PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES PSY 313
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Little on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 313 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/228249/psy-313-university-of-kentucky in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Trait Theories Intro Allport Eysenck amp Cattell trait consistent patterns in the way that people think act and feel Emphasizes inherent qualities Views on traits l nomothetic approach 2 idiographic approch Assumptions a stability of personality b differences between people Approaches to studying traits 1 Manytrait approach 2 Singletrait approach eg authoritarianism eg selfmonitoring 3 Essentialtrait approach X Murray 20 needs X Cattell 16 traits X Eysenck 3 traits X The Big Five or Five Factor Model Gordon Allport 1897 1967 X ideographic approach Xinteractionism Structure of personality heirarchy 3 Cardinal traits ruling passions 2 Central traits 3 secondary traits Proprium the self functional autonomv behavior becomes independent of original motive Hans Eysenck 1916 1997 PEN Model Three types 1 IntroversionExtraversion 2 StabilityNeuroticism 3 Impulse controlPsychoticism Inhibition Theog Why do people differ on these types Eysenck postulated A hereditV research B cerebral cortex differences in CNS C research in support of Eysencks inhibition theory Furnham amp Bradley 1997 Furnham et al 1994 Cambell amp HawleV 1982 Landrum 1992 Bullock amp Gilliland 1993 Inclass application Based on What you know about yourself are you an introvert or an extravert Given your classi cation as an introvert or extravert What types of study conditions are likely to maximize your academic performance Does this match with how you currently study Cattell 1905 1998 Based on language Used factor analysis to reduce trait words Used a multivariate statistical approach 1 Multivariate 2 Bivariate 3 Clinical approach Sixteen Personality Factor 16 PF Questionnaire Xmarriage counseling Xcareer testing 16 personality factors reserved vs warm reactive vs emotionally stable deferential vs dominant serious vs lively shy vs socially bold trusting vs vigilant practical vs imaginative traditional vs open to change Inclass Integration of material Compare the Views of Allport Eysenck and Cattell 0n the trait concept emphasizing similarities and differences Ch 9 Phenomenological Theories also called Humanistic Theories Phenomenal eld the unique way that a person perceives the world the subjective experiences of an individual Humanistic recognizes inherent human potential Carl Rogers 1902 1987 Structure of personalitv self Bprimarily conscious Bself doesnt exist at birth but gradually develops Bideal self Bactual self Process actualization l Selfactualization fully functioning individual UUUUU open to their experiences immerse themselves in the world They trust themselves willing to take risks creative and exible security represents a way of functioning rather than a type of person Way to live life 2 Need for positive regard need for acceptance love and approval from others unconditional positive regard conditions of worth 3 Incongruencecongruence selfconsistency Incongruence causes anxiety use defenses to reduce anxiety level of emotional health is related to the amount of congruence Defenses deny or distort Inclass assignment Explain the relationship between conditional positive regard and conditions of worth in your own words Explain why Rogers often considered conditions of worth to be badunhealthy Growth and Development major developmental concern emphasis on parentchild relationship re ected appraisal Coopersmith 1967 looked at origins of self esteem Old study but still cited often as an in uential work Three major factors 1 Degree of acceptance 2 Permissiveness and punishment 3 Recognized rights of children Dweck amp Leggett 1988 Dweck 1991 1999 Entity xed vs incremental malleable traits performance goals learning goals child entity theorists selfworth child incremental theorists selfworth UUUU Assessment How to measure the selfconcept Qsort technique large set of items AI am intelligent AI often feel guilty AI am an impulsive person AI am selfreliant AI am lazy AI am generally happy AI am mood AMakes friends easily sort the cards into piles of most like me least like me and other gradations Sort further to make subtle differentiations Can compare ideal self to actual self Psychopathology and Behavior Change Absence of congruity Bfocus on conditions of worth Therapy 1 Crucial condition unconditional positive regard This climate will allow person to remove defenses 2 Clientcentered therapy 3 Therapist must be a Empathic b Congruent c Unconditional positive regard 4 Therapist is nondirective and nonevaluative Technigues l clari cation of feelings 2 restatement of content Abraham Maslow g 1908 19702 selfactualization need esteem needs belonging needs safety needs physiological needs Peak experiences Existentialism basic issue life inevitably ends in death which can come at any time Evaluation 1 Recognizes uniqueness of individualsB subjective experience 2 Generally optimistic and positive view of people 3 Lack of precision Which makes testing hypotheses dif cult Is optimistic View arbitrary Rogers tried to link clinical work theory and research closely Focused on self nature of self Research on the selfselfsystem additional section if time allows Selfconcept how people think about themselves 0 content 0 organization Knowledge can be 0 Procedural o Declarative selfschemas Markus 1977 1987 selfconcept in uences the way that people deal with info about themselves and others schematic aschematic Selfschemas have effects on thoughts and behavior lProcess efficiently 2 Memory and recall working selfconcept Which selfaspects are activated A situational factors 1 depends on situation 2 distinctiveness B Selffocusing cues private self public self Other important issues lClarity of selfconcept 2Self certainty 3Role of culture 4ideal self vs actual self Inclass assignment Overall how would you describe discrepancy between your selfconcept and your ideal self Do any of the gaps eXist because you have had others ideal imposed on you e g Rogers conditions of worth