Overemphasize dispositional especially with respect to others B Forming impressions of others 39 Primacy effect first impressions weighed heavily and are highly resistant to change C Attraction ie positive impression 39 Our attraction to someone is increased by o Familiarity 0 Physical attractiveness O Similarity in attitudes and interests 39 Social influence 0 Behavior controlled by the presence and actions of others without regard to underlying attitudes 1 Conformity within a group example Asch experime nt 0 Standard line compared to 3 other lines 0 2 conditions a Participant gives answer before 5 confederates A B C b Participant gives answer mm mm after 5 confederates give obviously wrong answer 0 Across 12 trials a 5 errors at least 1 trial b 70 errors at least 1 trial 0 Socially desirable to be part of a group 2 Obedience to authority example Milgrim experiment 0 Nazi Germany why were so many killed I Each time learner is wrong increase shock voltage by 15 highest 450 volts r Voltage box marked from slight shock 560 volts all the way to XXX 435450 volts I During experiment 39 Before experiment learner would tell the participant that they had a heart condition 39 At 75 volts learner would make loud moan 39 At 90 volts learner would cry out in pain 39 At 150 volts learner screams to let out of experiment 39 At 330 volts learner would give no response


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