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by: Emerald Altenwerth


Emerald Altenwerth
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Clare Batty

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Clare Batty
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emerald Altenwerth on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 575 at University of Kentucky taught by Clare Batty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/228284/phi-575-university-of-kentucky in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
Philosophy 575 January 22 2009 Prof Clare Batty Substance Dualism The Issue What is the relationship between the mind and the body brain Are mental states just brain states Is there nonephysical mental substance Are there nonephysical mental properties Some Positions i Monism There is only one kind of substance or stuff in the world a Physicalist Monism Everything that exists is physical Smart b Idealist Monism Everything that exists is mental Berkeley ii Dualism a Substance Dualism There are two kinds of substance in the worldiphysical and mental escartes b Property Dualism There are two fundamentally distinct kinds of property in the worldi physical and mental Chalmers Jackson Substance Dualism Substances are a the stuffs that have properties the subjects of predication b capable of independent existence Four features of Cartesian substance dualism 1 There are substances of two fundamentally different kinds in the worldiminds mental substance and bodies material physical corporeal substance 2 A human is a compositeia union of mind and body or mental and material substance 3 Minds are distinct from bodies no mind is identical with a body or a part of a body 4 Minds and bodies causally interact Substance dualism implies that minds are things in their own right They are immaterialthings but things nonetheless Given this substances are a much different kind of thing than tables chairs and so on But like tables and chairs they have propertiesijust mental properties There are at least two arguments for substance dualism in the selected readings Argument A 1 I cannot doubt that my mind exists 2 I can doubt that my brainbody exists or that anything physical exists come to that Therefore 3 My mind is not my brainbody This argument is suggested in a passage on p 11 when Descartes claims I am not that structure of limbs which is called a human body lam not even some thin vapour which permeates the limbsia Wind fire air breath or Whatever depict in my imagination for these are the things that lha ve supposed to be nothing Let this supposition stand for all that am still something But in the next few sentences he seems to take it back quotAnd yet may it not perhaps be the case that these very things which lam supposing to be nothing because they are unknown to me are in reality identical with the l of which lam aware ldo not know and for the moment shallnot argue the point since lcan make judgements only about things which are known to me Why might he do this Well the argument is invalid What is a validinvalid argument Compare the following argument 1 I cannot doubt that the masked man is before me 2 I can doubt that my father is before me Therefore 3 The masked man is not my father Argument B Some machinery propositions the things believed desired etc and asserted that snow is white that Lexington is a city that the earth is flat necessary proposition a proposition is necessary if and only if it could not have been false possible proposition a proposition is possible if and only if it could have been true MA f can clearly and distinctly conceive a proposition p to be true then p is possible I can clearly and distinctly conceive that the proposition that the mind is not identical to my brain is true Therefore 3 it is possible that my mind is not my brain Therefore 4 my mind is not my brain This argument is set out on page 16 when Descartes claims Everything which clearly and distinctly understand is capable ofbeing created by God so as to correspond exactly with my understanding of it Hence the fact that can clearly and distinctly understand one thing apart from another is enough to make me certain that the two things are distinct since they are capable ofbeing separated at least by GodOn the one hand lhave a clear and distinct idea ofmyself in so far as am simply a thinking noneextended thing and on the other hand have a distinct idea of body in so far as this is simply an extended nonethinking thing And accordingly it is certain that am really distinct from my body and can exist without it This argument can be attacked on two fronts i Why should we think that premise 1 is true That is why is conceivability a good guide to possibility ii Why does 4 follow from 3 For example surely there is a possible world in which George W isn t the elder son of George H W Jeb could have been the first born for example But that hardly shows that George W isn t in fact the elder son ofGeorge H W We will discuss problems i and ii when we discuss Kripke s objection to the identity theory Philosophy 575 February 17 2009 Prof Clare Batty Aginst the ldentig Theory Kripke 1 Background Kripke against the identity theory Rigid designation A term T is a rigid designatorjust in case quotin every possible world it designates the same objectll quoting from Kripke39s book Naming and Necessity A rigid designator T rigidly designates an object 0 just in case in every possible world it designates o This terminology can be a bit confusing Think of the idea this way Imagine some possible world w Consider the questions quotWho or what is T in wquot and quotWho or what is T in the actual worldquot or simply quotWho or what is Tquot If for every world w these questions have the same answerinamely quotA certain object oquotithen T is rigid If the questions can be read so that the answer to one is quotA certain object oquot and the answer to the other is quotA certain other object 0quot and o and 0 are different objects then T is not rigid An intuitive test for rigidity T is rigid just in case the result of replacing the dots with T in i No object other thanmight have been has no reading on which it is false Rigid designators and necessarily true identity statements Suppose A and B are both rigid designators Then ii If A B is true it is necessarily true Exercise convince yourself of this Some of Kripke39s theses about English Three important claims Kripke makes about English are these a Proper names eg Aristotle George Bush Lexington are rigid designators b IINatural kindII terms eg gold water tiger HZO cifibers are rigid designators And c Pain is a rigid designator Thus quotscientificquot identity statements like 1 Water H20 2 Heat the motion of molecules are according to Kripke necessarily true if true at all Although there could have been something looking and tasting very much like water that was not H20 according to Kripke there could not have been any samples of water that were not samples of H20 2 So assuming Kripke is right if 1 and 2 are true they are necessarily true contrary to what Smart and Place evidently thought And the same should go for 3 if Pain cifibers ring is true it is necessarily true Kripke39s argument against the identity theory Consider the following objection to 2 If Heat the motion of molecules is true it is necessarily true But it isn39t necessarily true It39s clearly possible that heat might not have been the motion of molecules Reply No it isn39t clearly possible that heat might not have been the motion of moleculesiand I can explain why it39s tempting to think otherwise What is clearly possible is that people have the quotsensation of heatquot ie the characteristic kind of sensation we get when stepping under the shower without there being any motion of molecules imagine say that they live in a world in which matter is not composed of molecules You have just misdescribed that possible situation as one in which heat is not the motion of molecules Identity maintained Now consider the analogous objection to 3 If Pain cifibers firing is true it is necessarily true But it isn39t necessarily true It39s clearly possible that pain might not have been cifibers firing Kripke39s claim is that the analogous reply is not available a possible situation in which people have sensations of pain without there being any cifibers firing is not quotmisdescribedquot as a possible situation in which pain is not cifibers firingiit is a possible situation in which pain is not cifibers firing The objection to 3 seems cogent Identity disproved Philosophy 575 February 10 2009 Prof Clare Batty The lden 39 Theo Place Is Consclousness a Brain Process The Identity Theory the theory that every conscious mental state or event is identical to one and the same thing as a 1 2 state or an event in the brain ldentig We must distinguish a identity and correlation Footprints are correlated with the burglar but they aren t identical with the burglar But Bill Sykes is identical with the burglar b the is of predication and the is of identity Superman is a talentedguy the is of predication Superman is Clark Kent the is of identity ie Superman is identical to Clark Kent he is Clark c analytic identities and synthetic identities or as Place puts it the is of de nition and the is of composition The richest bachelor in the world is the richest unmarried adult male in the world This is a statement of analytic identity true on the basis of the meanings of the terms involved A statement of analytic identity employs the is of definition Heat is molecular kinetic energy lightning is an electric discharge pain is ce bers firing These are statements of synthetic identities They all employ the is of composition Place is not saying that mental statesevens are correlated with brain statesevents See a Place is saying that mental statesevents are brain statesevents in the way that Bill Sykes is the burgar and in the way that Superman is Clark Kent See a and b Pace tells us that many philosophers have resisted the identity theory because they do not distinguish the identities in c The Phenomenological Fallacy We treattwo sets of observations as observations of the same event in those cases where the technical scientific observations provide an immediate explanation ofthe observations made by the man on the street 58 Now think about the claim that mental eventsstates brain eventsstates What are the observations made by the person on the street They are Price tells us the introspective reports of the person on the street The question How do we explain our introspective reports in terms of brain processes given that these reports typically refer to entities that form no part of the physicalist s framewor 3 The supposition has to be it would seem two continuous series of events one physicoechemical the other psychical and at times interaction between them passage cited in Place 59 Place draws attention to the phenomenological fallacy The phenomenological faacy the mistaken assumption that one s introspective observations report literal properties of objects and events on a peculiar sort of internal cinema orteevision screen 59 How does pointing out the phenomenological fallacy help us to undo the apparent problem with the question above


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