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by: Michelle Gulgowski DVM


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Chemistry > CHE 514 > DESCRIPTIVE INORG CHEM
Michelle Gulgowski DVM
GPA 3.91


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Class Notes
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Gulgowski DVM on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 514 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/228299/che-514-university-of-kentucky in Chemistry at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
G G No polarization Anion is polarized Anion and cation Idealized ionic Cation may be slightly polarized are both polarized bond Some covalent charader Covalentbond Fajans39 Rules for the prediction of relative nonpolar character Electrostatic forces in a crystal are essentially isotropic lacking in directional character whereas polarization effects are highly anisotropic The halides of the larger alkali metals are the most nearly ionic of any binary compounds Kasimir Fajans introduced quotnonpolar characterquot as a perturbation on ionic bonds Contrast this with Pauling39s introduction of quotpartial ionic characterquot into covalent bonding We will take neither extreme View instead using the term quotcovalent characterquot to describe the effect of polarization on a bond The effects of covalent vs ionic character on the physical properties of compounds can be subtle Normally ionic compounds are higher melting higher boiling more water soluble less soluble in nonpolar solvent and have higher electrical conductivity in the melt than covalent substances These rules of thumb are useful but not infallible here Remember that quartz SiOz is a very covalent network solid with a melting point of 1710 C higher than many salts mp KCl 770 C The high melting or boiling point of a covalent solid simply re ects the fact that there are more or stronger covalent bonds in the solid than in the liquid or gas phase for that solid Increasing covalency will often lower the melting point of a quotsal quot MX by stabilizing discrete MX molecules in the melt In all of the examples below the more ionic compound is listed rst 1 Covalent character increases with decreasing cation size or increasing cation charge The high charge density of small andor highly charged cations is able to exert a power ll polarizing effect which distorts the electron cloud around the anion Compare NaCl mp 800 C with CaC12 mp 772 C charge effect and K1 mp 686 C with Lil mp 449 C size effect 2 Covalent character increases with an increase in anion charge or anion size The electrons of larger more negatively charged anions are more loosely held because they are more shielded from the nuclear charge Thus these anions are more easily polarized by cations Compare LiBr with Li3P charge effect and LiF mp 845 C with Lil mp 449 C size effect 3 Covalent character is greater for cations with a non noble gas electron con guration ie 18electron pseudonoblegas cations than for cations with a true noblegas con guration 8 electron cations This effect mostly shows up in transitionmetal and posttransition metal cations in which one or more delectrons ineffectively shield the outer electrons or the electrons of an adjacent ion from the nuclear charge Thus for two ions of similar size and charge a transition metal ion with a n1alX nsO con guration will be more polarizing and more polarizable than an alkali or alkaline earth metal with a noble gas con guration n1s2 n1p6 nso Compare CuCl mp 430 C CuJr is 36110 4s0 r 091 A with NaCl mp 800 C Nat 2s2 2P6 r 116 A and HgClz mp 276 C Hg2 is 4f14 36110 r 116 A with CaC12 mp 782 C Ca2 is 3s2 3P6 r 114 A For further details Concepts anal Models of Inorganic Chemistry B E Douglas D H McDaniel and J J Alexander John Wiley amp Sons Inc New York 1983 Inorganic Chemistry Principles of Structure anal Reactivity Fourth Edition J E Huheey E A Keiter and R L Keiter HarperCollins College Publishers New York 1993


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