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by: Susie Rogahn Jr.


Susie Rogahn Jr.
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Douglas Boyd

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Douglas Boyd
Class Notes
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susie Rogahn Jr. on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 249 at University of Kentucky taught by Douglas Boyd in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 225 views. For similar materials see /class/228254/com-249-university-of-kentucky in Communication at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
COM 249 FINAL OUTLINE CHAPTER 1 Levels of Communication I George Gerbner s definition Communication is social interaction through messages More plainly communication is how we interact with our entire world whether through spoken words written words gestures music paintings photographs or dance It is a process not a static thing and an interaction that allows individuals groups and institutions to share ideas I Types of Communication 1 ntrapersonal with self reactions to smell marriage proposal 2 Interpersonalbetween two people consists of body language doesn t have to be face to face 3 GroupOne person with two or more participate in class discussion cheer at a hockey game 4 Massindividual or institution uses technology to send messages to a large mixed audience most of who s members are not known to the sender nationally broadcast speeches stories about crime in the newspaper new novels Elements of Mass Communication I Mass media technological tools used to transmit the messages of mass communication I Players in Mass Communication I Sender Message Channel Receiver Model portrays mass communication as a largely one directional flow of messages from the sender to the receiver rather than a complex interaction where receivers are constantly changing places 1 PP Sender corporation or individual responsible for the message being sent Encoding Senders ideas must be turned into message then message prepared for transmission Message the content being transmitted by the sender to the receiver Channel medium used to transmit the message Receiver the audience for the mass communication message Decoding the process of translating a signal from a mass medium into a form that the receiver can understand Heterogeneous audience audience made up of a mix of different ages sexes incomes religions etc Semantic noise the receiver does not understand the meaning of the message Mechanical noise the channel has trouble transmitting the message Environmental noise the action and sounds surrounding the receiver interfere with the reception of the message Anonymous audience Sender does not personally know the receivers Contemporary Models of mass Communication Ritual Model looks at how and why audience members consume media messages We watch American Idol to interact in a shared ritual with family and friends Iquot Publicity Model Looks at how media attention makes a person concept or thing important When Janet Jackson showed her breast at the Super Bowl 3 Reception Model looks at how audience members derive and create meaning out of media content Facebook message saved school lll Evolution of the Media World Before Print First major communication network developed by Roman Catholic Church Arrival of the book first major expansion in communication the development of the printing press In 1814 Electronic Networks First telegraph line in 1844 Invention of gramophone in 1880 s Development of radio late 1800 s Media Consumption Newspaper business has fewer readers Top 4 magazine companies account for over 70 if the revenue Big Four receive 40 of all TV ad revenue lV Media Literacy I Audience members understanding of 1 The media industry s operation 2 The messages delivered by the media 3 The roles media play in society 4 How audience members respond to these media and their messages I Dimensions of Media Literacy 1 Cognitive ability to intellectually process information communicated by the media 2 Emotional understanding the feelings created by media messages 3 Aesthetic interpreting media content from an artistic or critical point of view 4 Moral understanding the values of the messages V Seven Truths quotTheyquot Don t Want You to Know about the Media 1 Media are essential components of our lives 2 There are no mainstream media 3 Everything from the margin moves to the center 4 Nothing s new everything will happen again 5 New media are always quotscaryquot 6 Activism and analysis are not the same thing 7 There is no quottheyquot CHAPTER 2 l Propaganda and the Direct Effects Model Fears that media messages would have strong direct effects on audience members that grew out of propaganda efforts by all combatants during World War and by Nazist Germany and facist Italy in the 1930 s Viewed audience members as passive targets who would be hit or injected with the message which like a vaccine would affect most people in similar ways This approach still looks at the effects that messages have on individuals but accounts for the fact that audience members perceive and interpret these messages according to individual differences Voter Studies and the Limited Effects Model The People s Choice Study 1940 US presidential election contest between Franklin Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie Research team led by Paul Lazarsfeld looked at how voters in Erie county Ohio decided which candidate to vote for Found that people who paid most attention to media coverage were least likely to be influenced because they decided who to support before the campaign had even begun Those who decided at the last minute turned to opinion leaders to make their decision and are not strongly influenced by media coverage Opinion leaders influential community membersfriends family coworkers who spend significant time with the media I CriticalCultural Model Looks at how people use and construct messages People move from information providers to information receivers the subjects that get covered are those in the best interests of the advertisers who support the media and the companies that own them Attractive wealthy white women attract much more media attention than women of color IV Effects of the Media In Our Lives Message Effects 1 Cognitive effects Short term learning of information remembering the lyrics to a popular song 2 Attitudinal effects changing people s attitudes about a person institution product or idea 3 Behavioral inducing people to adopt to new behaviors or change existing ones Much harder than changing attitudes 4 Psychological effects inspiring strong feelings or arousal in audience members People often seek feelings such as fear joy Media Effects The method of message transmittal is the central part of the message Ownership Effects examine the influence of those who own and control the media Time Warner Disney News Corp Viacom CBS Bertelsmann and GE Active Audience Effects Audience members seek out respond to media for a by D D r U I psychographics Look at audience members as selective consumers rather than variety of reasons People can be and naive victims V Theories of Media and Society I Functional Analysis 0 Surveillance of the environment 0 Correlation of different elements of society 0 Transmission of culture from one generation to the next 0 Entertainment I Agenda Setting 0 The media don t tell public what to think but what to think about 0 Media sets terms of public discourse 0 Can media determine what people will care about I Uses and Gratifications I What audience members attempt to get out of their media use and how they receive it Social Learning Theory 0 Albert Bandura we are able to learn by observing others and the consequences we face 0 We extract key information from situations we observe 0 We integrate these observations to create rules about how the world operates 0 We put these rules into practice to regulate our own behavior and predict the behavior of others I Symbolic Interactionism The process by which individuals produce meaning through interaction based on socially agreed upon symbols If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences I Spiral of Silence People want to see themselves as part of a majority They will remain silent if they perceive themselves as in a minority Tends to make minority opinions appear less prevalent I Media logic People use media to present the world The forms the media use to present the world become the forms we use to see the world I Cultivation Analysis Watching significant amounts of television alters the way an individual views the nature of the surrounding world Mean World Syndrome V How Political campaigns affect Voters Resonance model the candidate s success depends in part on how well his or her basic message resonates with voter s preexisting political feelings The candidate who does the best job of sending out messages is the one most likely to win Competitive model looks at the campaign not in isolation but as a competition between two or more candidates for the hearts and minds of voters V Gan s Basic Journalistic Values WNP P PF N Ethnocentrism Altruistic Democracy Responsible Capitalism Small town pastoralism Individualism Moderatism Social order Leadership CHAPTER 3 Big Media Consumers have more choices than ever before The number of companies providing these choices has declined Six companies dominate American media though new media companies Apple Google are emerging Vertical Integration controlling all aspects of a media project from production to delivery in multiple formats and the promotion of the product through other media Synergy a large company can use the strengths of it s various divisions to market it s content Six Big Media Companies 1 Time Warner 2008 sales 4698 billion Major player in film tv cable publishing Scooby Doo Harry Potter Batman Bigger isn t always better 2 Disney 2008 sales 3884 billion Broadcast TV cable movies theme parks Mickey Mouse Pixar Steve Jobs of Apple is largest stockholder 3 News Corp 2009 sales 3042 billion Major player worldwide in all media Fox news Wall Street Journal Rupert Murdach and family 4 ViacomCBS 285 billion in 2008 TV cable movies MTV Vhl Nickelodeon CBS owned Viacom then Viacom owned CBS now separate 5 Bertelsmann 2008 227 billion Publishing magazines American Idol Privately held German company 6 GENBC 154 billion TV cable movies only major broadcast network not owned by media conglomerate Now owned by Comcast I Other Major Players Gannet biggest newspaper publisher in US USA Today Clear Channel Communications dominant radio company in US M Long Tail media Vs Big Short Head Media I Long Tail portion of a distribution curve where a limited number of people are interested in buying a lot of different products I Short head portion of a distribution curve where large number of people are interested in buying a limited number of products Characteristics of Long Tail High number of goods more niche goods than hits Low cost of reaching markets Flattening of demand curve for mainstream hits choice lowers demand for hits I Consequences Democratization as means of production Democratization as means of distribution Greatly reduced cost of connecting suppliers with consumers I Who controls the media Owners Advertisers Government Special interest groups News sources Audiences CHAPTER 4 BOOKS Development of Writing I Originated approximately 3000 BC in Egypt or Mesopotamia I Earliest writing pictographs and then ideographs or symbols that stand for ideas used in Chinese Korean and Japanese I Approximately 2000 BC Phonography begins symbols stand for sounds VI VII Development of Pa per I Papyrus developed by the Egyptians around 3100 BC placed on 2030 foot rolls known as scrolls I Parchment eventually replaced papyrus because it was much less fragile I Paper invented by the Chinese between 240 BC and 105 BC Development of Books nve I Earliest books were papyrus scrolls Religious books 400800 AD hand copied by monks in rooms called scriptoria I 1200 s licensed publishers began distributing hand copied books such as llCanterbury Tales I Books common by the 1400 s I Gutenberg and Early Typesetting Johanes Gutenberg first to develop movable type Famous for his edition of the bible Typemold enabled printers to make multiple identical copies of a single letter without handcarving each ntion of Mass Culture the Printing Press I Gutenberg signaled mass cultural changes I Printing press allowed for books to be stored in multiple quotperfectquot copies I William Caxton helped establish the rules for English I Printing press allowed ideas like the Protestant Reformation to be spread easily I Also helped spread scientific claims such as the earth is not the center of the universe Books in the New World Mas The I First in New World set up in Mexico City in 1539 I Printing in North America began with the Bay Psalm Book put together by Puritans unhappy with existing psalms translations I Benjamin Franklin establishes library in 1731 Poor Richard s Almanack s Produced books I 1814 steam powered rotary press I Linotype typesetting machine which let a compositor type at a keyboard rather than pick out each letter by hand I 1830 s40 s popularity of serial novels published in installments I Civil War Era popularity of paperback dime novels heroic action stories I Growth of inexpensive books magazines newspapers fuel growth of mass literacy Book Business I Publishers The companies that buy manuscripts from authors and turn them into books Just 20 companies publish nearly 80 of all books today Random House University and small presses Naval Institute successful The Hunt for Red October Flight of the Intruder World s Top Publishers Pearson Reed Elsevier Thomas Reuters US Top Publishers McGraw Hill Scholastic John Wiley Harper Collins Readers Digest Vanity presses and self published books Vanity presses publishers that print books with the author paying all the costs of publication and distribution Government Printing Of ce one of the nation s biggest publishers I Authors Proofs a copy of the ready to print pages I Booksellers Barnes and Noble largest bookstore Mail order book clubs WholesalersdistributorsIngram Book Group Textbook Business Barnes and Noble has major campus bookstore division Government Accountability office estimates student spends average 900 year on textbooks schools try to lower costs implementing Ebook readers I Great Books vs Popular Books Nathaniel Hawthornes llThe Scarlet Letterquot Melville s llMoby Dickquot Domestic novels told of women who overcame tremendous problems through their Christian strength virtue and faith Sarah Josepha Hale with Godey s Lady s Book Vampires wizards and the NYT best seller list HP created separate for children s books I Books and Censorship book banning in the united states is generally local and involves taking books out of libraries of off school reading lists Authors can also globally have books banned threats of violence and death Salman Rushdie The Satanic Verses Sherry Jones The Jewel of medina Random House did not publish Farenheit 451 The Catcher in the Rye Twelfth Night Judy Blume forever I Books and the Long Tail Amazoncom Electronic publishing print on demand physical book not printed until it39s ordered Importance of Ebook readersindle Nook pad CHAPTER 5 Magazine a publication of lasting interest targeted at a specific audience A collection of articles I Early Magazines Andrew Bradford stole away John Webbe from Benjamin Franklin to help him publish the firs magazine of the New World American Magazine The Saturday Evening Post First Published in 1821 Contained essays poetry obituaries and a column called llThe Ladies Friend First truly national medium Remained important until TV Birth of Photojournalism The use of photographs to portray news in print Halftone an image produced by a process in which photographs are broken down into a series of dots that appear in shades of gray on the printed page Photographer Matthew Brady first became famous for portraits Civil War photography team By 1864 Harper s weekly was reproducing his team s photos Promoted idea that photographs could be published documents preserving history Magazine business grew rapidly after the American Civil War and after the Postal Act Postal Act of 1879 allowed periodicals to be mailed across the nation easily and inexpensively Types of magazines Consumer magazines publications targeting an audience of like minded Good l39 39 and profitable 39 U National U I 39 39 Vogue Most visible Trade magazines published for people who work in a particular industry or business Literary magazines publications that focus on serious essays and short fiction Literary and commentary magazines Atlantic New Republic Nation serious publications with progressive orientation published since the 1800s National Review conservative response to New republic and Nation by William F Buckley Crisis published by NAACP to give voice to African Americans The Muckrakers Progressive investigative journalists writing in the late 1800 s early 1900 s Mclure s popular reform oriented muckraking magazine featuring work by Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell Henry Luce and the Birth of Time and Life Luce developed the idea of Time magazine in early 1920 s to present the week s news in context Followed by Fortune covering business Life magazine often featured the work of Margaret Berk White Women s magazines Godey s Lady s Book Sarah Josepha Hale was editor from 1837 to 1877 defined what women s magazines would become gave women a voice professional magazine writing Service magazines llSeven Sisters and others how to do things better Health cooking employment fashion FBL Vogue Glamour Harper s Bazaar Cosmopolitan global magazine for young women focus on unmarried women Men s magazines 1933 Esquire literature pinups and fashion for intelligent readership 1953 Playboy pictures and a lifestyle first issue featured a nude Marilyn Monroe 1993 Maxim quotLadquot magazine featured sex sports and humor Magazines and body image Critics charge that magazines and ads present excessively thin models Dove reacted in 2005 with llcampaign for real beauty featuring models in a variety of sizes Magazines now occasionally feature realistic looking women Controversy over the photoshopping of Kelly Clarkson SELF photo Advertising vs Editorial Control Conflict between advertising and editorial departments Synergymagazines models and sponsors work together to match ads with stories about models and the products they endorse Blurring of ads and editorial content ads can be made to look like contend Dick Stolley s Cover Rules Young is better than old Pretty is better than ugly Rich is better than poor Music is better than movies Movies are better than TV Nothing is better than a dead celebrity Current trends in magazine publishing Targeting narrower audiences Presentation matters layout and graphics are critical Short articles busy readers with short attentions spans Cross media synergy using magazines to support other channels of communication CHAPTER 6 I Early newspapers Newspapers first appeared soon after Gutenberg s invention of moveable type The first English language newspaper was Curanto published in Amsterdam in June 1618 Were for elites Published by political parties Focused on opinion not news Expensive had small circulation I Colonial newspapers Publick Occurences is frequently cited as the first newspaper in the American colonies it s first and only issue was published in 1690 First paper to publish multiple issues was the Boston News Letter In 1721 the New England Courant was the first paper published without llBy authority by Ben Franklin s brother James He was sent to prison for doing so then Ben Franklin took over I Penny Press Newspapers Benjamin Day s idea The New York Sun lt Shines for Allquot Wanted to establish a new type that would sell large numbers made possible by the steam engine Supported primarily by advertising Sold for a penny or two on the street The concept of quotnewsquot was invented by the penny press Journalistic objectivity created as a way to appeal to larger audiences I Modern Democratic Society Rapidly growing number of papers Growing number of people working for wages US transforming from rural to urban society People acquire the news quothabitquot popular term that still exists I Newspaper wars Hearst vs Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer s New York World Creation of the front page Created headlines with news Targeting immigrants and women Nellie Bly and stuntjournalism Father of the headling with an ACTIVE verb llLINCOLN SHOTquot William Hearst followed Pulitzer into the NY market by purchasing the NewYork Journal Yellowjournalism style of shocking sensationalistic reporting Exaggerated over the events taking place in Cuba which led to the Spanish American War Tabloids Smaller format newspaper written in a lively sensationalistic style Jazz journalism the lively illustrated style of the papers in the 1920 s New York Daily news one of the first NY Post Tabloids substantially outsell regular news papers Radio News KDKA demonstrated the power of radio news with its 1920 nighttime broadcast of the HardingCox presidential election results before the newspapers stories appeared the next morning Radio could bring news to the world as it happened Apparent during WWII when European Edward R Murrow reported for CBS from London when Germany declared war on England During the bombing of London Americans listened to his live reports TV News TV news started with brief coverage of the 1940 republican national convention on an experimental NBC television station in New York City In 1948 the CBS TV News started airing for fifteen minutes every weeknight TV started playing major role in presidential elections in 1960 with Kennedy Nixon debates Staff of American Embassy taken hostage my lranian militiants ABC started news update that eventually turned into Nightline Following year Ted Turner s CNN went on air with news 24 hrs a day promised not to go off until llthe end of the world The Gulf war made CNN the go to for current news In the 2000 s conservative FOX news comes to dominate cable news Newspapers Today Most papers owned by large chains few cities have competing daily newspaper Gannett is chain with largest circulation publisher of USA Today News Corp is largest single owner of newspapers in Britain Newspaper revenues falling worst problems are at metropolitan papers Three national papers USA today Wall Street Journal and Christian Science Monitor USA TODAY 0 Claimed brightly colored paper was serving llNews McNuggetsquot 0 Newspaper that brought depth to the meaning of the world shallow 0 Found everywhere forced the industry to reconsider what a newspaper should be Wall Street Journal 0 Last major paper to start using color 0 Owned by Rupert Murdach s news Corp New York Times 0 Nickname Gray Lady long columns of type 0 Started as penny paper Washington Post 0 Inspired generation of young journalists with coverage of the Watergate scandal 0 Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein Metro Papers LA Times 0 Leading West Coast news paper 0 Controversy surrounding cost cutting o Experimented with mainstreaming attempt to include quotes from women and minorities to appeal to larger audiences CommunitySuburban Papers 0 Community press consists of weekly and daily newspapers serving individual communities or suburbs instead of an entire metropolitan area 0 Important because they publish news readers cant get anywhere else News and Society What is news 6 Qualities Timeliness Proximity Prominence Consequence Rarity Human nnterest Journalists face serious dangers As of October 2009 139 journalists died covering the war in Iraq Trend of murdering journalists started with Daniel Pearl llthey believe it is better for you to know such things happen that not to know Alternative papers serve specialized audiences ranging from racial and ethnic minorities to gays and young people Freedom s Journal was among first black newspapers North Star by Frederick Douglass fought for an end to slavery El Nuevo Herald largest Spanish language paper Washington Blade oldest and biggest gay weekly paper in the country Alternative weeklys underground newspapers Chicago Reader Boston Phoenix includes messages for phone sex personals etc Village voice popular alternative weekly Future of Newspapers Rural community papers thriving National newspapers holding tight Big problem is with major urban papers majorjob losses Dallas Morning News one of the first papers to use the web to break news shooting of Timothy McVey Bill Clinton scandal Scoop news story that news organization reports well ahead of it s competitors Time adults spend with the news about 67 minutes a day CHAPTER 7 RADIO Storing Sound Edison invents phonograph in 1877 sound on foil cylinders Foil cylinders did not hold up to repeated playing and could not be reproduced Emile Berliner developed method for recording sound on flat discs rather than on cylinders louder and more lifelike called his device the gramophone Also helped develop the idea of the recording industry Allowed publishers to produce high quality music recordings Hi fidelity refers to a combination of technologies that allowed recordings that reproduced music more accurately with higher notes and deeper bass than previous forms of recording had allowed Samuel Morse s invention of the telegraph in 1944 allowed messages to be sent electronically so that they didn t have to be carried from place to place cable expanded across the Atlantic Ocean 1894 Guglielmo Marconi concluded he could create a wireless telegraph a point to point communication tool that used radio waves to transmit messages 1901 physicist Reginald Fessenden started sending signals over a radio in his laboratory broadcast poetry and Christmas Carols Radio Music Box Memo David Sarnoff tried to get a job as a journalist at the New York Herald instead went to work for the Commercial Cable Company In 1915 adressed a document to the director of American Marconi called the Radio Music Box Memo which outlined radio s potential as a popular mass medium Essentially invented radio as a social institution More receivers than transmitters RCA Radio Monopoly In an attempt to avoid anarchy in the new medium the navy advocated creating a private monopoly to control radio development Radio Corporation of America formed as a consortium of 4 major companies GE ATampT Westinghouse and United Fruit In 1927 United Fruit became the BBC In 1920 KDKA in Pittsburgh became the first commercial radio station but WEAF in NYC was the first to sell air time to advertisers I Radio Networks Sarnoff suggested RCA form a new company a network to provide programming to a large group of broadcast stations Established NBC on July 22 1926 United States first major broadcasting network that was the quotRedquot and the quotBluequot William Paley created CBS saw it as advertising medium developed La Palina Smoker I Golden Age of Radio the 1920 s 30 s and 40 s when radio played same role that TV does today Little Orphan Annie The Shadow The Lone Ranger Soap operas dramas primarily targeted at women Amos n Andy started in 1926 most popular show on the radio story of 2 African American men writers were white I The BBC British Broadcasting Company created as public service in the 1920 s During World War II was international voice against Nazis transmitting around the world on shortwave Current BBC reaches 95 of the world s population I Changing of Musical Experience Death of quotsocial music Rise of the quotpersonal soundtrack with Sony Walkman followed by ipod and other MP3 players Can lead to withdrawal of social connection Rock n Roll featured new instruments like the solid body electric guitar and brought together a host of traditions from white hillbilly music to black rhythm and blues Race records before 1948 recordings by popular black musicians Dewey Phillips attracted multi racial audience for Red Hot and Blue radio show 1950 s Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry Motown founded by Berry Gordy Jr most successful of independent record labels and one of most successful black owned businesses took black music and made it important for the public British invasion began in 1964 and brought about a rougher edge to white rock n roll with the music of the Beatles Dusty Springfield the Hollies the Who and the Rolling Stones Concept albums albums that brought together a group of related songs on common themes Producers put together the right songs songwriters technicians and performers in the creation of an album Disco came out of gay subculture in NYC and popularized by the movie Saturday Night fever I Changing musical formats Compact disc Digital recording a method of recording sound that involves storing it as a series of numbers Analog recording the original method of recording that involved cutting a groove on a record or placing a magnetic signal on a tape that was an image of the sound wave being recorded MP3 moving picture experts group audio layer 3 Payola profits to disc jockeys in the form of money or gifts Internal fight between the American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers and Broadcast Music Inc Alan Freed fired Dick Clark gave up connections to music business Format radio light rock designed to appeal to listeners of 2540 especially women Most popular country then news then adult contemporary Talk radio a major source of political news for Americans Shock jocks Opie and Anthony howard Stern I Radio Consolidation Federal communications Comission relaxed ownership rules during the 1980 s Telecommunications Act of 1996 lifted restrictions on overall broadcast ownership a single company could now own unlimited numbers of radio stations with up to eight in a single market National Public Radio authorized by the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act designed to create educational TV first program All Things Considered Morning Edition now most listened to morning news program in the country Live music on the radio A Prarie Home Companion 90 of Americans still listen to terrestrial radio AM and FM stations HD radio provides listeners with CD quality sound and the choice of multiple channels of programming Satelite Radio XM and Sirius merged to become Sirius XM CHAPTER 8 MOVIES I Early movie technology 1870s and 80s Marey and Muybridge 1895 Thomas Edison opens first kinetoscope parlor Kinetoscope the first movies were not projected on a screen instead they were viewed by an individual viewer on a peepshow like device Lumiere brothers invented the portable movie cameraprojector that they called a cinematographer set standards for speed and details that Edison would eventually adopt I Telling a story with Film Edwin S Porter directed the Great Train Robbery which contained 12 separate scenes in a variety of locations Told a realistic story and established basic film storytelling conventions I DW Griffith and the Blockbuster Created the first feature length film Most significant Birth of a Nation about the rise of the Ku Klux Klan Also created Intolerance which required outside funding Started the movie era I Studio System Sta rs worked directly for studios Distribution carried out in 2 ways block bookings and buying up theaters Block bookings theater owners were required to book a whole series of movies in order to get a few desirable films Vertigal integration Development of taking pictures In 1919 The United Artists were created in response to the studio system including Charllie chaplin DW Griffith Mary pickford First successful demonstration of the talking picture was Don Juan Synchronized soundtrack movie that synchronized voices with the pictures Talkie movie with synchronized sound Early portion of the settlement of what became known as the llHollywood Antitrust Case required studios to show theater owners films before booking them limit block bookings to five movies at a time and no longer force theaters to book short films I The Blacklist Years following World War II were a dark time for the movie industry 1947 congressional committee known as the House UnAmerican Activities Committee under Parnell Thomas held hearings on possible communist influences in Hollywood llHollywood Tenquot ten witnesses challenged the constitutionality of the hearings they were jailed Movie industry instituted a blacklist Blacklist banned anyone from working in Hollywood who was a known communist suspected communist or communist sympathizer I Movies and TV Movie audiences peak in 1946 80 million tickets sold per week First round of 3D movies growing popularity of color growth of multiplex theaters multiplexes Blockbuster era period from late 70s to today in which movie studios make relatively expensive movies that have large predefined audiences and can be extremely successful Avatar had biggest box office to date but Gone With the Wind sold the most tickets 1977 Star Wars brings computer controlled cameras to movie making 2004 Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow first movie to have digital sets What makes a movie profitable Small budget Clear target audience Modest box office Make a great return on investment little miss sunshine paranormal activity Influence of Movies The Payne fund sponsored a series of thirteen studios which analyzed content of movies who was going and what effects they were having on audiences Small number of basic themes appeared over and over sex crime love mystery war history travel 75 dealt with sex crime or love People could remember a suprising amount of what they saw even 6 months later Herbert Blumer conducted major study that examined diaries of young people found that they imitated behaviors that they saw The Program 1993 movie which the hero performs a variety of extreme stunts drunk 18 yr old in Pennsylvania tried to copy it and was killed Bollywood biggest source of films in the world The Production code Will H Hays named president of the motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America Became famous for his development of the Production Code controlled content of movies from 1930 s until ratings came in 1968 Required that evil not be made to look alluring and villains and law breakers don t go unpunished Scenes of passion handled carefully Ra tings System In 1968 under president Jack Valenti the MPAA scrapped production code and replaced with a system of voluntary ratings indicated and audience for which the movie was most appropriate Movie Revenue Sources Domestic box office International distribution rights Pay per view rights Premium cable channel rights Network TV Home video Book rights Toysclothes Product placement Invention of TV Based on the idea that TV should be available to all viewers and paid for through advertising Electronic TV invented by Philo T Farnsworth Vladimir Zworykin tried to develop TV for RVA but US patent office named Farnsworth as inventor Patents wore off before TV took off but Farnsworth bitter about his invention Beginning of Broadcasting First broadcasts in 1939 from NBC from New York World s Fair 19481952 FCC froze licensing of TV stations Milton Berle and the Texaco Star Theater llMr Television The Ed Sullivan Show Love Lucy and Desi Arnez Controversial because Ball was white and Arnaz was Hispanic Filmed rather than live first TV show Arrival of Color It was not until 1965 that all 3 networks were broadcasting in color Price of TV sets was expensive Switch to color not completed until early 70 s Community Antennae TV People in remote areas couldn t receive signals Mrs LE Parsons had husband hook antennae on top of local hotel and run a cable to their apartment Community antennae TV Expensive Satellite Distribution and the Rebirth of Cable By 1975 the FCC began loosening rules and new channels were distributed via satellite HBO was first to provide programming Ted Turner bought WTCG became superstation TBS Turner also created CNNquotChicken Noodle Network Launched CNN Headline News bought MGM movie library and Hanna Barbera cartoon library TNT Cartoon Network Major categories of cable TV Big 4 Independent stations and smaller affiliates Superstations Local access channels Cable networks MTV CNN Premiumextra cost HBO Payperview Audio services Hollywood and the VCR Became a household appliance in 1970 s that allowed one to make permanent copies of TV shows Replaced by DVD s DVR s Direct Broadcast Satellites Popular in Europe Deliver of programming through antennae the size of a pizza Digital TV June 12 2009 last of the analog TV broadcast stations was shut off HDTV Standard digital TV Launch of space shuttle quotDiscoveryquot first to be covered nationwide using digital TV signal Educational Broadcasting becomes Public Broadcasting Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 established corporation for Public Broadcasting to provide funds for public service and educational programs PBS Public Broadcasting Systemnonprofit funded by government Sesame Street Underwriters for PBS BP GMC Trucks ATampT State farm Fox Network Rupert Murdach Attracted independent stations because it offered them free programming rather than making them rely on syndicated material Stole NFL football Defining rating Major provider of viewership data is Nielsen Media Research Essentially volunteering People Meter used in largest urban markets Fill out daily diaries in smaller areas looks at audience size of individual stations 4x year during periods known as sweeps Rating point of total potential TV audience actually watching the show Share of TV sets tuned into a particular show llEarthquake in slow motion Media writer Ken Aulletta FOX cable and VCR changed everything for TV industry Original llBig 3quot sold to new owners in 1985 NBCGE CBSLarry Tisch ABC Capital Cities Communication Cable TV cheaper more revenues 2008 US Census estimate of current population White 66 Hispanic 15 AA 14 Asian 5 American Indian 2 Univision and Spanish language Broadcasting Univision 5 h largest network Includes smaller Telemundo network Telenovelassoap operas make up 15top 25 programs 2005 ABC first network to offer prime time shows in Spanish Public Access Channels Air public affairs programming and other locally produced shows Church sermons Sometimes controversial I TV as a major social force In llTube of plentyquot Erik Barnouw argues that TV had revolutionary impact on society TV is a dominant shared experience in modern world reaching more people than schools families and churches I Time Spent Watching TV Average person watches 4 hoursday 15 hoursweek watching and TV turned on 21 or more hours Americans spend over V2 leisure time watching TV Rises from 13 to 50 in winter People who watch heavy TV tend to spend more time home alone less time walking People who watch sports tend to play sports Amount of time TV watched does not affect amount of time spent reading I How Viewers Use TV Entertainment To learn Social reasons I Standards for TV Dick Van Dyke Show Mary Tyler Moore and Dick had to sleep in separate beds although they were married Standards departments have decreased in size over 50 since the 1980 s VChip created in 1997 allowed parents to block shows with certain ratings I Convergence of TV and the Internet Broadcast program Paid iTunes download Free webcast from ABCcom Rented DVD Stream from Netflix CHAPTER 10 INTERNET What is the Internet A diverse set of independent networks interlinked to provide it s users with the appearance of a single uniform network A mass medium incorporating elements of interpersonal group and mass communications 1991 Tim Berners Lee released World Wide Web as an easy and uniform way to access material on the internet Packet switching cuts messages into little pieces and sends them along the easiest route to their final destination receiving computer reassembles the message TCPIP Internet protocol Transmission Control Protocol which controls how data are sent out on the internet IP is internet protocol which provides the address for each computer on the internet ARPA net built first nationwide packet switching network by division of the Pentagon called the Advanced Research Projects Agency supplied research universities with large expensive computers UCLA Stanford University of Santa Barbara and Utah Networking incompatible computers across the country Electronic mail a message sent from one computer user to another across a network Instant message email systems that allow users to chat with one another in real time hold virtual meetings that span multiple cities or even countries and keep track of their quotbuddiesquot Listerv internet discussion groups that use email to exchange messages between as few as a dozen people or to as many as several thousand Usenet the original internet discussion forum Hypertext material formatted to contain links that allow the reader to move easily from one section to another and from document to document URL uniform resource locator the address of content placed on the web wwwmysitecom Hypertext transfer protocol http the standard set of rules used by web servers and browsers for sending and receiving text graphics or anything else on the web Hypertext markup language the programming language used to create web pages Consists of all the tags that say how text ought to be presented where graphics should be placed and what links should be included Mosaic first easy to use graphical web browser created by a group of student programmers at the University of Illinois Narrowband service using modems on conventional copper phone lines Broadband service cable modem from a cable television provider or a digital subscriber line from a phone company Aggregator sites provide surfers with easy access to email news online stores and many other sites Citizenjournalism journalism created by people other than professional journalists often distributed over the Internet Hacker ethic summed up in Steven Levy s book Hackers Steve Jobbs attitude embodied Cookies tiny files to identify web site visitors and potentially track their actions on the web CHAPTER 11 ADVERTISING I What is advertising Any form of nonpersonal communication about a product organization service or idea by an identified sponsor I The birth of consumer culture The earliest American advertising was published in newspapers and was targeted at a narrow elite audience Most ads were a simple announcement of what a merchant or shop had for sale 1800s period of rapid industrialization in which work done by hand was replaced by mass production of goods in large factories With advances in transportation these goods could be manufactured in a single location and then distributed over a wide area Modernization the social process by which people go from being born with an identity and a role in life to being able to decide who they want to be where they want to live what they want to do and how they want to present themselves to the world I The Growth of Brand Names Growth of industry allowed more production and the construction of transcontinental railroads and steamships made better distribution possible more and more prepackaged goods came on the market ready to be promoted through advertising Among the first were patent medicines manufactured remedies that often consisted primarily of alcohol and laudanum Products arrived bottled and ready to be sold Economy of abundance there are as many or more goods available as people who want to buy them Brand name word or phrase attached to prepackaged consumer goods so that they can be better promoted to the general public through advertising These standardized branded products became a source of stability for consumers Quaker Oats typical of early brand name products AdSupported Media 1830 s penny press newspapers Mid 1800 s consumer magazines Radio and television conceived as advertising media llWe re in the business of selling audiences to advertisers The sponsors come to us asking for women 18 to 49 and adults 25 to 34 and we try to deliverquot Robert Niles network marketing executive Consumer advertising Local advertising attempts to induce people to a local store or business to buy a product or service whether it be a new truck or a gallon of milk National advertising designed to build demand for a nationally available product or service but does not send consumers out to a particular store to buy them Direct action message designed to get consumers to go to a particular place or engage in a specific action like buying a product Indirect action message designed to build the image of and demand for a product Other forms of advertising Advocacy ads intended to promote a particular point of view rather than a product Public service ads created by the advertising council Smokey the Bear is the second most recognized image in the united States Trade advertising promote products directly to other businesses rather than to the consumer market The Advertising business A multifaceted business that involves four major groups the client the agency the medium and the audience The Client the company with something to sell may want to increase awareness of a new product encourage people to use an existing product more often build a positive image of the product convince users of competitors products to switch brands promote a benefit of the product or demonstrate some new use for the product The Agency advertising professionals Open contract enabled the agency to provide ad space in any publication rather than just a few 0 Use research throughout the entire ad campaign initial research activity is aimed at identifying the characteristics of the target audience and what they are looking for in a product Ads are then tested to see how well members of the target audience respond to them o The big idea an advertising concept that will grab people s attention make them take notice make them remember and make them take action 0 Media planning figuring out which media to use buying the media at the best rates and then evaluating how effective the purchase was 0 CPM cost per thousand exposures to the target audience a figure used in media planning evaluation The Media where the ads appear includes newspapers magazines radio tv outdoor sites 0 Zoned coverage advertisers target not only specific cities but specific areas of the city The Audience the people advertisers want to reach with their messages Also the central quotproductquot that media sell to advertisers o Psychographics and the VALS system places people in one of eight categories according to their primary motivation and level of resources 0 Look at people s lifestyles relationship to product and personality traits 0 Ex Targeting Gay Consumers perceived by advertisers as upscale and educated gay targeted ads increasingly mainstream Common misconceptions about the industry Advertising makes you buy things you don t want Advertising makes things cost more Advertising helps sell bad products Advertising is a waste of money The Problem of clutter Clutter The compete for consumer attention between programs of radio TV newspaper Apple s 1984 Super Bowl Ad Indirect action National McIntosh computer Established idea of quoteventquot commercial Subliminal advertising messages that are allegedly embedded so deeply in an ad that they cannot be perceived consciously Advertising to Children Children are a growing advertising market 1978 study says children see 20000 TV commercialsyear Add to that product placement in school programs mobile phone and video game ads Food advertising may contribute to childhood obesity Integrated Marketing Communication An overall communication strategy for reaching key audiences this strategy should be carried out using advertising PR sales promotion and interactive media Denny s reintroduce brand to light and lapsed customers Free grand slam promo website evaluation I Future of advertising Loss of TV audience to DVR Mobile phone advertising Product placementintegration Google AdWorks and AdSense CHAPTER 12 39 Public Relations The management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom it s success or failure depends Has an uneven image in the United States Public a group of people who share a common set of interests Internal is within the organization external is outside the organization 39 Origins of Public Relations Go back as far as the American Revolution with phamplets like Common Sense Early publicity process known as press agentry Press agentry one way form of public relations that involved sending material from the press agent to the media with little opportunity for interaction and feedback The first major users of public relations were railroads which had numerous reasons for working on their image The utility and telephone industries abolitionist and temperist movements and PTBarnum also used PR 39 vy Lee One of the two key founders of modern public relations brought to the business a strong 39 quot Uof both 39 and r 39 39 g Recognized that the public often reacted more strongly to symbols and phrases than to rational arguments and he built his campaigns around the importance of symbolism Lee was the first PR professional to deal with crisis management and practiced spin control as early as 1910 Suggested it is best for railroads and everyone to just tell the truth and deal with the press openly Was accused as being a Nazi propagandist toward the end of his career I Edward L Bernays First person to apply social scientific research techniques to the field father of public relations Promoted the use of psychology to manipulate public opinion a technique he called llengineering consent Engineering consent the application of the principles of psychology and motivation to influencing public opinion and creating public support for a particular reason Actively promoted the concept of PR as a profession Found that the best way to influence the public was to arrange for messages to be delivered by credible sources quotIf you can influence the leaders either with or without their conscious cooperation you automatically influence the group which they swayquot 39 World War land PR The years 19141918 were a period of major growth for public relations during this time governments figured out how important persuasive communication could be to mobilize war support for a major war President Woodrow Wilson established the Committee on Public Information CPI to build American support for the war It used interpersonal cannels enlisting 75000 llFour Minute Menquot who would take the committees messages to churches and civic groups with four minute speeches If an organization wants to influence a particular public the best way may be to use influential local individuals along with the mass media Opinion leadership usingjournalists politicians businessmen scientists professional men authors society leaders teachers actors women of fashion and so on to deliver influential messages to the public 2 step flow 39 PR as a profession During the 405 and 50s PR continued to grow as a profession and colleges and universities began offering degrees in the field Throughout the 605 media became more critical of both business and government as the US became caught up in the Vietnam War the civil rights movement environmentalism and consumerism I Functions of Public Relations lnform send out info to a variety of publics a press release announcing a new product line to stores to sell the companys products Persuade attempt to induce members of various publics to change their attitudes or actions toward an idea product or institution lobbying campaign to persuade the government to remove a tax lntegrate attempting to bring publics and institutions together with a shared set of goals actions and attitudes a charity auction designed to raise funds for a park in the city where the company has its offices Bernays saw PR as a public good necessary for the proper functioning of society He argued that society was moving too fast and becoming too complex for the average person to cope with and the only hope for a functional society was to merge public and private interests through PR Definition has three basic segments 1 PR as a management function meaning that it is central to the running of the company and not merely a marketing tool 2 Public relations establishes mutually beneficial relationships 3 Companies depend on various publics to succeed Ropes PR Process Research researching the opportunities problems or issues the organization is facing Public opinion research content analysis focus groups Objectives setting specific and measurable objectives for the PR campaign Programming planning and implementing the activities necessary to carry out the objectives Evaluation testing the messages and techniques before using them monitoring the programming while it s being delivered and measuring the results of the programming Stewardship maintaining the relationships created through the previous steps Who are the Publics Internal people within the organization Intranets computer networks only open to members of the organization External people outside the organization Media Relations two way interactions with members of the press Typically involve the placement of unpaid messages within the standard programming or news content of the medium Principles of Crisis Communication 1 Be prepared 2 Be honest 3 Apologize and mean it 4 Move quickly 5 Communicate with the press and other constituencies The Tylenol Scare Tampered with extra strength poisoned 7 people Reintroduced product Quickly regained public trust Exxon valdez Oil Spill An oil tanker runs aground spilled huge amount of oil in Alaska Exxon perceived as being at fault for spill Lacked effective crisis plan Failed to control information environment Corporate image suffering over 20 years later Richard Levick from PR firm Levick Strategic Communications says to respond to an internet crisis Identify your crisis team Imagine your nightmare scenarios Track the blogosphere and other social media Don t wait I Challenges for PR from the Internet Internet gives access to world without gatekeeper limits of journalism Online crises cant be contained Net makes confidential leaks easy Rumors flourish when good information fails to flow I PR and the News PR plays a significant role in what is presented as news in the media Sociologists David Altheide and Robert Snow argue that PR is an integral part of the news business because most of the eventsincluding crime and disaster reporting covered by the media were created by PR practicioners to obtain coverage for their clients Anywhere from 4090 of all news starts out as PR Columbia Journalism Review found that 72 of the stories the WSJ was able to analyze came from a press release I PR and the government Along with the general public and media various levels of government are major external publics With their government relations departments PR firms represent their clients before the federal government and agencies state legislatures and even municipal bodies Clinton ignored the lltell the truth rulequot Obama wrote a memoir about his drug use I Spin Control New kind of public relations that has come to the forefront since the 1970 s Spin doctors attempt to influence how a story will be potrayed and discussed John Scanlon a NYC publicist is often cited as a top spin doctor Spin doctors Selectively leak information in advance hoping that the reporters will pay more attention to it than the information received later contact members of the press immediately after an event in an effort to get them to adopt the desired spin or interpretation of the event push the idea that there are always two sides to every story I PR and political activism Can be an effective tool for social change Farm labor group The coalition of mmokalee workers won a battle with YUM brand over the rights of migrant workers boycott against Taco Bell I PR and the Civil Rights Movement Brilliant understanding of PR throughout the campaign to integrate the south in the 50 s and 60 s Knew that it would take a combination of actions words and visibility in the media to eliminate segregation laws and integrate lunch counters restrooms water fountains and business Practiced PR in churches hotels even jail Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Birmingham Alabama wrote Letter from Birmingham Jail children then began marching and ultimately signs were taken down CHAPTER 13 MEDIA LAW I The first amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech or the press or the right of the people peaceably to assembly and to petitions the Government for a redress of grievances I Roots of American Free Speech Colonial newspapers printed with licenses granted under british colonial government with phrase llPublished by Authority I John Peter Zenger Case He and his wife were independent editors and small business owners in the colonies Started New York Journal in 1733 and was soon in trouble Accused Gov William Cosby of political corruption for replacing supreme court justices he disagreed with Zenger defended himself by claiming he had written the truth Jury found Zenger not guilty establishing truth as a defense against libel and while in prison his wife Anna took over becoming one of the first women newspaper publishers in the country I Limits on Free Speech In 1798 seven years after the ratification of the Bill of Rights congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts punished anyone who published false scandalous or malicious writings against the government of the US or either house of Congress or the President with significant fines jail time or deportation Sedition became a crime again in WWI and in 1940 during WW2 government passed the Smith act which made it a crime to advocate the violent overthrow of the government or belong to a group that did I USA Patriot ACT Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Allows FBI to examine individuals media use Makes it a crime for anyone to provide llexpert assistance to any group designated as being a terrorist organization I Protection of Individuals Libel Invasion of Privacy Free PressFair Trial I Libel Libel any published statement that unjustifiably exposes someone to ridicule or contempt For a statement to be libelous it must contain three elements 1 Defamation damage a persons reputation in someway Calling them a criminal or a drunk 2 Identification no person can sue unless the defamation can be proved to apply to him or her 3 Publication the statement must be published or broadcast and seen by someone other than the author and the person that was defamed The Defense of Truth Zenger Case Defense of Privledge the idea that statements made in government meetings in court or government documents cannot be used as the basis for a libel suit protects a reporter covering a murder trial Opinions neither true nor false so a statement ofopinion cant be the basis of a libel suit I New York Times vs Sullivan Civil rights group ran a full page ad in the NYT to raise money for MLKJR Ad included the names of various well known individuals such as Marlon Brando Jackie Robinson and was paid for by Union Advertising Service for the Committee to Defend MLK Contained several false statements the students did not sing quotMy Country Tis of Thee and police did not surround the building Police commissioner LB Sullivan felt that the ad accused him and was false Jury gave Sullivan 500000 in damages Supreme Court reversed the ruling and was in favor of the Times and ruled it is not enough to protect true statements false statements against public officials made in good faith should also be protected Actual malice a reckless disregard for the truth or falsity of a published account the standard for libel plaintiffs I Invasion of Privacy Intrusion invasion of privacy by physical trespass into a space surrounding a persons body or onto property under his or her control Embarassment sometimes reporters come across true information that is so embarrassing and private that a person has reason to expect that it will not be published Bill Sipple attempted to save Gerald Ford and it was revealed that he was gay False light similar to lible invasion of privacy in which a journalist publishes untrue statements that alter a person s public image in a way that he or she cannot control Misappropriation using a persons name or image for commercial purposes without his or her permission I Privacy Law In Europe France relatively strict British law didn t recognize right to privacy until recently then passed Human rights Act Neither Spain nor Germany has laws governing the press against the private lives of citizens Italy has limited I Free PressFair Trial The Case of Dr Sam Shepperd TV show and movie the Fugitive based off case Murder of his wife found beaten to death in their home convicted of murder llcarnival atmosphere surrounding the case Supreme court suggested to put a gag order on trial participants sequester the jury postpone the trial until the publicity dies down change the trial venue order a new trial United States vs Noriega Court issued temporary restraining order against CNN to prevent them from broadcasting tapes of Palestinian leader talking with his lawyers Cnn did it anyway and found guilty of contempt of court for broadcasting the tape Cameras in the courtroom banned in 1965 for being disruptive Honesty and the Press Cohen vs Cowles Media Running for governor of Minnesota Found that he had been convicted of a minor theft eleven years earlier Immediately fired by his employer then sued the newspapers Supreme court said first amendment did not excuse the media from living up to the contracts they entered Food Lion vs ABS Prime Time Live sent reporters undercover to apply for jobs as food handlers Sold improperly packaged old unsanitary Sued ABC and eventually they were only rewarded 2 in damages Prior Restraint Most extreme and least accepted A judicial order that stops a media organization from publishing a story or image Near vs Minnesota Jay Near publisher of Saturday Press a racist anti Semitic newspaper Used paper to charge that police were controlled by a jewish gangster Court said government could only engage in prior restraint to suppress military info during a time of war incitement to overthrow government or obscenity The Pentagon papers Contained extensive background info as to how US had become involved in Vietnam War Daniel Ellsberg became convinced that if the report was publicized the public would bring war to a quicker end Post published the story and government obtained a restraining order the next day Newspapers allowed to keep printing because secrets were just embarrassing not dangerous Progressive Case Magazine tried to get story about how nuclear weapons worked censored Story based on public info Other authors published same info Restraining order dismissed Free Speech and Students Hazelwood vs Kuhlmeier high scool newspaper is a classroom exercise not vehicle for free speech Morse v Frederick Bong hits 4 Jesus Shield Laws Laws that give journalists special protection from testifying in court about their stories and sources Many states have shield laws but no current federal laws NYT reporter Judith Miller jailed for 85 days for refusing to testify in Scooter Libby Case Obscenity sexually explicit material that is legally prohibited from being published but also raises the question of what kinds of material can be considered obscene Roth vs United States Samuel Ross convicted of mailing obscene material through the Postal Service 3 part test to determine whether something is quotobscenequot 1 Obscene to average person 2 Applying contemporary community standards 3 Dominant theme of material taken as whole appeals to a purient interest Miller vs California States can ban specific types of content such as child pornography Material that has quotserious literary artistic political or scientific value cannot be banned LAPS Test Protects material such as sexual health Obscenity in the Information Age Internet and cablesatellite TV make it difficult to determine whose community standards apply Courts have yet to definitively rule on this issue Problem of quotindecencyquot vs quotobscenityquot Copyright and Fair Use In 1790 the first US copyright law was passed protecting works for 14 years In 76 the law was heavily revised creating the concept of fair use 98 Copyright Extension Act extended the copyright length Digital millennium copyright act extended protections on digital media Broadcast Regulation 1927 the Federal radio commission was created 1937 the Radio commission becomes FCC regulates all electronic communication Equal Time Provision FCC policy that requires broadcast stations to make equivalent amounts of time available to all candidates running for public office Fairness doctrine former FCC policy requiring broadcast station to quotafford reasonable opportunity for the discussion of conflicting views Telecommunications Act of 1996 Required VChip in TV sets Relaxed ownership rules on broadcast stations Attempted to regulate content of the internet with communications decency act portion of law CHAPTER 14 ETHICS I The images of September 11 Richard Drew s llThe Falling Manquot llI photograph what happened and in turn I record and document history and this is what happened this is history I Morals a religious or philosophical code of behavior that may or may not be rational I Ethics come from the ancient Greek study of the rational way to decide what is good for individuals or society the ways we make choices between competing moral principles I Aristotle Ultimate goal ofall human effort is llthe good and the ultimate good is happiness Achieving happiness ivolved striking a balance a just right point between excess and defect known as the golden mean Courage which strikes a balance between the inaction of timidity of cowardice and the recklessness of foolhardiness Individuals must know what they are doing select their action with a moral reason and act out of good character Media ethics scholar David martinson says lljournalists take an overly simplistic view of the Golden mean and assume it s values compromise rather than finding virtue I Immanuel Kant Categorical imperative do not treat people as a means to reach an end cannot justify behavior based on desirable outcomes Morality lies in the act itself and not in the character of the actor or the intent behind the action Kant asks people to consider what would be the result of everyone acting the same way they themselves wish to act I John Stuart Mill Principle of Utility ethical behavior arises from that which will provide the greatest good for the greatest number Also said that some forms of pleasure or happiness are morally superior to others Actions and decisions that improve the lot of society as a while may be superior to those that merely provide the most physical or emotional pleasure I John Rawls and the Veil of Ignorance Builds on the ideas of utilitarianism that which is just is also that which is fair Veil of ignorance a principle of ethics that says justice emerges when we make decisions without considering the status of the people involved and without considering where we personally fall in the social system Journalists following this principle would not question whether they or their subjects were rich or poor black or white Social Responsibility Ethics The press has a responsibility to give voice to the public and society The free press may not live up to its obligations to the public because of its need to serve its owners Hutchins Report 1 The media should provide a truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the days events in a context that gives them meaning The media should serve as a forum for the exchange of comment and criticism The media should project a representative picture of the constituent groups within society The media should present and clarify the goals and values of the society 9159quot The media should provide full access to the day s news The BOK Model for Ethical Decision making 1 Consult your Conscience 2 Seek alternatives 3 Hold an imaginary ethical dialogue with everyone involved Bok says there are at least two factors to seek when considering a lie 1 Whether the speaker is intending to transmit the truth or attempting to deceive people 2 Whether the statement itself is true or false NYT reporter Jayson Blair fabricated at least 36 stories Stephen Glass fabricated countless stories for the New Republic Rolling Stone George and Harpers about teenage hackers Corporate conflict of Interest GE NBC and MSNBC Disney and ABC News organizations and pro sports teams Sensationalism News coverage that panders to audiences with lurid and highly emotional stories of crime sex violence and celebrities Tabloid laundering when respectable media report on what tabloids are covering happens because of competition and the internet Sago Getting the Story Wrong 13 miners trapped deep underground all but one dead Rumors spread they were all alive but they weren t Digital Photo Editing How much is too much Nat Geo moved Egyptian pyramid to fit photo Time an photo illustration of OJ Simpson Enforcing Ethics The ombudsman a representative of a publications readers who takes the Point of view of those who purchase or consume the news also known as reader s representative Tasks to perform listening to concerns of readers writing a regular column or commentary writing a regular memo for the news staff Code of ethics 1 Seek truth and report it as fully as possible 2 Act independently 3 Minimize harm Truth in Advertising During WWII the ad industry formed the Ad Council in response to changes of unethical behavior organizations purpose was to promote both advertising and business in general helped support wartime austerity Factual claims about drugs and food held to a higher standard Claims of being quotbestquot need to be documented Claims of being quotbestquot are dangerous Ad exec Michael Dweck Calvin Klein controversial for child pornography Advertising and Media Control Advertisers may pull ads from publicationsstations in response to critical or offensive stories Magazine editors warn advertisers about controversial articles Advertisers promote development of TV programs they would like to advertise on Citizens for a Free Kuwait CHAPTER 15 Hill and Knowlton did PR work for Kuwaiti government organization prior to 1991 Gulf War Agency arranged to have young Kuwaiti women testify about Iraqui atrocities before the congressional Human rights caucus But young woman was actually the daughter of an ambassador stories told were highly suspect Should Hill and Knowlton have investigated woman s claims before arranging her testimony Who should PR agency have loyalty to client or public Four Theories of the Press In 1956 3 journalism professors Fred Siebert Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm outlined what they believed to be the major forms the press could take around the world in quotFour Theories of the Press Two basic value oriented theories of how the press ought to behave authoritarian and liberitarian then created two variations on these Sovietcommunist and social responsibility Authoritarian Theory Oldest theory says that the role of the press is to be a servant of the government Roots in royal control of society where aristocracy got authority to rule from God Controls press through regulation intimidation and force I Communist Theory Product of cold war Soviet Union Media are an instrument of the communist party independent press is undesirable and should be suppressed Media should be closely tied to government power Medias main purpose is to act as a tool for government propaganda llLast Rightsquot I Libertarian Theory Press is a separate institution from the government that belongs to the people and serves as an independent observer of the government People want to know the truth and be guided by it The only way to arrive at the truth is for ideas to be freely discussed Different people will have different opinions everyone must be allowed to develop their own Most rational ideas are the most accepted Assume that government is the greatest threat to free press I Social Responsibility Theory Outgrowth of the liberetarian theory Although the press may be free from interference of the government they can still be controlled by corporate interests Must provide informations needed for political systems Must give the public information needed for self governance Must serve as an overseer of the government Must serve the economic function of bringing together buyers and sellers through advertising Must provide entertainment Must be profitable enough to avoid outside pressures I Development Theory Theory of appropriate press behavior that states that developing nations may need to implement press controls in order to promote industry national identity and partnerships with neighboring nations I Alternative to 4Theories 5 Dimensions Control who controls media Finance how do broadcasters pay bills Programming goals Target audience Feedback mechanism I Canada Relatively free press Rules to protect Canadian content Many US media companies produce content in Canada bc of lower costs I Western Europe and Great Britain Growing availability of cablesatellite TV Broadcast networks regulated heavily with strong public service component Newspapers take a more obvious political POV than US newspapers I Danish Cartoons 2005 Newspaper Jyllands Posten Flemming Rose commissioned a dozen cartoonists to potray the prophet Muhammad in any way they saw fir 2006 cartoons were reprinted in America and Europe and caused rioting in the Middle East and dozens of death Islam prohibits depictions of the prophet Muhammad Cartoons created in reaction to fears about self censorship Cartoons offensive to Muslims also newsworthy I Central and Latin America TV dominated by North American Mexican and Brazillian programming Popular telenovelas exported to US Since 90 s governments more stable have free press Growing newspaper circulation I ME and Islamic Countries Elements of Social Responsibility and Authoritarian theories TV heavily regulated little research done Most popular programming via DTH Satellite TV Importance of llSmall media I Al Jazeera Arab language satellite news channel originates in Qatar Popular in Arab world controversial in West Audience dwarfs CNN or FOX Presents broad Arab version of news rather than single country I Africa Wide range of press controls Newspaper created to serve needs of white colonials published primarily in English French Radio is most important medium elections in Ghana Bantu FM radio in south Africa TV major medium No dominant language or culture Popularity of S African music I Russia and former Soviet Republics No tradition of the free press High levels of self censorship Zakazukha Government controls TV India Very large media market Worlds 2nd largest newspaper readership India radio is dominant radio service TV going through period of growth increasing freedoms engage in self censorship to prevent government controls Mumbai terror attacks highlighted importance of mobile social media China Rapidly changing media environment Largest newspaper market Talk radio popular relatively free Levels of free speech vary over time Japan Large manufacturer of media technology Broadcasting is mix of commercial and public service Popularity of manga comic vooks Dangers to journalists Face kidnapping murder attacks Pakistan India Georgia Thailand all dangerous McLuhan s Global Village Wrote about global village in 1962 s The Gutenberg Galaxy Looked at how electronic media help people interact globally Electronic media do bridge distances


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