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by: Susie Rogahn Jr.


Susie Rogahn Jr.
GPA 3.89

Stephanie Stee

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About this Document

Stephanie Stee
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susie Rogahn Jr. on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 482 at University of Kentucky taught by Stephanie Stee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/228252/com-482-university-of-kentucky in Communication at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
COM 482 Exam 1 study guide Chapter 1 Persuasion Attitudes amp Actions 4 components of persuasion Successful intentional communication free will Persuasion Human communication designed to in uence others by modifying their beliefs values or attitudes Direct measurement technigues simple and straightforward easy to administer Yields estimate only of a respondents attitude semantic differential scale 7 point bipolar scale anchored by adjective pairs single item attitude measuressingle questionnaire item asking for relevant judgement QuasiDirect measurement 39 assess attitude by eliciting attituderelevant information that offers a straightforward basis for attitude assessment Thurst0ne attitude scalecollection of statements regarding studied object Likert scale strongly disagree gt strongly agree Indirect measurement technigues elicit info in roundabout means Physiological indicespupil dilation amp contraction electrodermal indices etc Inf0 tests mult Choice tests both answers incorrect L0st letter technique 39 quot 39 39 bw attitude amp behavior Corresp0ndence of M easuresattitude measure and behavioral measure must correspond 3 Mnderatino Factors influencing the in speci city to obtain substantial correlations Formative Basis of Attitude attitudes based on direct behavior experience are more predictive of later behavior toward the object than are attitudes based on indirect experience Percez39ved relevance of Attitude to Action to act consistently with attitude attitude must be relevant to behavioral choice 3 ways to encoura e attitud 39 behavior Enhance Perceived Relevance to see attitudes as relevant to behavioral choices Induce feeling of H ypocrz39sy draw attention to inconsistency bw attitude amp behavior Encourage Anticipation of F eelz39ngs how will they feel if they fail to act consistently Chapter 2 Functional Approaches to Attitude Symbolic attitude function attitudes that express fundamental moral beliefs symbolize signi cant values project selfimage etc Instrumental attitude function summarize desirableundesirable aspects of attitude obj ects appraise object based on intrinsic attributes Svmbolic appeals image 39 A with product amp user Instrumental persuasive appeals highlight product quality and intrinsic characteristics Low self monitors Not concerned about how others perceive them act the same way in all situations do not typically change behavior to suit different situations COM 482 Exam 1 study guide 2 act according to their own attitudes and values more likely to have instrumental attitude functions High self monitors Very concerned about how others perceive them act differently depending on the situationpeople change their behavior to suit whichever situation they are in at the moment act according to societal norms of appropriateness more likely to have symbolic attitude functions 3 factors in uencing attitude function Individual differences personality characteristics such as self monitoring attitude object unifunctional multifunctional functions which object elicit Situation particular aspects of situations Multifunctional attitude objects objects similarly likely to elicit many diff functions car Unifunctional attitude objects objects likely to elicit a particular function wedding ring 2 ways to match appeals matching individual difkrences self monitoring matching attitude objects amp attitude function instrumental amp symbolic appeals Chapter 3 Belief Based Models of Attitude Components of Summative Model A0 Zbiei A0 the attitude toward the object bi the strength of a given belief ei the evaluation of a given belief Z indicates that you add the products of the strength and evaluation for each belief Ways to change attitude via summative model increasedecrease evaluation of existing belief ex Convince people who think being trustworthy is unimportant that it is not as unimportant as they think vice versa increasedecrease strength of existing belief ex Convince people who think Apple is not trustworthy that the company is not as untrustworthy as they think vice versa add new Salient belief ex Introduce the idea that Apple is environmentally responsible make new set ofbeliefs salient ex Shift a person s salient beliefs about Apple so that product quality and customer service are the salient beliefs about Apple instead of conscientiousness and innovativeness Chapter 4 Cognitive Dissonance Theory CDT Premise of CDT People seek to maximize the internal psychological consistency of their cognitions beliefs attitudes etc Consonant cognitions they are consistent with one another Dissonant cogpitions they are inconsistent with one another COM 482 Exam 1 study guide 3 Irrelevant Cogyitions if they have nothing to do with one another Dissonance an aversive motivational state result of inconsistentdissonant cognitions people want to avoid it attempt to reduce it magnitude of dissonance positively correlated with pressure to reduce it of quot amp how Relative proportion of consonant and dissonant elements Consonant amp dissonant factors for every decision More dissonant than consonant larger dissonance Importance of elements or issues Consonant more important less dissonance Dissonant more important more dissonance More important issue more dissonance Strategies for reducing dissonance Change the relative proportions of consonant and dissonant elements by adding new consonant cognitions changedelete existing dissonant cognitions Alter the importance of the elements or issue by devaluing the importance of dissonant cognitions increase the importance of consonant cognitions devalue the importance of the issue Reduce 139 people are likely to evaluate alternatives more differently than in their initial evaluation called postdecisional spreading People are likely to value things that they have freely chosen more positively than alternatives just because it is what they have chosen persuade someone to purchase a product or make some other decision eg choosing a certain college or career that person will probably like that product or college or career more after she has chosen it Level of Incentive amp Level of Tquot Inaluceal compliance when a person is coerced into doing something that is inconsistent with the person s beliefs attitudes incentive is offered to get someone to act inconsistently with hisher beliefs amount of dissonance experienced depends on the amount of incentive offered relationship looks like an inverted V person does not comply dissonance increases as the incentive increases person does comply dissonance decreases as the incentive increases The greatest dissonance is experienced at the point where the incentive is just enough to get you to comply the top point on the inverted V graph of inverted V in slides 39J 2 factors affecting after decision making by reevaluating alternatives ininAn A quot 39A 439 Reducing 139 in indu d quot quot quot Compliance changing one s attitude to become more favorable toward the behavior Non Compliance strengthening one s initial attitude toward the behavior Hypocrisy achieves most attitude change COM 482 Exam 1 study guide Chapter 5 Theories of Behavioral Intention TRA TPB PBC ofTheorv ofReasoned Action TRA 2 Ab W1 W2 Bl behavioral intention Ab attitude toward the behavior W1 weight for attitude component SN subjective norm for behavior W2 weight for subjective norm component for changing attitudes via TRA Adding a new salient belief Changing the favorability of an existing belief Changing the strength of an existing belief Making a different set of beliefs salient for changing subjective norm via TRA Adding a new salient referent person Changing the normative belief for a current referent Changing the motivation to comply with a current referent Increasing the salience of an existing potential referent Theory of Reasoned Action TRA vs Theory of Flamed Behavior TPB TRA Intention to perform a voluntary behavior behavioral intention is a function of attitude evaluation of amp subjective norm for the behavior attitude amp subjective norm may be weighted differently Weight determined by empirical evidence Determined for a group of respondents measure behavioral intention via singleitem measures measure attitude via Semantic Differential Scale measure subjective norm via singleitem measures TPB extends TRA by adding Perceived Behavior ControlPBC person s perception of how easy or difficult it would be to perform the behavior similar to selfefficacy suggests that a person can have a positive attitude and positive subjective norms for the behavior but can still be prevented from intending to perform the behavior because they perceive the behavior is too difficult to perform 4 ways to in uence PBC via TPB Direct1y remove an obstacle to behavioral performance Create the opportunity for successful performance of the behavior Provide examples of others models performing the action successfully Provide the person with an encouraging message


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