INTRO PHIKNOWL PHI 100
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PHI Plato s Symposium Written ca 385378 BC takes place ca 405400 BC Agathon s party in 416 BC What is a Symposium Dinner party Topic Love Each of the principal guests will put forth his idea of love Major Speeches 0 General Structure 0 Phaedrus Pausanias Eryximachus Aristophanes Socrates Diotima Alcibiades Speeches about love that move our understanding of it increasingly away from vulgar Eros common Aphrodite to noble Eros heavenly Aphrodite away from the purely physical to the purely contemplative The articulation of noble Eros becomes more and more advanced and cultured as each one of the guests says his piece The principal of love begins to seem more like our own understanding of it today but it of course is still tinged with the early concept of it Sexual Relationships varieties of inequality of hierarchy Vulgar Eros the prevailing common sense in ancient Greece manwoman manboy loverbeloved these relationships were purely physical and totally exploitative man is a citizen woman and boy have no social power he has legal right to do anything he wants no legal recourse relationships were arranged during childhood Noble Eros the philosophers challenge to Vulgar Eros manolder boy here there is a concern with virtue with boy s education his soul his character he is more humanized and individualized Ladder of Love Progression from quotlovequot of the physical bodies boys and women relationships that are fleeting To older boys with attention to virtue relationships that are more noble endeavors ex Public affairs and philosophy contemplation of eternal forms P hae drus Eros goes beyond the purely physical and exploitative Hegel It is of great benefit to mankind because it encourages the lover and beloved to act nobly and to be ashamed to act in a bad manner It inspires noble deeds in public and in private read pg 20 Pausanias Introduces a theme of virtue and distinguishes between good and bad love Philosophy s contribution here to humanity s understanding of love it moves from a purely physical and exploitative relationship between unequals manwoman manboy to a relationship that is more equal yet still hierarchical and exploitative manolder boy manwoman Phaedrus and Pausanias signal a move towards Socrates idea of love love that leaves the physical domain and is purely intellectual This is a pedagogical relationship or a form of apprenticeship where it is considered ok also to make it a sexual one moreover one between tow people who are in different positions of social power His idea that humanity s consciousness of freedom evolves matures and expands over time 54 Lectures on the Philosophy of World History Eryximachus Introduces the idea of balance and generalizes quotlovequot to applications beyond individual relationships Love extends to the whole of nature beyond something that is just in response to beautiful people even if this response reflects a noble Eros Here too we are signaling the move towards Socrates more general intellectual notion of love that moves away from the physical Aristophanes The myth of the quotcircle people womanwoman manwoman manman These people were very strong and in their strength and pride they challenged the gods Zues punished them by splitting them apart When they found their other part they could not function Zeus took pity on them and made it possible for them to procreate Superior unit is malemale Even in this more noble account there is a devaluation of females He introduces notion ofa soul mate Desire of both halves to have something more than just the physical aspect of a relationship Longing for wholeness is also characterized by frustration Shortcomings relationships are still characterized by sexual exploitation Aristophanes account of love takes us away from physical but not entirely form the exploitative it stops at the particular individual who is the object of love for Socrates Aristophanes position allows too much attachment to the individual Socrates Procreation by the Soul He says his account of love come from a Mantinean wise woman Diotima told him People don t love anything than what is good love is about possessing the good forever All quotmalequot human beings are metaphorically pregnant pregnancy and procreation instill immortality in a human being SocratesDiotoma s assumption mortal nature seeks as far as possible to be eternal people have a fondness for fame immortal glory for glorious reputation Two types pregnancy being pregnant in body leaning offspring being pregnant in soul leaving another more enduring offspring Pregnancy of the Soul eagerly embraces beautiful bodies Stages If he finds someone who is beautiful in soul as well he embraces the combo with enthusiasm he engages in many conversations about what it is to be a good person and lead a good life and educate the boy they give birth to offspring which gives immortality glory and remembrance 1 begins while young to turn to beautiful bodies 2 goes from love of beautiful bodies to the love of souls 3 he then realizes that what is beautiful on any particular body is akin to the beauty of every other body 4 we want to pursue beauty per se the form of beauty that is eternal after all love is about possessing the good forever rather that what can fade over time the beauty of the individual mortal body is a mere shadow mortal expression of the true eternal form of beauty so we now pursuecontemplate the form of beauty the eternal type we now have moved beyond the noble Eros of physically and spiritually individualizing one person that is one older boy Pausanias position that is further clarified by Aristotle and we have moved into an even nobler expression of Love now love ofa single body and soul is looked down upon because the beauty of the body is perishable the lover will now despise that vehement love of a single body thinking it a trivial matter instead he becomes a lover of beauty himself he now recognizes that beauty of the soul being something immortal is more valuable than that of the body So he loves and takes care of that beautiful soul giving birth to the kind knowledge that makes young men better U1 0 l 00 5 H O H H H N this relationship loses its physical character and becomes PLATONIC Procreation by the Soul what they now do together as a result he will be compelled to study the beauty in practical endeavors in laws and traditions and to see that all beauty is related so that he will believe that the beauty connected with the body is of little importance and no longer looked upon what is limited to an individual beauty all beautiful things pass away but their beauty remains unaffected quotwhen someone moves through these various stages from the correct love of young boys and beginning to see this beauty he has nearly reached his end Beautyto look at that and to study it in the required way is to be in touch with the gods with Immortality o A lover of wisdom has absolutely emancipated himself from the bonds of sense and lives in the real meaning nonperishable world 0 He has approached Reality and entered into union with it enjoying knowledge The growing achievement of the philosophical quest is this marriage with the supremely real and good In doing so he prepared himself for death and eternal afterlife Socrates vs Aristophanes o Aristophanes notion of love gets stuck on individual on the soulmate with whom one is obsessed ts nobility doesn t go beyond these narrow confines to have noble love affect the world and a spherewide than the interpersonal Aristotle 384322 BCE O 0 He is one of Plato s best student s and spent 20 years of Plato s academy 0 Soon after Plato s death he left the school because of disagreements with new leaders 0 Aristotle then founded am academy of his own the Lyceum 0 There Plato s philosophy was taught but also criticized Aristotle s main criticism of Plato He criticized Plato s otherworldliness What could this mean He ignores the physical aspect of life to pursue immortality o For Plato there are two worlds The Forms 0 The physical world that consist in poor imitations of the Forms 0 Aristotle asserted that there was only one world and we are in it o In Plato s philosophy the Forms for instance the Form of Beauty cause the individual expressions of beauty in the physical world o In Aristotle s philosophy a Form is in the world 0 An objects reality is its physicality where form and physical matter are intertwined o Separating a form from its matter is fir Aristotle a mental exercise Only in thought can we separate them we can t separate them in the world 0 That is Form aren t separate entities they are embedded in particular things they are in the world Ge nel al Comparison Plato many particulars can have the same form A flower a person a tree all participate or are the appearance of the Form of Beauty they are all pale shadows of the Form of Beauty Aristotle a Form is nature or essence of something a form is an archetype when you saying what something is you are naming its from Ex Forms of a tree book house F 011115 and Causes He analyzed all substances in terms of four causes the relations of forms to material final and moving causes Material causethe stuff out of which something is made of somethinggtinto another Formal causethe the form or essence of a statue what it strives to be this form exists both in the mind of the artist and potentially in the marble itself Efficient causesthe actual force that brings about the change sculptor chipping away at the marble Final causethe ultimate purpose of the object ex To beautify the Parthenon For is the cause in the sense of quotthat for the sake of which Acorn example the acorn s matter contains the potential of becoming an oak tree that is the acorn s physical structure contains within it the potentiality of its developing over time into an oak tree For of this material is a house the form of bronze is a statue Aristotle s Metaphysics He opens the text with the claim that all people by nature desire to know But there are 0 different degrees of knowledge 0 The person of mere experience lower level of knowledge does not know reasons for facts 0 The person of art higher level of knowledge knows the reason of facts he knows a universal fact that certain things apply to all people Aristotle on Knowledge This kind of knowledge that seeks a certain end isn t Wisdom The highest Wisdom doesn t seek knowledge for its own sake It s about comprehending the first principals of reality This Wisdom has its source in wonder people began to wonder about things to desire to know the explanation of things they saw Wisdom desires to know the ultimate cause and nature of Reality o Wisdom is thus inquiry that is furthest removed from the senses it s most abstract and difficult Descartes 15961650 MEDITATION ONE Two different routes to the pursuit of Wisdom real knowledge versus sense knowledge or practical knowledge meaning the way if understanding Reality Plato Escape from the world Forms Reality Physical world imitations appearances Shadow of Reality Forms Aristotle In the world Four causes 1 Material 2 Formal 3 Efficient 4 Final Descartes overview o Mathematician who made major contributions to mathematics 0 Wrote a manuscript on physics but upon learning of Galileo s arrest by the Inquisituin for teaching similar vices he withdrew his manuscript from the publisher 0 First major systematic philosopher pf the modern period Goal to discover a firm foundation of absolute certainty of which to build his new objective system of knowledge 0 He seeks to tear down the old house of knowledge or what passes as knowledge namely information about the world supplied by the senses 0 He is especially reacting against medieval Aristotelian philosophy typified by a variety of competing metaphysical systems that are full of conjecture and lack of clarity 0 He wants a revolutionary break from the past 0 The clarity and certainty of math provides a model for Descartes revolutionary philosophical enterprise Descartes Approach radical doubt system 0 Anything that can be doubted must be doubted o By progressively eliminating what can be doubted we will be left with knowledge that is not subject to any doubts This is knowledge that is absolutely certain timeless knowledge worthy of the name Compare with Plato Plato assumes that understanding Reality is pursuit of knowledge as such Descartes seeks to demonstrate that understanding Reality demands the pursuit of knowledge as such Radical Doubt Step One senseKnowledge Can knowledge be obtained through the senses be doubted Is this knowledge absolutely reliable Optical illusions something that is far appears small ex An oar in water The quotproblem of dreams What my senses may be telling me is true may actually be a dream There is no test to prove with absolute certainty that at any given moment one is not dreaming Radical Doubt Step Two Mathematics ls mathematical knowledge a candidate for knowledge that is absolutely reliable Can we be sure about it Does math pass the radical doubt test The hypothetical idea of an evil genius or omnipotent deceiver This demon s purpose was that of deception so that even the simplest math judgments aren t actually true though we believe they are Could he know for sure that such a demon exists and controls what people believe is true Apply the rules of radical doubt Descartes assumes it is possible that we believe with such absolute certainty like math could in fact be fictitious MEDITATION TWO One thing remains certain I think therefore lam or quotCogito ergo sum Even if his senses are deceiving him even if he is dreaming even if he is mad even if an omnipotent deceiver is deluding his position I think therefore lam is true as long as he asserts or holds it on consciousness It alone cannot be doubted under any circumstances Descartes has discovered certainty in selfhood It is possible to doubt that you have a body what senses tell you is deceptive But it is impossible to doubt that you have a mind He has now a foundation to build his new quothouse of knowledge That foundation is the certainty of self or mind He now has to find a way to escape the confines of his own self and establish the existence of n external world Descartes carries out a demonstration to show that the idea of substance and the idea of identity are innate by grasping a piece of wax o The wax is sweet has the fragrance of flowers yellow hard cold 0 He appears to know it distinctly 0 However when he holds the wax to the fire every sense datum changes All aspects of wax changed other that its identity as wax Descartes know wax is a thing and has the same identity as before This knowledge is not derived from the external world which can only provide sense data Rather it comes from the mind things that we know by way of the mind are Real persistent and stable Substance and identity are innate ideas they are anything the mind perceives clearly and distinctly OO 0 Understanding the world rather that perceiving it through the senses makes my knowledge of my own mind more distinct Final Thoughts THE EXISTENCE OF THE MIND PASSES THE RADICAL DOUBT TEST THE MIND THUS DISTINGUISHES WHAT BELONGS TO IT FROM WHAT BELONGS TO THE BODY THE FIRST AND PRINCIPAL PREREQUISITE FOR KNOWING THAT THE SOUL S IMMORTAL IS THAT WE FROM A CONCEPT OF IT THAT IS LUCID AS POSSIBLE AND IS UTTER DISTINCT FROM EVERY CONCEPT OF THE BODY WHICH IS NOT LUCID THAT THE NATURE OF MIND AND BODY ARE DISTINCT FROM ONE ANOTHER SHOWS THAT THE ANNIHILATION OF THE MIND DOESN39T FOLLOW FROM DECAYING 0 THE BODY TO THE AFTERLIFE MEDITA TION THREE o STATUS OF IDEAS I HAVE ABOUT THE EXTERNAL WORLD EX WHETHER ONE ACTUALLY SEES A DOG OR HAS A HALLUCINATION OF A DOG IT REMAINS TRUE THAT ONE HAS TH ESE IDEAS UNCERTAIN STATUS OF IDEAS I HAVE ABOUTTHE EXTERNAL WORLD EX SEEING THE SUN OR FEELING HEAT OF THE FIRE quot I ASSUME THE IDEAS I HAVE ABOUT THE SUN AND THE FIRE DERIVE FROM OUTSIDE ME THAT THEY DERIVE FROM THEM IN SOME WAY IMPRESSING ITSELF UPON ME quotI CAN T USE Mv WILL POWER TO STOP FEELING THE HEAT SO MAYBE THERE S SOMETHING ELSE IN ME PRODUCING THESE IDEAS First Proof of Existence of God Summary of still uncertain status of knowledge I am deceived by the senses I may be deceived by an evil genius about the world and mathematics Even the idea of God which seems innate could have been placed there Thus maybe God endowed me with such a nature that can be thus deceived Final Thoughts The basic task of Meditation Three is to secure the certainty of clear and distinct ideas through proving the existence of God who is not a deceiver If I am to be assured that I m not deceived in accepting as true those propositions that I perceive clearly and distinctly ex Math substance identity then I must prove the existence of a God who is not a deceiver llFor if I am ignorant of this it appears I am never capable of being completely certain about anything else Descartes thus integrates his philosophical project with his religious beliefs He must conduct this proof of the existence of god who is not a deceiver using only what he can deduce logically from the one certainty he has the certainty that he is a thinking being So he begins by examining ideas he has inside his mindhe examines innate ideas 1 Idea self thinking being Idea of substance The idea of identity The idea of God P94 o Innate ideas have Formal Reality and Ob39ective Reality I Formal Reality I All of these innate ideas are real in that they are modes of thought I By virtue simply of being modes of thought all innate ideas have some Formal Reality I Objective Reality I Some innate ideas contain more objective reality than others I Ex My idea of God an infinite perfect being has more objective reality than the idea of wax my idea of the substance of wax contains within it more objective reality than the ideas I have of the wax through the senses Characterizing the Reality of Innate ideas I The General Causal Principal there must be at least as much reality in the cause as in the effect of that cause 1 So something cannot come into being out of nothing 2 What is more perfect contains more reality cannot come into being from what is less perfect I Ex God a perfect being cannot proceed from or be caused by a less perfect being with less objective reality I I can create cause a table but not vice versa I Ex A stone that didn t exist before can t be made to exist unless produced by something that has the same or greater reality The Idea of God 0 The idea of God contains infinite objective reality it presents two thoughts on infinite substance with every possible perfection o Descartes says that a person has only a finite amount of formal reality Therefore Descartes is not alone A being with an infinite formal reality exists 0 This idea of God of something more perfect than me with greater reality than me could not have originated from me it must have God o In Meditation IV there is more good news God cannot be a deceiver since god has every possible perfection and deception is indicative of imperfection MEDITATION FIVE o I can find within me countless ideas of certain things that even if they don t exist outside me aren t nothing They have their own true or immutable natures 0 There are things I haven t seen but whose properties I can demonstrate Descartes39 Ontological Argument 1 I have an idea of God as the supremely perfect being 2 I perceive clearly and distinctly that existence belongs to the nature of a supremely perfect being 3 All perfections belong to the true immutable nature of a supremely perfect being 4 Existence is perfection 5 Existence belongs to the nature of a supremely perfect being 6 A supremely perfect being really does exist MEDITATION SIX On our knowledge of the Nature amp Existence of Bodies Truth about a table 00 o Descartes knows material things can exist at least insofar as they are the objects of pure mathematics 0 They exist as extensions quantified in length breathe and depth This is what we can KNOW about bodiesmaterial things It is there nature what we perceive clearly and distinctly 0 Despite his use of quotimaginequot this knowledge of the nature of extension cannot come from sensation or imagination but only from llpure intellection o Homogencity of matter matter is democratizedquot o Descartes grants that his arguments for the reality of material things llare neither so firm nor so evident as the arguments leading us to the knowledge of one mind and of Godquot 0 His attempt at a limited validation of sense perception No doubt that all that I am taught by nature has some truth to it Perceptions of these senses are given by nature only for signifying to the mind what are useful or harmful to the composite of body and mind and to that extent they are dear enough 9 What does nature teach I have a body I am so united to it that I and my body constitute one single thing Various other bodies exist around my body 9 Application of the criterion of clear and distinctness between should and body and even to represent each of them as being a complete substance 9 He doesn t want to accept the conclusion that the soul is simply lodged in the body which it uses as kind of instrument Not subjectively but objectively Clearly amp Distinctly Mathematical formulas 6 Example 6 Lower in objectivity than I Mathematical distinction Truth about a dog Mathematical distinction Mechanisms of cell ex 9He knew that body amp soul influenced each other amp must in some sense constitute a unity Tried to ascertain this point of interaction Although soul is joined to the whole body there is a part in which it exercises its functions more particularly than in all the others not the heart and brain but a gland Pineal Gland o Corporeal things exist but perhaps not exactly what we perceive by the senses because apprehension by the senses is very obscure and confused Sense perception as I casual interaction 0 Mechanical action of bodies on he sense organs and the sense organs on the central nervous system Role of the Final gland Qualitative alienation of mind and body 00 9 A fundamental breakthrough of the Mediations the capacity to apply methodical doubt presupposes freedom Awareness of freedom or liberty is an llinnate ideaquot David Hume 17111776 An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Hume 17111778 Wrote An Enquiry Con in 1748 Roughy 100 years after Descartes Enlightenment Philosopher I Selfquestioning selftradition I Critical thinking I Aftermath of scientific revolution I Reason advocated as primary source I Legitimacy advocated for authority 9 He considered his project as advancing earlier quotscientificquot amp philosophical work of figures like Bacon Galileo Descartes and Newton 9 New science promoted a confidence in the capacity to understand and unlock nature s ultimate secrets 9 Belief that the application of this kind of careful controlled reflection of methods of experiments and data gathering to other domains would result in discoveries here are as well 9Regarded much of ancient and modern philosophy has having too much confidence in the power of human reason Empiricist Philosophy I Experience not reason is the source of all information about matters of fact I Contrast with Rationalist philosophy 0 Knowledge is found in propositions of reason through innate ideas Descartes o What counts as knowledge is what we know with absolute certainty like mathematical propositions I Descartes knowledge absolute certainty 9 mathematics Hume39s Project geography of the mindquot Gathered from careful observation and experimental methods of the physical science 2 forms of perception o Impressions items in experience I Ex seeing a tree hearing a bird I Descartes39 knowled e worthy of name is absolutely certain 9impressions not reliable optical illusion dreams 0 Ideas derived from impression and stored ume greater validity to certain principles Ideas copy impressions and are duller than impressions Perceptions can be simple and complex x golden mountainquot centaurquot9 know man know horse simple and can imagine what a centaur is complex Hume39s Empiricism about Ideas An approach that inquires into what impression an idea is derived from will bring clarity to philosophy It will be used to criticize metaphysics an approach like Descartes Principles of connection among ideas The mind has a natural propensity to connect ideas His scienti c approach are those some unifying or more universal principles that bind these seemingly loose and disconnected ideas Are ideas connected in a regular manner 0 Resemblance ex picture 0 Contiguity ex sailboat and an ocean 9 borders it or next to it o Causation ex I think of pain when I39m wounded because wounds cause pain Hume admits only 2 kinds of reasoning 1 Abstract reasoning concerning quantity and numberquot relation of ideasquot tements that are exclusively about our ideas 0 They are discoverable by mere operation of thought 0 Truths of mathematics and logic 0 Compare to Descartes 2 Statements of fact experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and experiencequot 0 They are about the world and know through experience 0 Are founded on the relation of cause and effect they are inductive Induction relation of cause 8 effect What assures us about matters of fact is that they are based on induction or the relation of cause and effect We infer from experience that a certain cause yields a certain effect Ex compare w Descartes I We believe heavy objects will always fall laws of gravity I Water will erode seashores I Bread will nourish me For Hume statements of fact statement founded on the relation of cause 8 effect are merely probable Every effect is distinct event from its causequot 111 One is not necessarily bound to the other many events could follow from a single cause Even if wellcon rmed a statement of fact could turn out to be false Ex bread is nourishing Ex sun will rise tomorrow I We can39t demonstrate that it will we can39t demonstrate that it wont Relations bw ideasquot and statements of factquot We can39t have the same assurance about the truth of statements of fact as we can with mathematical propositions With statements of fact Hume says that they are probable not certain Its negation implies no contradiction and cannot be proven false Trees ourish is May and decay in Dec 115 I Triangles I This is a 3sided building Statements of fact probable if there be anyquot 117 Comparing Hume with Descartes Are there statements of facts statements about the world that we can know with absolute certainty ume o Descartes Yes thinking beingquot Plato o The Li mits of Reasoning o What is the nature of all our reasoning concerning matter of fact 0 They are founded on the relation of cause and effect 0 What is the foundation of all our reasoning and conclusions concerning that relation 0 Experience 0 What is the foundation of all conclusions from experience 0 Customhabit The Nature of this Evidence 0 He downplays reasons in assuring us of the truth if statements of fact 0 He understands reason to refer exclusively to the operations of the mind that yield knowledge that is absolutely certain o Statements of fact can t be demonstrated through relations of ideas 0 Hume thinks it s possible that nature will change and our beliefs could be wrong 0 But how does experience from past events warrant or provide a foundation for our beliefs about similar future events 0 It can t be established by direct observation because it is precisely about what has not yet been observed 0 It can t be established by reason since its falsehood is conceivable without contradiction o It can t be established by empirical inductive inference because that would assume that a past or present cause follows in the future it would already assume what we re trying to show Custom of Habit o A mental faculty other than reason leads us to suppose that the future will resemble the past 0 Compare Descartes mathematical truths can guarantee this otherwise God would be a deceiver o CustomHabit is the principlequot of mind that underlies inductive inferences relayions of cause and effect 0 Hume thus offers a psychological explanation of inductive inference relations of cause and effect o Inductive inference rests entirely on the psychological mechanism of custom of customary associations between causes and effects 0 Without the influence of custom which leads is to expect that future events will be similar to past ones we could not engage in science of form factual beliefs o It is through custom that we can explain the relationship of cause and effect Belief o A specific type of sentiment that accompanies the idea that is believed o In contrast with something mainly imagined or fictional belief is a llvivid lively forcible firm steady conception of an object that imagination alone can never achieve Probability 0 Induction relation of cause and effect is probabilistic thinking 0 There is a likelihood that an object or event of a certain type will be followed by another object or event or a different type o It isn t accompanied by certainty 0 Not ever mathematical truths about the world Causation 0 Through experience we can discover cause and effect relations but we cant discover necessary connections this way Necessity 0 When we say that two objects or events are necessarily connected what we actually mean is that it s impossible for two or more mutually exclusive outcomes to occur in a particular circumstance Only one can 0 Necessity connection isn t found in the events themselves It s in the mind s inference form the cause to the effect Hume Cont and Kant Intro Hume Background to Kant s Project 0 What we know exclusively through the mind a priori can t provide a complete description of reality because such things aren t descriptions of anything 0 Only llmatters of factquot of synthetic judgments can correctly describe reality v3 These claims require information from the world information we quotsynthesizequot 0 These are necessarily a posterioribased on observation Causation through experience we can discover cause and effect relations but we cant discover necessary connections this way Necessity 0 When we say that tow objects or events are necessarily connected what we actually mean is that it s impossible for two or more mutually exclusive outcomes to occur in a particular circumstance Only one can 0 Necessary connection isn t found in the events themselves It s in the mind s inference from the cause to the effect 0 The feeling of the mind s movement in the act of causal inference is the impression of necessary connection 0 The feeling of the transition in the mind from cause to effect is the impression of the necessary connection is a copy of this impression o The necessity is in one s mind o It is a feeling and therefore an impression and an idea of the impression Liberty and Necessity 0 Just as there is no necessary connection in between event there are no necessary connections in or between events such as motives and actions 0 There is however a constant conjunction between them and in this sense motives cause actions Are actions free or determined 0 For Hume they are both 0 Actions are free when a person wills them in the absence of constraining conditions that make himher do other than what heshe wants to do 0 Actions are also determined or necessitated because every effect including volitions and actions has a cause Responsibility for Actions 0 Actions are produced by quotcharacter passions and affections They are internal and unimposed and so we can be held responsible for them 0 From a moral point of view we can be praised blamed rewarded and punished o The same human motives from the immemorial produce same actions 0 Conclusions about relations between motives and actions are rough and ready approximations of underlying causal relations that are hidden from view Kant 17241804 o The aim is to reform metaphysics in general the syPG 3 and 4 note in black pen 0 Preparatory exercises to his Critique of Pure Reason 1781 o the aim is to reform metaphysics the study of the basic structure of reality 0 the reform takes into account Hume s criticism and finds a compromising position between Hume and the rationalists ex Descartes o Kant wanted to chart the boundaries of human knowledge and set a legitimate metaphysics within those boundaries 0 There are certain aspects of reality that we could know rationally through the operation of our mind 0 But we can t know it completely 0 He believed that philosophy and natural scientist could never give final answers to questions about the nature of the physical world and of the human mind or prove the existence of a supreme being 0 There is no way that we could know all of nature through a supreme being but we can know certain things rationally o Sequel to groundbreaking Critique of Pure Reason 0 Runs with Hume s basic critique of knowledge of cause and effect except extends this to metaphysics in general 0 Metaphysics is essentially synthetic judgments of priori Kant holds Hume s basic distinctions between Relations of Ideas and Matters of Fact but takes it further 0 Relations of Ideas are essentially analytic judgments according to Kant but reject math as analytic 0 Matters of Fact are always synthetic judgments as in experience we are adding knowledge to certain concepts In making these further distinctions that Hume did not consider Kant is able to push certain questions that Hume did not consider What is possible 0 Analytic judgments a priori body is extension 0 Definition is contained in the subject 0 Synthetic judgments a posteriori all experience 0 New concepts are added to concepts not contained in the definition amplifying knowledge 0 Analytic Judgments a posteriori impossible 0 Synthetic Judgments a priori math metaphysics How is Math Possible 0 We know it exists because we have knowledge of math it exists and it seems to render certain truths that are necessary 0 Must be synthetic as in math definitions aren t contained in the subject knowledge is amplified yet is still a priori 0 We gain knowledge of math through intuition as it pertains to real things yet is still prior to experience Pure Sensible intuitions 0 Cannot be empirical as it is prior to all experience so therefore is pure 0 Pertaining to the FORM of sensibility that is condition for the possibility for geometry 0 TIME pure sensible intuition that is a condition for the possibility of matharithmetic Space and Time 0 TranscendentalPhilosophy 0 Understanding conditions of the possibility for certain knowledge and experience 0 These intuitions provide the condition for the possibilities of math and geometry 0 Also they are conditions for the possibility for any experience what so ever As the pure form of any experience to take part in they are necessary intuitions a priori There are some aspects of the world that are matters of fact that we can know through reason prior to experience Terms analytic judgments o For Hume a priori judgments are analytic Ex A triangle has three sides The predicate of the statement is in the subject Analytic judgments the definition in contained in the subject Examples of analytic statements Kant 0 Gold is a yellow metal 0 A building has at least three sides 0 A bachelor is not married 0 A cat is a feline I require no experience beyond my concept of gold a building a bachelor a cat If you negate the sentence and the result is a selfcontradiction then the original sentence is analytic Terms synthetic judgments o A posteriori 0 We must refer to experience to determine whether it is true 0 We must synthesize info from experience 0 We add knowledge that is not already contained in the concept or definition of the subject o It is ampliativequot we increase the given cognition 0 Examples 0 The cat is on the mat o The building is tall 0 The skyscraper is tall a priori Synthetic judgments o Hume Synthetic judgments are a posteriori that is founded on experience 0 Kant synthetic judgments can be either a posteriori arising from the pure understanding New category added to Hume 0 Synthetic a priori truth a meaningful statement about the truth is known independently of observation I Like Hume Kant held that all human cognition must be limited to the domain of human sensory experience But Kant didn t agree that all knowledge comes from sensory experience synthetic a posteriori Some knowledge is based in synthetic a priori propositions the quotforms of sensibility that condition all experience SyntheticA Priori Truths Math 2 Geometry 3 Natural Science Unlike philosophers like Plato or Descartes Kant does not ask is the world real But what makes it possible for the world to represent itself to us for instance in math in geometry in experience We know the basic properties of objects by contributing certain features to them 0 Pure sensible intuitions and pure concepts of the understanding structure human sensations and experience Mathematical truths are synthetic a priori o How is pure math possible 0 The mind has the faculty of intuition that presents objects concretely I Pure intuitions perceptions of our sensibility structure our sensations I They make experience including mathematics possible TIME is a pure sensible intuition that is a condition for the possibility of math out concept of numbers is built from the successive moments of our concept of time SPACE is pure sensible intuition that is a condition for the possibility of geometry 0 Space and time are a priori quotformsquot pr laws of human sensibility they are the foundation of the faculty of perception faculty that presents objects concretely I Ex They make it possible to utter true sentences about height of the Alps or how long it takes to get to Berlin I Ex The cat is on the mat its truth presupposes the truth of the sentence llobjects exist in space and time o Properly math proposition are always judgments a priori because they carry with them necessity which cannot be obtained from experience yet they rely on the construction of concepts in intuition 0 Geometry gives us a priori knowledge about space so that our knowledge must be built in our minds How is pure natural science possible It is possible through the pure concepts of our faculty of understanding concepts like cause and effect Two types of judgments Iquot o o o 00 00 o o O Judgments of perception They bring together several empirical intuitions that are only subjectively valid they are valid only for me Ex a rock warming in the sun Judgments of experience They apply concepts of the understanding to judgments of perception turning them into objective universally valid laws Ex sun causes rock to warm a priori concepts of the understanding structure experience We can use them to draw together and makes sense to our various judgments of perception They make natural science possible Kant is building a complex system to explain how we make sense of the world Our mind perceives sensations but must impose some sort of form on them intelligible for them to make sense to us This form is our pure intuition of space and time By subjecting sensations to the intuitions of space and time We get quotsense data 0 Sensations combined with pure intuitions make empirical intuitions Kant s Categories 1 Quantity Unity measure Plurality quantity Totality whole 2 Quality Reality Negation Limitation 3 Relations Substance Cause Community 4 Morality Possibility Existence Necessity Part Three Metaphysics o Examines the nature structure constitution of reality 0 Ex The nature of the human being the nature of the physical world existence of God My essence as a thinking being 0 I can have consciousness an experience of myself as a thinking being but can t know that it is my essence 0 That the soul distinct from the body will continue to live after death is not something I can know for I can know only the things of experience when I die I cease to experience and when I m experiencing I m alive not dead 335 71 0 Thus in metaphysics our reason seeks to know what is beyond our intuition sense and understanding 0 quotMetaphysics and its lawless dialect 351 85 Compare with math and science 0 By contrast math and science try to know what is within their grasp the things of experience 353 87 o By contrast reason in its pursuit of metaphysics poses questionsriddles for which there is no definite answer The Value of Metaphysics of Inquiry 0 There is a human tendency to use reason to pursue metaphysical inquiry o 352 86 o A central value of this inquiry is to give us perspective 0 An awareness that we can t have definitive answers to these questions 0 And an awareness that something about these areas of inquiry lies beyond our knowledge 0 353 87 o By coming up against these boundaries we gain an awareness that math and science don t tell us all there is to know about the world 0 All the debates in metaphysics about the essence of the person physical world God are futile 366 99 o quotDogmatic twaddle o llan old and sophisticated pseudoscience o The old metaphysics is like alchemy in relation to chemistry the astrology of the fortune teller to astronomy Metaphysics within its proper bounds 0 According to Kant the aim of metaphysics is to generate synthetic a priori categories even as these propositions can t tell us everything about the world 0 Value of metaphysics lies in establishing these bounds 0 An awareness that we can t know something that lies beyond 0 Otherwise we d think that math and science give us all there is to know ex That thought is just the firing of neurons mind is just about the brain GWF Hegel 17701831 Intro to the Philosophy of History 0 Writing the period immediately after the French Revolution 1789 o Enlightenment ideas of Freedom vs those after the French Revolution 0 He applies ideas from natural science namely that nature is governed by universal laws that can predict the future behavior of natural events to the realm of human history 0 Extends his idea to other domains of the world human history 0 What is essence o What can it be boiled down to 0 Let us study the events of recorded history the way natural scientist study nature to see if we can pick out a pattern Varieties of History 0 Original history like the impressions of sense data 0 Herodotus Thucydides o Historians who themselves have witnessed experienced and lived through the deeds and events they describe 0 They preserve these scattered pieces from being lost 0 These are composite pictures of immediate experiences that aren t further reflected upon 0 Reflective History 0 The objective of reflective history is the past llas a wholequot 0 We don t chronicle events so much as look at patterns or links in events that others have chronicled o It abstracts summarizes abridges 0 We can have various competing reflective histories Philosophical History of the World 0 The subject of Hegel s lectures is considered the history from what he calls a philosophical point of view o It involves discovering the causes and reasons behind historical events 0 Philosophy brings the simple idea of reason to history 0 Through the use of reason we can carefully examine the historical evidence and figure out the general design and ultimate ends of the world History of our awareness that the world is governed by reason o Anaxagoras nature is governed by universal law 0 The religious idea of providence I The plan of providence as it applies to history is open to our inspection I This idea goes against a prevailing prejudice that knowing the plan ofGod is beyond our reason a pious quothumilityquot There is a general faith in providence in the idea that human events and destiny are governed by a divine plan 0 But this faith is generally not concrete It lacks a concrete application to the entire course of world events 0 This plan is supposed to be hidden from our view and we are told that it is presumptuous to try to comprehend it Concrete applications of providence in isolated cases 0 Ex A person in great distress receives unexpected help he sees the hand of God at work 0 But the design of providence in such cases is of a limited nature it does not apply on a larger scale to the world and to history Problems with the idea of Providence When providence is applied on a larger scale it is too general When it is applied to concrete situations it is too narrow it pertains to relatively trivial mundane and individual matters We need to go beyond the trivial faith in providence and apply it to a larger concrete reality Scientific Law of History History from its earliest recorded period through Hegel s time and beyond has been about the progress of freedom History exhibits the law of the progress of freedom 0 This is what human existence and activity are in essence about Humanity progressively arrives at a greater selfawareness that is our nature and destiny to be free and to realize that freedom in the world This is the structure of history and world reality it is a metaphysics of history what history has been all about pg 21 In the world Hegel39s Timeline One is Free Some are Free Idea that all are Free Idea that all are Free Beginning of reality that all are Free religious secular The Orient GreeceRome Christianity Enlightenment French Revolution Middle Ages
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